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ake Forest 

BULLETIN OF WAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY 



Photography Credits: Cover photograph of Helga Welsh, assistant professor of politics, 
by Ken Bennett. Cover photograph of Wait Chapel steeple by Carlton Ward. Will and Deni 
Mclntyre-pages 13, 25, 58, 240; Ken Bennett-page 192 



BULLETIN of Wake Forest University (USPS 078-320) is published seven times a year in 
February, April, May, June, and July (3 issues) by the University Editor's Office, Wake 
Forest University, P.O. Box 7205 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7205. 
Periodicals postage paid at Winston-Salem, NC, and additional mailing office. POST- 
MASTER: Send address changes to BULLETIN of Wake Forest University, Director of 
Admissions, P.O. Box 7305 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7305. 



New Series 

June 1998 

Volume 93, Number 3 

THE UNDERGRADUATE SCHOOLS 







"--,'83*.,/ 



Wake Forest College 

and The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



ANNOUNCEMENTS FOR 1998/9 9 

This bulletin represents a record of the academic year 1997/98. 



2 

THE ACADEMIC 


CALENDAR 


Fall Semester 1998 




August 19 


Wednesday 


Move-in day for new students; residence 
halls open 8 a.m-5 p.m. 


August 20-25 


Thursday-Tuesday 


Orientation for new students 


August 22 


Saturday 


Residence halls open for returning 
students, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. 


August 23 


Sunday 


Residence halls open for returning 
students, noon-5 p.m. 


August 24-25 


Monday-Tuesday 


Validation / Registration 


August 26 


Wednesday 


Classes begin 


September 


(date to be announced) 


Opening Convocation 


September 9 


Wednesday 


Last day to add courses 


September 23 


Wednesday 


Last day to drop courses 


October 9 


Friday 


Fall holiday 


October 14 


Wednesday 


Mid-term grades due 


Nov. 25-29 


Wednesday-Sunday 


Thanksgiving holiday 


November 30 


Monday 


Classes resume 


December 4 


Friday 


Classes end 


December 7-12 


Monday-Saturday 


Examinations 


December 13 


Sunday 


All residence halls close at 10 a.m. 


Dec. 13-Jan. 10 


Sunday-Sunday 


Winter recess 


Sprinq Semester 1999 




January 9 


Saturday 


Residence halls open at 9 a.m. 


January 11-12 


Monday -Tuesday 


Validation of registration for all students 


January 13 


Wednesday 


Classes begin 


January 18 


Monday 


Martin Luther King Jr. Day — no classes 


January 27 


Wednesday 


Last day to add courses 


February 10 


Wednesday 


Last day to drop courses 


February 


(date to be announced) 


Founders' Day Convocation 


March 5 


Friday 


Midterm grades due 


March 6 


Saturday 


All residence halls close at noon 


March 6-14 


Saturday-Sunday 


Spring recess 


March 13 


Saturday 


Residence halls reopen at 11 a.m. 


March 15 


Monday 


Classes resume 


April 2 


Friday 


Good Friday — no classes 


April 30 


Friday 


Classes end 


Apr. 29-May 1 


Thursday-Friday 


Reading days 


May 3-8 


Monday-Saturday 


Examinations 


May 9 


Sunday 


Residence halls close for non-seniors at 7 p.m. 


May 16 


Sunday 


Baccalaureate 


May 17 


Monday 


Commencement 



Residence halls close for seniors at 7 p.m. 



3 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 7 

Buildings and Grounds 8 

Information Systems 9 

Telecommunication Services 10 

Libraries 11 

Recognition and Accreditation 12 

The Undergraduate Schools 12 

Wake Forest College 14 

Statement of Purpose 14 

Honor System 15 

Student Complaints 16 

History and Development 16 

Chronological History of Wake Forest University 17 

Presidents of Wake Forest University 17 

Procedures 18 

Admission 18 

Application 18 

Early Decision - Single /First Choice 19 

Admission of Handicapped Students 20 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 20 

Admission of Transfer Students 20 

Expenses 21 

Tuition 21 

Room Charges 21 

Food Services 22 

Other Charges 22 

Refunds 23 

Refunds (Title 4 Recipients) 23 

Pro-Rata Refund 24 

Federal Refund Calculation 24 

Distribution Requirements 25 

Housing 26 

Academic Calendar 26 

Orientation and Advising 26 

Registration 26 

Classification 27 

Class Attendance 27 

Auditing Courses 28 

Dropping a Course 28 

Withdrawal from the College 28 

Examinations 29 

Grading 29 



Grade Reports and Transcripts 30 

Dean's List 31 

Graduation Distinctions 31 

Repetition of Courses 31 

Probation 31 

Requirements for Continuation in the College 32 

Requirements for Readmission 33 

Summer Study 33 

Transfer Credit 33 

Scholarships and Loans 34 

Scholarships 34 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 50 

Exchange Scholarships 51 

Loans 51 

Concessions 52 

Other Financial Aid 53 

Outside Assistance 53 

Special Programs 54 

Honors Study 54 

Open Curriculum 54 

Study at Salem College 54 

International Studies 55 

Office of International Studies 55 

International Students , 55 

Residential Language Centers 55 

International Studies House 55 

Foreign Area Studies 55 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 56 

Ecuador (Quito) 56 

England (London) 56 

Italy (Venice) 56 

France (Dijon) 56 

Spain (Salamanca) 57 

Institute of European Studies 57 

China (Beijing) 57 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 57 

Russia 57 

Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 58 

Requirements for Degrees 59 

Degrees Offered 59 

General Requirements 59 

Basic Requirements 60 

Divisional Requirements 60 

Requirement in Health and Exercise Science 62 

Proficiency in the Use of English 62 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 62 



Declaring a Major 62 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 63 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 63 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 64 

Minors 64 

Interdisciplinary Minors 64 

Foreign Area Studies 65 

Senior Testing 65 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 65 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 66 

Degrees in Dentistry 66 

Degrees in Engineering 67 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 67 

Five-Year Cooperative Degree Program in Latin American Studies 67 

Courses of Instruction — Wake Forest College 68 

American Ethnic Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 68 

Anthropology 69 

Art 72 

Asian Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 77 

Biology 79 

Chemistry 86 

Classical Languages 89 

Communication 93 

Cultural Resource Preservation (Interdisciplinary Minor) 97 

Early Christian Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 98 

East Asian Languages and Literatures 99 

East Asian Studies (Foreign Area Study) 101 

Economics 102 

Education 106 

English 113 

Environmental Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 119 

German and Russian 120 

German Studies (Foreign Area Study) 124 

Health and Exercise Science 125 

History 129 

Humanities 136 

Interdisciplinary Honors 140 

International Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 143 

Italian Studies (Foreign Area Study) 144 

Journalism (Minor) 145 

Latin American Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 147 

Linguistics (Interdisciplinary Minor) 148 

Mathematics and Computer Science 150 

Medieval Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 156 

Military Science 157 



Music 159 

Natural Sciences 167 

Philosophy 168 

Physics 172 

Politics 175 

Psychology 182 

Religion 186 

Romance Languages 193 

Russian and East European Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 203 

Sociology 204 

Spanish Studies (Foreign Area Study) 209 

Theater 209 

Dance 213 

Urban Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 215 

Women's Studies (Interdisciplinary Minor) 215 

Overseas Courses 218 

Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 228 

Mission 228 

Programs 229 

Objectives 229 

Admission , 230 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 230 

Requirements for Continuation 231 

Requirements for Graduation 231 

Senior Honors Program 232 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 232 

Courses of Instruction 232 

Business 232 

Accountancy 238 

Enrollment 241 

Governing and Advisory Boards 242 

The Board of Trustees 242 

The Board of Visitors 243 

The Board of Visitors, W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 244 

The Administration 245 

The Undergraduate Faculties 259 

Emeriti 284 

The Committees of the Faculty 289 

Index 294 

Bulletins of Wake Forest University 298 



7 

THE UNIVERSITY 



Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning 
and professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of 
community and fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and 
expression. 

Founded in 1 834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school opened 
its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as principal. It was 
located in Wake County, North Carolina, on the plantation of Calvin Jones, near which the 
village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1 838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of higher 
learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 1894, when 
the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded in 1902, offered a 
two-year medical program until 1941. In that year, the school was moved from the town 
of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with the North Carolina Baptist 
Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. In 1942, Wake Forest 
admitted women as regular undergraduate students. In 1997, the medical school was 
renamed the Wake Forest School of Medicine to reflect its integral association with the 
University. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1 948 . In 1 969, the undergradu- 
ate school was succeeded by the Department of Business and Accountancy and the 
Department of Economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time the Babcock Graduate 
School of Management was established. In 1980, the undergraduate program in business 
and accountancy was reconstituted as the School of Business and Accountancy; in 1995, 
the name was changed to the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

The Division of Graduate Studies, established in 1961, is now organized as the 
Graduate School and encompasses advanced work in the arts and sciences on both the 
Reynolda and Bowman Gray campuses in Winston-Salem. 

In 1946, the trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of North 
Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate the non- 
medical divisions of the College to Winston-Salem. The late Charles H. Babcock and his 
wife, the late Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, and building funds were 
received from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956, the first fourteen buildings were 
erected in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. In 1956, the College moved 
all operations, leaving the 122-year-old campus in the town of Wake Forest to the 
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

In 1967, the College's augmented character was recognized by the change in name to 
Wake Forest University. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands at over 
5,000. Governance remains in the hands of the Board of Trustees, and development for 
each of the six schools of the University is augmented by advisory boards of visitors. A 
joint board of University trustees and trustees of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital is 
responsible for the Medical Center, which includes the hospital and the medical school. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part of 
the school's heritage. Wake Forest and the Convention have a fraternal, voluntary 
relationship under which Wake Forest is autonomous in governance. 



Since moving to Winston-Salem, Wake Forest has been home to the Wake Forest 
Baptist Church, an independent congregation which attracts members from both the 
University and the community. The congregation meets in Wait Chapel and has office 
and educational space in Wingate Hall. 

The College, Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, Babcock Gradu- 
ate School of Management, School of Law, and the Graduate School are located on the 
Reynolda Campus in northwest Winston-Salem. The Wake Forest School of Medicine is 
about four miles away, near the city's downtown, on what is known as the Bowman Gray 
Campus. The University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, at 
Worrell House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of study leading to the baccalau- 
reate degree. The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy offers courses 
of study leading to baccalaureate degrees in business, analytical finance or mathemati- 
cal business (in cooperation with the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science); and a combination baccalaureate and master of science degree in accoun- 
tancy through the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of the University. The School 
of Law offers the juris doctor degree and the Babcock Graduate School of Management, 
the master of business administration degree. Both schools also offer a joint JD/MBA 
degree. In addition to the doctor of medicine degree, the Wake Forest School of Medicine 
offers, through the Graduate School, programs leading to the master of science and doctor 
of philosophy degrees in biomedical sciences. The Graduate School confers the master of 
arts, master of arts in education, master of arts in liberal studies, and master of science 
degrees in the arts and sciences and the doctor of philosophy degree inbiology, chemistry, 
and physics. 

Buildings and Grounds 

The Reynolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 340 acres; its physical 
facilities consist of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified Georgian 
architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and limestone. The 
Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including Reynolda Woods, 
Reynolda Village, and Reynolda Gardens, is adjacent to the campus. The Graylyn 
International Conference Center, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel, named in memory of the first president of the College, seats 2,300. The 
Wait Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlisle Harris Carillon, an instrument of 
forty-eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly Wingate, 
houses the Department of Religion, the offices of the University chaplaincy and the Wake 
Forest Baptist Church, offices of the Divinity School, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, houses most of the adminis- 
trative offices for the Reynolda Campus as well as Information Systems. The Benson 
University Center is the central hub for student activities and events. The Z. Smith Reynolds 
Library and its Edwin Graves Wilson Wing house the main collection of books and 
documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight floors of open stacks, with a 
capacity for over 1,000,000 volumes, it has reading and reference rooms for study. Carswell 
Hall houses the departments of Communication, Economics, and Sociology, and a large 
multi-media lecture area, the Annenburg Forum. 



Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry department. 
Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special research facilities. The 
Olin Physical Laboratory is the facility for the physics department. Harold W. Tribble 
Hall accommodates primarily humanities departments, and has seminar rooms, a 
philosophy library, and a multimedia lecture area, DeTamble Auditorium. The Museum of 
Anthropology houses the anthropology department and the Museum. The Wayne 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy and the Department of Mathematics and 
Computer Science are in Calloway Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the 
functions of studio art, theater, musical and dance performances, and instruction in art 
history, drama, and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the art 
wing are spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, along with 
a smaller gallery and classrooms. In the theater wing are design and production areas and 
two technically complete theaters, the larger of traditional proscenium design and the 
smaller for experimental ring productions. The music wing contains Brendle Recital 
Hall for concerts and lectures, classrooms, practice rooms for individuals and groups, and 
the offices of the music department. 

The Worrell Professional Center for Law and Management houses the School of Law and 
Babcock Graduate School of Management under one roof. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and 
exercise science, courts for indoor sports, a swimrning pool, and offices for the depart- 
ments of Health and Exercise Science and Military Science. Adjacent are tennis courts, 
sports fields, the Kentner Stadium, and the Athletic Center for intercollegiate athletics. 

The Wake Forest campus has a wide variety of housing options available to students. 
One residence hall houses only female students: Bostwick Hall. Babcock Hall, Collins Hall, 
Davis Hall, Efird Hall, Huffman Hall, Johnson Hall, Kitchin Hall, Luter Hall, North Hall, 
Palmer Hall, Piccolo Hall, Polo Hall, Poteat Hall, the Student Apartments and Taylor 
Hall are coeducational by floor, wing, or apartment. Substance-free living environ- 
ments are available in some residence halls. First-year students live in Babcock, Bostwick, 
Collins, Johnson, Kitchin, Palmer, Piccolo, and Taylor. Upper class students may choose to 
live in one of a variety of theme houses including the Fine Arts House, French House, German 
House, NIA House, and Volunteer Services House, or others that are currently being 
developed. Student housing is available in the townhouse apartments and several small 
houses owned by the University. On the edge of the main campus are apartments for 
faculty and staff. 

Information Systems 

Information Systems supports University instruction, research, and administrative 
needs. The campus computer network offers high-speed connectivity from all resi- 
dence hall rooms, all offices, and many classrooms. The campus computer network 
also offers network access through a variety of wireless access points in locations such 
as the Z. Smith Reynolds Library and the Benson University Center. These access 
points allow students and faculty with IBM laptop computers to use the computer 
network without the necessity of physically plugging into a network jack. 



10 



All first-year students are issued IBM ThinkPad computers and color printers. 
These laptop computers contain a standard suite of powerful programs that allow 
students easier access to research and class materials and offer the ability to interact 
with faculty, staff, and other students through the campus network. The programs 
include Microsoft Office, Lotus Notes, electronic mail, and Internet and library 
browsing and research tools. The ThinkPads have access to a large variety of 
instructional and classroom resources through the campus network. These resources 
include the Library CD ROM network, OCLC FirstSearch and computer-based 
training. * 

The University has three mainframe computers. A Hewlett-Packard series 3000/ 
959, used by the administration, has 128 million bytes of memory and 20 billion bytes 
of disk storage. Academic and library computing use two seven-node SP2 Parallel 
computers. These systems currently offer two billion bytes of memory and 600 billion 
bytes of storage. These systems are available twenty-four hours a day through dial- 
in connectivity providers, from workstations in the microcomputer labs and across 
the campus network. 

Wake Forest has access to computing resources outside the University. The 
University is a member of the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social 
Research (ICPSR), located at the University of Michigan. Membership in ICPSR 
provides faculty and students with access to a large library of data files, including 
public opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial data, and complete census data. 
The University is a member of both EDUCOM and CAUSE, national consortia of 
colleges and universities concerned with computing issues. 

Wake Forest has a ten megabyte connection to the Internet. Through this connec- 
tion, Wake Forest has access to CRAY supercomputers located at the MCNS/ North 
Carolina Supercomputing Center in the Research Triangle. 

There are general purpose microcomputer labs available for student use. The labs 
contain Apple Macintosh, Gateway 2000, and IBM desktop computers. The labs are 
connected to the campus network and have full access to University-supported 
software and the Internet. Students have access to software such as MS Excel, 
Microsoft Word, SPSS, Mail, and Netscape directly from any of the labs. All of the labs 
are available 24 hours a day, and are accessible through a card entry system. Laser 
printers are located in or near each lab. 

The Department of Information Systems provides assistance by telephone, and 
supports walk-in customers, from 8 a.m. until midnight, Monday through Thursday, 
8 a.m. until 5 p.m. on Friday, and 4 p.m. to midnight on Sunday. Information Systems 
also supports an extensive online information system which includes documentation, 
computer-based training, class schedules, University-wide activity calendars, and 
the electronic version of the Old Gold and Black. 

Telecommunication Services 



Telecommunication Services provides telephone and cable television services to the 
students, faculty, and staff of Wake Forest University. All residence hall rooms are 
equipped with telephone jacks and cable TV connections. Local dial service for the 



campus and Winston-Salem area is provided as part of the housing package. Students 
who wish to place long distance calls over the University network can apply for services 
at the telecommunications department located in Room 20, Reynolda Hall. 

Cable television, while providing a recreational outlet, plays an important role by 
providing access to campus information and educational offerings. Cable channel 2 is the 
Wake Forest University information channel, providing information and a calendar of 
campus events. WAKE Radio, a student-run station, provides background music for this 
channel. Channel 17 carries SCOLA, which provides domestic and foreign educational 
programming. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest University support instruction and research at the under- 
graduate level and in the disciplines awarding graduate degrees. The libraries of the 
University hold membership in the Association of College and Research Libraries, and 
the Association of Southeastern Research Libraries, and rank among the top schools in the 
Southeast in library expenditures per student. 

Facilities in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library include the Information Technology 
Center with multimedia viewing, editing, and scanning, and a lab for student use. All- 
night study rooms are available to students with a key-card. Group study rooms are 
provided for student use. A Professional Center Library, combining the Law Library and 
the Babcock Management Library, is housed in the Worrell Professional Center, which 
opened in 1993. 

Reynolda Campus libraries share an online catalog which may be consulted at 
terminals in the buildings, from the campus network or remotely through a modem. The 
Reference Department of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library provides a complete range of 
reference services including online searching, tours, first-year student orientation, 
presentation to individual classes, and assistance with directed and independent studies. 
Reference tools are available in electronic and print formats. Interlibrary loan service is 
available for Wake Forest students, faculty, and staff. Books, photocopies, and other 
materials may be borrowed from other libraries at no charge. 

The Wake Forest libraries hold over one million volumes in print, many thousands 
of subscriptions to periodicals and serials, over one and a half million microforms, 
more than 150,000 government documents, as well as a growing video collection. 

Special collections in the Reynolds Library include the Rare Books Collection and the 
Ethel Taylor Crittenden Baptist Historical Collection. The Rare Books Collection, greatly 
enhanced by the donation of rare and fine books of the late Charles H. Babcock, 
emphasizes American and British authors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries. Among such collections are those of Mark Twain, Gertrude Stein, William 
Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot. There is also an extensive Anglo-Irish literature collection. The 
Baptist Historical Collection contains significant books, periodicals, manuscripts, and 
church records relating to North Carolina Baptists as well as a collection of the personal 
papers of prominent ministers, educators and government officials. The Wake Forest 
College /University Archive also is maintained in this area. The library houses a major 
collection on The Holocaust, as well. 



12 



Recognition and Accreditation . 



Wake Forest University is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the 
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (1866 Southern Lane, Decatur, 
Georgia; telephone number [404] 679-4501) to award bachelor's, master's, and 
doctoral degrees. 

The Wake Forest University School of Medicine is a member of the Association of 
American Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical 
Education of the American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the 
Association of American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council 
of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar 
Association and by the Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina 
State Bar. The Babcock Graduate School of Management and the Wayne Calloway School 
of Business and Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate 
Schools of Business. The program in counseling leading to the master of arts in education 
degree is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many institutional organizations and 
associations at the national, regional, and statewide levels, including the following: 
the American Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, the 
National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, the Council of 
Graduate Schools in the United States, the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, the Southern Universities Conference, the Council of Southern Graduate 
Schools, the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Universities, and the North 
Carolina Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. In addition, many 
offices of the University are members of associations which focus on particular 
aspects of university administration. 

Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities and sororities, 
professional fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. 
There is an active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on 
campus. 

The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest College 
and the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate 
schools are governed by the Board of Trustees, the University administration, and by 
their respective faculties. Responsibility for academic administration is delegated by 
the president and trustees to the provost, who is the chief academic officer of the 
University. The deans of the schools report to the provost and are responsible for 
academic planning and administration for their schools. 

Wake Forest University is committed to administer all educational and employ- 
ment activities without discrimination because of race, color, religion, national origin, 
age, sex, veteran status, handicapped status or disability as required by law. In 



13 



addition, Wake Forest rejects hatred and bigotry in any form and adheres to the 
principle that no person affiliated with Wake Forest should be judged or harassed on 
the basis of perceived or actual sexual orientation. In affirming its commitment to this 
principle, Wake Forest does not limit freedom of religious association or expression, 
does not presume to control the policies of persons or entities not affiliated with Wake 
Forest, and does not extend benefits beyond those provided under other policies of 
Wake Forest. 

The University has adopted a procedure for the purpose of resolving discrimi- 
nation complaints. Inquiries or concerns should be directed to Harold Holmes, 
dean of student services, at (336) 758-5226; Paul Escott, dean of the college, at (336) 
758-5312; or Gloria C. Agard, assistant director of human resources and director 
of equal employment opportunity, at (336) 758-4814. 




14 

WAKE FOREST COLLEGE 

Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake 
Forest University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it, 
the University carries on the tradition of preparing men and women for personal 
enrichment, enlightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character of the 
College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evaluates its 
success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part of the school's 
decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of Trustees. 

Statement of Purpose 

Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the liberal arts and in 
graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness in its pursuit of its mission 
derives from its private, coeducational, and residential character; its size and location; and 
its Baptist affiliation. Each of these factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique 
character of the institution. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two undergraduate institu- 
tions, Wake Forest College and the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy; the Graduate School; and three professional schools: the School of Law, the Wake 
Forest University Gray School of Medicine, and the Babcock Graduate School of 
Management. It seeks to honor the ideals of liberal learning, which entail commitment to 
transmission of cultural heritages; teaching the modes of learning in the basic disciplines 
of human knowledge; developing critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and religious 
values; advancing the frontiers of knowledge through in-depth study and research; and 
applying and using knowledge in the service of humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and a half; this 
means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge and achievement, as 
distinguished from education that is technical or narrowly vocational. It seeks to encour- 
age habits of mind that ask "why," that evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that 
attempt to understand and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity 
and grapple with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest College has by 
far the largest student body in the University, and its function is central to the University's 
larger life. The College and the Graduate School are most singularly focused on learning 
for its own sake; they therefore serve as exemplars of specific academic values in the life 
of the University. 

Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide professional 
training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary mission of liberal arts 
education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the conviction that the humane values 
embodied in the liberal arts are also centrally relevant to the professions. Professional 
education at Wake Forest is characterized by a commitment to ethical and other profes- 
sional ideals that transcend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional 
schools are dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In addition, they are 
specifically committed to the application of knowledge to solving concrete problems of 



15 



human beings. They are strengthened by values and goals which they share with the 
College and Graduate School, and the professional schools enhance the work of these 
schools and the University as a whole by serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision-making author- 
ity lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than in a public body. "Funded 
to a large extent from private sources of support, [Wake Forest) is determined to chart its 
own course in the pursuit of its goals. As a coeducational institution it seeks to 'educate 
together' persons of both sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds — racial, ethnic, 
religious, geographical, socio-economic, and cultural ... Its residential features are condu- 
cive to learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of co-curricular activities. It has made 
a conscious choice to remain small in overall size; it takes pride in being able to function 
as a community rather than a conglomerate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North 
Carolina engenders an ethos that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically North 
Carolinian... As it seeks further to broaden its constituency and to receive national 
recognition, it is also finding ways to maintain the ethos associated with its regional 
roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than a century and 
a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis for its mission and purpose, 
enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands of ministers and laypeople for enlightened 
leadership in their churches and communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, 
this religious tradition gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and 
branches that provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The Baptist 
insistence on both the separation of church and state and local autonomy has helped to 
protect the University from interference and domination by outside interests, whether 
these be commercial, governmental, or ecclesiastical . The Baptist emphasis upon revealed 
truth enables a strong religious critique of human reason, even as the claims of revelation 
are put under the scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest 
encourages open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the University will be 
ecumenical and not provincial in scope, and that it must encompass perspectives other 
than the Christian. Wake Forest thus seeks to maintain and invigorate what is noblest in 
its religious heritage. 



Honor System 



The honor and ethics system is an expression of the concern that students act with honor 
and integrity. Its essence is that each student's word can be trusted implicitly and that 
any violation of a student's word is an offense against the whole community. The honor 
and ethics system obligates students neither to give nor receive unauthorized aid on 
academic work; to have complete respect for the property rights of others; to make no 
false or deceiving statements regarding academic or ethical matters to another member 
of the University community; not to interfere with the procedures of the honor system; 
and to confront any student who has violated the honor system and to remind that 
student of the responsibilities dictated by the honor system. 

The honor and ethics system is maintained and overseen by the Judicial Council of 
the undergraduate schools (see p. 292). Complete details are available at the Office of 
the Dean of Student Services. 



16 



Student Complaints 



Situations may arise in which a student believes that he or she has not received fair 
treatment by a representative of the University or has a complaint about the performance, 
actions or inaction of the staff or faculty affecting a student. The procedure for bringing 
these issues to the appropriate person or body is outlined below. Students are encouraged 
to seek assistance from their advisers or another member of the faculty or staff in 
evaluating the nature of their complaints or deciding on an appropriate course of action. 

A complaint should first be directed as soon as possible to the person or persons 
whose actions or inactions have given rise to the problem — not later than three months 
after the event. For complaints in the academic setting, the student should talk 
personally with the instructor. Should the student and instructor be unable to resolve 
the conflict, the student may then turn to the chair of the involved department (the dean 
in the Calloway School) for assistance. The chair (or dean) will meet with both parties, 
seek to understand their individual perspectives, and within a reasonable time, reach 
a conclusion and share it with both parties. Finally, a student may appeal to the 
Committee on Academic Affairs which will study the matter, work with the parties, 
and reach a final resolution. 

Students having complaints outside the academic setting, and who have been 
unable to resolve the matter with the individual directly involved, should process the 
complaint in a timely manner through the administrative channels of the appropriate 
unit. Students uncertain about the proper channels are encouraged to seek advice from 
faculty advisers, deans' offices, or the office of the dean of student services. Complaints 
which rise to the level of a grievance (as determined by the earlier steps in the process) 
may be heard as a final appeal before a committee chaired by the assistant to the 
president, which will include a representative of the faculty and a member of the 
student body. The grievance must be filed in writing. Grievances not deemed frivolous 
by the committee will be heard. The student may be assisted during the hearing by a 
member of the University community. 

The complaint /grievance process outlined above is meant to answer and resolve 
issues arising between individual students and the University and its various offices 
from practices and procedures affecting that relationship. In many cases, there are 
mechanisms already in place for the reporting and resolution of specialized complaints 
(harassment and discrimination for instance) and these should be fully utilized where 
appropriate. Violation of student conduct rules or the honor system should be ad- 
dressed through the judicial process specifically designed for that purpose. 

History and Development 



Since 1834, Wake Forest College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: 
tenacity, independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a concern that 
knowledge be used responsibly and compassionately. That these characteristics have 
served the school well is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of the 
nation's significant small private universities. 



17 



A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is today and 
appreciating the process through which it developed. 



Chronological History of Wake Forest University 



1834 Founded in the town of Wake Forest, N.C., as Wake Forest Manual Labor Institute 

in cooperation with the N.C. Baptist State Convention 

1838 Named Wake Forest College 

1894 School of Law established 

1902 School of Medicine founded 

1921 First summer session 

1936 Approval of the School of Law by the American Bar Association 

1941 Relocation of the School of Medicine to Winston-Salem and eventual change of name 
to Bowman Gray School of Medicine and association with the North Carolina Baptist 
Hospital 

1942 Women admitted as undergraduate students 

1956 Move to Winston-Salem in response to an endowment from the Z. Smith Reynolds 

Foundation 

1961 Graduate studies instituted 

1967 Becomes Wake Forest University 

1969 Babcock Graduate School of Management established 

1976 James R. Scales Fine Arts Center opened 

1984 Sesquicentennial anniversary 

1986 Redefined the relationship with the NG. Baptist State Convention 

1989 Olin Physical Laboratory opened 

1990 Clifton L. Benson University Center opened 

1992 Edwin Graves Wilson Wing of Z. Smith Reynolds Library dedicated 

1993 Worrell Professional Center for Law and Management opened 

1994 Centennial anniversary — School of Law 

1995 Change of name to Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 
1997 Change of name to Wake Forest University School of Medicine 

Presidents of Wake Forest University 



1834 Samuel Wait 1905 William Louis Poteat 

1845 William Hooper 1927 Francis Pendleton Gaines 

1849 John Brown White 1930 Thurman D. Kitchin 

1854 Washington Manly Wingate 1950 Harold Wayland Tribble 

1879 Thomas Henderson Pritchard 1967 James Ralph Scales 

1884 Charles EUsha Taylor 1983 Thomas K. Hearn Jr. 



18 

PROCEDURES 



All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this 
bulletin which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses 
and expenses are not to be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student 
and the institution. The University reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and 
the cost of instruction at any time within the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational achievement. 
The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's academic records, scores 
on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and general fitness for study in the 
College. The applicant's secondary school program must establish a commitment to the 
kind of broad liberal education reflected in the academic requirements of the College. 

Admission as a first-year student normally requires graduation from an accredited 
secondary school with a minimum of sixteen units of high school credit. These should 
include four units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, two 
in a single foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who presents at 
least twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can be considered. A 
limited number of applicants may be admitted without the high school diploma, with 
particular attention given to ability, maturity, and motivation. 

North Carolina law and Wake Forest University require that all new, transfer, readmit, 
unclassified or visiting students submit proof of immunization against tetanus and 
diphtheria (Td), polio, rubeola, rubella, and mumps before registration. The Student Hand- 
book has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high school, physician, or 
county health department director containing the approved dates is acceptable proof of 
immunization. The Student Health Service will furnish a form for this purpose. North 
Carolina law requires that students who do not submit proper proof of immunization 
within thirty days of enrollment cannot attend Wake Forest University until these immu- 
nizations have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the Office of Admissions in person or by mail (P.O. Box 7305 
Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109-7305). It should be completed and 
returned to that office no later than January 15 for the fall semester. Most admissions 
decisions for the fall semester are made by April 1, with prompt notification of applicants. 
For the spring semester, applications should be completed and returned no later than 
November 15. Except in emergency, the final date for applying for the fall semester is 
August 1 and for the spring semester, January 1. Application on this last-date basis is 
primarily for nonresident students. 

Wake Forest accepts the Common Application in lieu of its own form and gives equal 
consideration to both. Students may obtain copies of the Common Application from their 
high schools. 



19 



The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from second- 
ary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior year, on the SAT 
I: Reasoning Test of The College Board. SAT II: Subject Test scores are optional. All test 
scores should be sent directly to the University by Educational Testing Service. A $40 fee 
to cover the cost of processing must accompany an application. It cannot be applied to later 
charges for accepted students or refunded for others. The University reserves the right to reject 
any application without explanation. 

A $300 admission deposit is required of all regularly admitted students and must be 
sent to the Office of Admissions no later than May 1 following notice of acceptance. It is 
credited toward first semester fees and is non-refundable. Students notified of acceptance 
after May 1 for the fall semester or November 1 for the spring semester should make a non- 
refundable admission deposit within two weeks of notification. Failure to make the 
admission deposit is taken as cancellation of application by the student. No deposit is 
required for summer session enrollment. 



Early Decision 



Two early decision deadlines and notification schedules are available to well-qualified 
high school students who decide, by the close of their junior year, that Wake Forest is 
either their only choice or first choice college. 

Early Decision - Single Choice 



For students who have selected Wake Forest as their first choice and have applied to no 
other college. Students may submit an application at any time after completion of the 
junior year and no later than November 15. Decisions on these applicants are made on 
a rolling basis, three to four weeks after the application is completed. Students agree to 
enroll if accepted and submit a nonrefundable $500 deposit prior to January 1 . 

Early Decision - First Choice 



Students who have selected Wake Forest as a first choice and only early decision choice 
but who may have submitted or have plans to submit regular decision applications to 
other institutions, may apply no later than November 15 and are notified by December 
15. If accepted, students agree to enroll and to withdraw applications from other 
colleges. A $500 nonrefundable deposit is due by January 15. 

Candidates for early decision are normally expected to have completed, or be 
enrolled in courses to complete, all secondary school requirements. Decisions are based 
upon junior year grades and test scores. Applicants not admitted are asked to submit 
additional SAT I scores and the first semester senior year grade report, or they are 
advised to apply elsewhere. 



20 



Admission of Handicapped Students . 



Wake Forest College will consider the application of any qualified student, regardless 
of handicap, on the basis of the selection criteria established by the University which 
include personal and academic merit. Upon matriculation, all students will be 
required to meet the same standards for graduation. Programs at Wake Forest are 
accessible to all of its students. 

The University endeavors to provide facilities which are in compliance with all 
laws and regulations regarding access for disabled individuals. Additionally, 
special services are available to reasonably accommodate disabled students. For 
more information on assistance for undergraduate students, please contact G. 
Dianne Mitchell, director of the Learning Assistance Program at (336) 759-5929 or 
Gloria C. Agard, assistant director of human resources and director of equal employ- 
ment opportunity, at (336) 759-4814. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 



Advanced placement credit for college level work done in high school is available on the 
basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of The College Board and supplementary 
information. Especially well-qualified applicants for advanced standing may also be 
exempt from some basic and divisional courses with credit on the authorization of the 
department concerned . Credit by advanced standing is treated in the same manner as credit 
transferred from another college. 

Under certain conditions, especially well-prepared applicants may be granted limited 
college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination Program (CLEP) of 
the Educational Testing Service. Such credit may be assigned with the approval of the 
department concerned or the dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 



The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon the 
availability of space in the first-year (second semester), sophomore, and junior classes. An 
applicant for admission who has attended another college must be a graduate of a standard 
junior college or furnish a certificate of honorable dismissal stating eligibility in all respects 
to enter the college last attended, and must have an overall average of at least C on all 
college work attempted. A student who is admitted from another college before fully 
meeting the prescribed admissions requirements for entering first-year students must 
remove the entrance conditions during the first year at Wake Forest. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject to 
faculty approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake Forest 
curriculum. The minimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree is two 
academic years, the senior and one other. 



21 



Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable contract 
between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other services 
outlined herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, and the 
University reserves the right to change without notice the cost of instruction and other 
services at any time. 

A non- refund able admission deposit of $300 is required to complete admission for all 
regularly admitted students. A non-refundable admission deposit of $500 is required 
to complete admission for all students who have applied to Wake Forest University as 
a first or single choice (see page 19). The applicable deposit is applied toward tuition 
and fees for the semester for which the student has been accepted. Charges are due in full 
on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for the spring semester. Faculty 
regulations require that student accounts be settled in full before the student is entitled to 
receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or to register for the following semester or 
term. 

Tuition 



Full-time (excluding fourth-year students) 
Full-time (fourth-year students only) 
Part-time 



Per Semester Per Year 

$10,225 $20,450 

$8,575 $17,150 

$550 per credit 



Students should expect an average increase of about six percent yearly in tuition. However, 
admittance to the undergraduate College is not based on financial resources. The Univer- 
sity meets the demonstrated financial needs of all qualified students. 

Students enrolled in the College or in the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy for full-time residence credit are entitled to full privileges regarding libraries, 
laboratories, athletic contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University 
Theater, and the health service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the libraries and 
laboratories but not to the other privileges mentioned above. They may secure a part-time 
student ID card, admissions to games and concerts, and publications by paying an activity 
fee of $166 per semester. 

Room Charges 



Double occupancy 



Per Semester 
$1,550 



Per Year 
$3,100 



Most first-year students will pay either $1,350 or $1,550 per semester depending upon 
room assignment location. Other room rentals range from $1,350 to $1,800 per semester. 



22 



Food Services 

A cafeteria and table service dining room are located in Reynolda Hall; there is a food court 
in the Benson University Center. A debit card system is used in which the student is 
charged only for the items selected at the time of purchase. A suggested range from $975 
to $1575 per year is offered depending on the student's needs. The card may be used at 
any University food services facility, and it allows a great deal of flexibility for eating 
off campus. 

First-year students living in residence halls are required to participate in both the fall and spring 
semesters in one of the board plans. 



Other Charges 



Admission application fee of $40 is required with each application for admission to cover 
the cost of processing and is nonrefundable. 

Admission deposit of $500 is required for students applying to Wake Forest University 
as a first or single choice. An admission deposit of $300 is required for all regularly 
admitted students. All admissions deposits must be submitted to the Director of 
Admissions. The applicable deposit is credited to the student's charges for the 
semester for which he or she has been accepted for admission. 

Individual instruction music fees are required in addition to tuition for students enrolling for 
individual study in applied music in the Department of Music and are payable in the 
Office of Financial and Accounting Services. The fee for one credit per semester is $175; 
for more than one credit per semester, $300. 

Hospital charges, made when the student is confined to the Student Health Service, are 
$100 per day. Additional charges are made for medications, laboratory tests, and special 
supplies. Students must have hospital insurance. A group plan is available through the 
University for those not covered by a family plan. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations and 
are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the Office of Financial and Accounting 
Services, of students enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall 
semester. It is credited to the student's University charges and is nonrefundable. 

Room change fee of $25 is charged for any unauthorized change. 

Motor vehicle registration is $100 and traffic fines are $20 to $50. All students operating a 
vehicle on campus (including student apartments, theme, and satellite houses) must 
register vehicles they are operating day or night, whether or not owned by the operator. 
All vehicle registrations must be completed within twenty-four hours from the first time 
the vehicle is brought to campus or the next business day. Proof of ownership must be 
presented to verify a license plate when applying for vehicle registration. Fines are 
assessed against students violating parking regulations; copies of the violations are 



23 



obtainable from the Office of Parking Management. Please inform your visitors of 
parking rules and regulations. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued in the registrar's office at a cost of $4 
each. 

Refunds (Students Not Receiving Title 4 Financial Aid) 



During the academic year, students, full-time and part-time, who do not receive Title 4 
federal financial aid receive tuition refunds according to the following schedule. This 
policy applies to students dropping courses as well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals 
must be official and students must return their ID cards before claiming refunds. There is 
no refund of room rent or parking decals that have been placed on vehicles. 

Number of Weeks Attendance Percentage of Total Tuition 

(Including first day of registration) to be Refunded 

1 week Total tuition less deposit 

2 weeks 75 percent 

3 weeks 50 percent 

4 weeks 25 percent 

Fees for individual instruction in the Department of Music will be refunded on the 
following basis: If a student drops the course before the fifth lesson, the fee will be one- 
fourteenth the full semester's instruction fee times the number of lessons the student has 
had. There is no refund after the fifth lesson. 

Refunds (Title 4 Financial Aid Recipients) 



Based on the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended by Congress in July 1992, and 
upon the regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Education with an effective date 
of November 29, 1994, two special refund conditions now apply instead of the normal 
refund policy. These conditions apply only to recipients of Title 4 (federal) financial aid: 
Pell Grants, SEOG, Federal Work Study, Perkins Loans, Stafford Loans, and PLUS 
Loans. For purposes of determining inclusion of a student in the special group for 
refund calculation, Wake Forest defines "recipient" to include all students who have 
submitted an official federal output document to the University and have been 
awarded federal aid under one of the above programs, regardless of whether funds 
have actually been disbursed at the time of withdrawal. 

Title 4 recipients who are enrolled at Wake Forest for the first time during the 
semester of their withdrawal will have the refund amount calculated and distributed 
according to the pro-rata refund policy outlined below. All other withdrawing Title 4 
recipients will have a refund calculated under the requirements of 668.22(d) of federal 
refund regulations, modified in week one in order to make it in every case equal to or 
larger than normal WFU refund policy, and distributed according to the distribution 
policy outlined on the next page. 



24 



In making the required refund calculations, initial refunds are reduced by "unpaid 
scheduled cash payments" as shown on the worksheets. In calculating this data 
element, any state aid from NCLTG or NC SCSF will be net amounts remaining after 
appropriate refunds to those programs are made under normal WFU tuition refund 
policy. 

Pro-Rata Refund 

Tuition, room rent, and meal plan charges, less any unpaid scheduled cash 
payment by the student, will be refunded based upon the number of weeks of 
enrollment, according to federal regulations. After 60 percent of the semester has 
ended, no refund will be made other than unused board. The percentage of 
charges refunded is calculated by the number of weeks remaining in the semester, 
rounded down to the nearest 10%. The semester is 16 academic weeks long, 
beginning on the first day of classes. A week is a period of 7 days, during which 
at least one day is devoted to class, examinations, or preparation for examinations. 
Only full weeks are considered as part of the period remaining. Thus: 

If withdrawal Refund this percentage of tuition, room 

occurs within: rent, and meal plan charges, less any unpaid 

scheduled cash payment due from the student: 

Week 1 90% 

Week 2 80% 

Week 3 80% 

Week 4 70% 

Week 5 60% 

Week 6 60% 

Week 7 50% 

Week 8 50% 

Week 9 40% 

Week 10 and after 0% 

Federal Refund Calculation 

Refundable charges under federal rule 668.22(d) are unearned tuition and unused 
board. Room rentals are not refundable after classes begin, since cancellation of room 
rents must occur prior to the opening of classes in order for rents to be refunded. 



If withdrawal 


Refund this percentage of 


occurs within: 


tuition plus unused board. 


1 week 


Tuition less deposit 


2 weeks 


90% 


4 weeks 


50% 


8 weeks 


25% 



25 



Distribution Requirements 

After determining total refund amount, the refund is applied first to financial 
aid programs and then any remaining funds are refunded to the student. Aid 
programs are reimbursed, up to the full amount disbursed to the student's account 
from each, in the following precise order: 

Unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans (WFU check to lender) 

Subsidized Federal Stafford Loans (WFU check to lender) 

Federal PLUS Loans (WFU check to lender) 

Federal Perkins Loans 

Federal Pell Grants 

Federal SEOG Grants 

Other Title 4 aid (i.e., NCSIG, etc.) 

If any amount of the calculated refund amount remains after federal Title 4 aid 
program refund requirements are satisfied, it will be paid into Wake Forest aid 
programs, up to the amount disbursed to the student for each. The order in which 
each Wake Forest program of aid is refunded will be determined on a case by case 
basis by the financial aid office, with the guiding principle being to refund to those 
University accounts most likely to be used by other students in future terms. 

If any amount of the calculated refund amount remains after Wake Forest aid 
program refund requirements are satisfied, it will be paid to satisfy any specific federal 
or private program requirements; if no such requirements exist, the remaining portion 
will be paid to the student. 

Questions should be directed to student accounts in the Office of Financial and 
Accounting Services. 




26 



Housing 

All unmarried first-year students are required to live in the residence halls, except (1) 
when permission is given by the associate vice president /dean of student services for 
the student to live with parents or a relative in the Winston-Salem area; (2) by special 
arrangement when space is not available on campus; (3) the student is admitted as a day 
student; or (4) if the student has lost residence hall space because of a Residence Halls 
Agreement violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year and part-time students are 
ineligible for campus housing except when permitted to do so by the office of residence 
life and housing. Married students are not permitted to live within the residence halls. 
Residence halls are supervised by the director of residence life and housing, associate 
and assistant directors of residence life and housing, residence life coordinators, and 
graduate student hall directors. 

The charges for residence hall rooms for 1998-99 will range from approximately 
$2,900 per year for a triple room to $3,600 for an apartment single room. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy includes a fall semester beginning in late August and ending before Christ- 
mas, a spring semester beginning in January and ending in May, and two five-week 
summer sessions. Semesters usually last fifteen weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 



A five-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registration for the 
fall semester. An academic adviser and an upperclass student provide guidance during 
and between registration periods throughout the student's first and second years. 
Advisers meet with students both individually and in small groups. Students are 
encouraged to take the initiative in arranging additional meetings at any time they feel a 
need for advice or other assistance. The adviser suggests and approves courses of 
instruction until the student declares a major(s) in a field of study toward the end of the 
second year. At that time, a new adviser is assigned from the department or departments 
concerned. 

Registration 

A registration period for all students in the College and the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registration 
involves (1) payment of all tuition and fees in full to the Office of Financial and 
Accounting Services, (2) obtaining a summary of prior record from the registrar, (3) 
consultation with the academic adviser, and (4) sectioning into courses. Part of the process 
is accomplished in advance through preregistration. 



27 



Classification 



Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calculated in 
terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the Wayne Calloway School of Business 
and Accountancy have a value of four credits, but may vary from one credit to five. The 
normal load for a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with a maximum of 
twenty permitted on registration day. A student wishing to register for more than twenty 
credits per semester must seek the permission of the academic adviser and the appropriate 
dean after registration day. Non-business or non-accounting majors wishing to take 
courses in the Calloway School must have met the specific courses's prerequisites and 
have permission of the instructor. Enrollment in the course is subject to space availability. 

Twelve credits per semester constitute minimum full-time registration. (Recipients of 
North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day of classes for 
at least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, grants from state 
government, and other governmental aid must meet the guidelines of the appropriate 
agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve credits without specific 
permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to register as a part-time student. A 
student who feels that he or she has valid and compelling reasons to register for more 
than twenty credits per semester must seek permission of the adviser and the appro- 
priate dean after registration. Only if both the adviser and the dean agree that the 
proposed course load is needed and in the best interest of the student will permission 
be granted. 

A full-time student in the fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student in the 
spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part-time status 
within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is not eligible for a tuition 
refund. 

The requirements for classification after the first year are as follows: sophomore — the 
removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of no fewer than 29 credits toward 
a degree, with a irtiriimum of 58 grade points; junior — the completion of no fewer than 60 
credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 120 grade points; senior — no fewer than 108 
credits toward a degree, with a rninirnurn of 216 grade points. 

Class Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the student, who is 
expected to attend classes regularly and punctually. A vital aspect of the residential college 
experience is attendance in the classroom; its value cannot be measured by testing 
procedures alone. Students are considered sufficiently mature to appreciate the necessity 
of regular attendance, to accept this personal responsibility, to demonstrate the self- 
discipline essential for such performance, and to recognize and accept the consequences of 
failure to attend. Students who cause their work or that of the class to suffer because of 
absence or lateness may be referred by the instructor to the dean of the College or to the dean 
of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy for suitable action. Any 



28 



student who does not attend classes regularly or who demonstrates other evidence of 
academic irresponsibility is subject to such disciplinary action as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs may prescribe, including immediate suspension from the College or from 
the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

The Office of the Dean of the College maintains a list of students who have missed class 
while acting as duly authorized representatives of the College. Such absences are consid- 
ered excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon request. The 
instructor determines whether work missed may be made up. For policies pertaining to 
absences resulting from illness, please see the statement on the Student Health Service and 
class excuses in the Student Handbook. 



Auditing Courses 



When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others may 
request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No additional charge 
is made to full-time students in the College or the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy; for others the fee is $25 per credit. Permission of the appropriate dean, as well 
as that of the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to attendance regulations and to 
other conditions imposed by the instructor. Although an auditor receives no credit, a 
notation of audit is made on the final grade report and entered on the record of regularly 
enrolled students who have met the instructor's requirements. In no case may anyone 
register for an audit course before the first meeting of the class. An audit course may not be 
changed to a credit course, and a credit course may not be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in the calendar 
in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course before this date must 
obtain the necessary form from the registrar and confer with his or her academic adviser. 
After this date, a student who wishes to drop a course must consult his or her academic 
adviser, the course instructor, and the dean of the College or the dean of the Wayne 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, as appropriate. If the dean approves the 
request, he or she authorizes the student to discontinue the course. Except in cases of 
emergency, the grade in the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to such penalties as the Committee on 
Academic Affairs of the faculty may impose. 

Withdrawal from the College 



A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the Wayne Calloway 
School of Business and Accountancy must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. 
With the approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy, no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the 



29 



student's standing in courses at the time of the withdrawal may be taken into consideration 
when readmission is sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing grades may be 
assigned in all courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory work. A student who 
leaves the College or the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy without 
officially withdrawing is assigned failing grades in all current courses, and the unofficial 
withdrawal is recorded. 

For those students who are members of the Class of 2000 and thereafter, withdrawal 
from the College or the Calloway School cannot be finalized until ThinkPads, printers, 
connecting cables, WFU ID cards, residence hall keys (if applicable) and post office box 
keys, along with any other pertinent University property items, have been turned in to 
the appropriate offices. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are con- 
ducted in accordance with the honor system adopted by the student body and approved 
by the faculty. Under it, the student is expected to refrain from unfairness in any form and 
to report to the Honor Council any student whom he or she knows to be cheating. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit, there are 12 final and two conditional 
grades: A (exceptionally high achievemen t), A-, B+, B (superior), B-, C+, C (satisfactory), C-, D+, 
D (passing but unsatisfactory), D-, E (conditional failure), F (failure), and I (incomplete). 

Grade ofE. The grade of E entitles the student to reexamination at any regular examination 
period within a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A permit for reexamination 
must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no grade higher than D may be assigned 
as a result of reexamination. A student who does not remove a conditional failure by 
reexamination must repeat the course to obtain credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who has received a grade of E in the 
previous semester may apply to the registrar for reexamination thirty days after the 
opening of the final semester but no later than thirty days before its close. All conditions, 
including the grade of E, must be removed no later than thirty days before the end of the 
term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate who has a condition after that 
date is dropped from the list of candidates. A candidate who receives a grade of E in the final 
semester or term of the graduation year is not allowed reexamination before the next 
examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student fails to complete the work 
of a course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work recorded as I is not 
completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her next semester, the grade 
automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the final grade to the registrar within 
forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 

Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic aver- 
ages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: 



30 



for each credit of A 4.00 points 

for each credit of A- 3.67 points 

for each credit of B+ 3.33 points 

for each credit of B 3.00 points 

for each credit of B- 2.67 points 

for each credit of C+ 2.33 points 

for each credit of C 2.00 points 

for each credit of C- 1 .67 points 

for each credit of D+ 1.33 points 

for each credit of D 1.00 points 

for each credit of D- 0.67 points 

for each grade of E or F no points 
Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas of 
competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the option, 
under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a pass / fail basis rather than for a letter 
grade. Courses taken under the pass /fail option yield full credit when satisfactorily 
completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed in the grade-point average. 
In no case may a student change from grade to pass / fail mode, or from pass / fail to grade 
mode, after the last day to add a course, listed in the calendar at the front of this bulletin. 
A student may count toward the degree no more than twenty-four credits taken on a 
pass / fail basis. First- and second-year students are not eligible to elect the pass / fail mode, 
but may enroll for courses offered only on a pass / fail basis. Third- and fourth-year students 
may elect as many as sixteen credits on a pass/ fail basis, but no more than five credits in a 
given semester. Courses used to fulfill basic, divisional, major, or minor requirements may 
not be taken on a pass /fail basis unless they are offered only on that basis. Courses in the 
major(s) not used for satisfying major requirements may be taken on a pass / fail basis if the 
department of the major does not specify otherwise. 

No courses in the Calloway School can be taken pass /fail except for Business 100, 
which is open only to sophomores and juniors and which requires Accounting 111 as 
a corequisite or prerequisite 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 



A midterm report and a final report of grades are issued to students by the registrar in the 
fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each summer term. 

Transcripts of the permanent educational record will be issued to students upon 
written request unless there are unpaid financial obligations to the College or Univer- 
sity, or other unresolved issues. Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the 
registrar, but only on the written authorization of the student and payment of $4 per 
transcript. 



31 



Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes all full- 
time students in the College and the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy who have a grade-point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who 
have earned no grade below C during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 

Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system and are based entirely 
on grades earned in Wake Forest courses. A degree candidate with a cumulative average 
of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction summa cum 
laude. A candidate with a cumulative average of not less than 3.60 for all courses attempted 
is graduated with the distinction magna cum laude. A candidate with a cumulative average 
of not less than 3.40 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction cum 
laude. Details are available in the Office of the Registrar. 

Repetition of Courses 

A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C or higher. 
A student may, however, repeat at Wake Forest a Wake Forest course for which he or she 
has received a grade of C-, D+, D, D-, or F. In this case, all grades received will be shown 
on the transcript, but the course may be counted only one time for credit. If a student fails 
a course previously passed, the credit originally earned will not be lost. For purposes of 
determining the grade-point average, a course will be considered as attempted only once, 
and the grade points assigned will reflect the highest grade received. These provisions do 
not apply to any course for which the student has received the grade of F in consequence 
of an honor violation. 

Probation 

Any student who is placed on probation because of honor code or conduct code violations 
may be placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on Academic Affairs 
imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time suspend or place on 
probation any student who has given evidence of academic irresponsibility, as, for 
example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete papers, examinations, or other 
work on time. 

If poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over which the student 
clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student may, after consultation 
with one of the academic deans, petition the Committee on Academic Affairs for further 
consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit exceptions to the foregoing eligibility requirements, the 
Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as convictions for 



32 



violations of the College honor code or social conduct code, violations of the law, and any 
other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor code is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and the 
student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any reason may 
not be initiated into any fraternity or sorority until the end of their probationary period. 

Under the law, the University has the right to inform parents of dependent students and 
certain other qualified individuals of the contents of educational records. 



Requirements for Continuation in the College 



Whether a student is academically eligible to continue is determined by the number 
of course credits passed and the grade-point average. The number of credits passed 
is the sum of the credits transferred from other institutions and the credits earned in 
the undergraduate schools of the University. The grade-point average is computed 
only on work attempted in the undergraduate schools of the University and excludes 
both non-credit and pass /fail courses. 

Students are expected to make reasonable and systematic progress toward the 
accomplishment of their degree programs. To be eligible to continue in the College, 
students must maintain 



credits passed: 


a minimum cum. GPA of: 


1-36 


1.45 


37-72 


1.60 


73-108 


1.75 


109 and above 


1.90 



Students are responsible for knowing their academic standing at all times. Any 
student whose GPA falls below the required minimum shall have a grace period of one 
semester to raise the average to the required level. Students also have the option of 
attending summer school at Wake Forest in an effort to raise the average. 

The Committee on Academic Affairs will suspend students who earn 8 or fewer 
grade points in any given semester in courses other than Education 353; military science 
courses; Music 111-121 (ensemble courses); Dance 120-129 and 131; and elective 100- 
level courses in health and exercise science. In cases where failure was due to circum- 
stances beyond the students' control, they may appeal to the Committee for an 
exception. 

Any student who is in academic difficulty is urged to seek advice and counsel from 
his or her academic adviser, from the Office of the Dean of the College, from the 
Learning Assistance Center, and from the University Counseling Center. 

Because the basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student 
to various fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major 
subject, students are expected to take as many of the basic and divisional courses as is 
feasible each semester. As many of the requirements as possible should be taken in the 
first two years in the College. 



33 



A student who has or develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the director 
of the Student Health Service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student 
or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 



Requirements for Readmission . 



The Committee on Academic Affairs oversees the readmission of former students. In 
making a decision on whether to readmit, the Committee considers both the academic and 
non-academic records of the student. Students who have been ineligible to continue for 
academic reasons must present to the Committee a list of steps they plan to take to raise their 
academic standing to acceptable standards. Non-academic grounds for denial may include 
convictions for violations of the honor system or the social conduct code, for violations of 
the law, and other behavior showing disrespect for the rights of others. 

Summer Study 

In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit are 
described in the bulletin of the summer session. 

In order to be eligible to take summer courses at another college or university, the student 
must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0, and must obtain advance 
approval of the head of the department concerned, the registrar, and in some cases, the 
Office of the Dean of Wake Forest College or the dean of the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy. Courses taken elsewhere on the semester-hour plan are 
computed as transfer credit at 1.125 credits for each approved semester hour. If a student 
plans to seek approval for transfer courses after completion of the sophomore year, 
such courses must be taken in an approved four-year institution. 

Courses taken outside the U.S. require, in addition, prior approval from the Office of 
International Studies. Students must obtain a transfer of credit form from the Office of 
International Studies. 

Transfer Credit 

All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the registrar of 
Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for work to be 
undertaken elsewhere must have a cumulative grade-point average of no less than 2.0 and 
must obtain faculty approval in advance. For enrolled Wake Forest students, transfer 
work can be accepted only from approved four-year institutions. In order to be 
accepted for transfer credit, the grade in any course must be C or better. 

Students who wish to receive academic credit for courses taken outside the U.S. need to 
obtain prior approval from the Office of International Studies and then faculty approval. 
The Approval Form for Study Outside the United States is available in the Office of 
International Studies. 



34 

SCHOLARSHIPS AND LOANS 



Any student regularly admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates 
financial need will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 
By regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by 
the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at P.O. Box 7246 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109- 
7246. Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to 
students enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for financial 
aid, the applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been accepted for 
admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and federal scholar- 
ship, loan, and work funds. Full-time students are eligible to apply for institutional 
funds. Half-time and part-time students are eligible to apply for federal funds. 

The University offers a number of scholarships based upon merit. Those with a stipend 
based upon tuition will increase as tuition increases; those with a dollar stipend remain 
fixed for the four years of enrollment. 

Additional scholarship assistance not listed herein is offered to student-athletes 
through the Department of Athletics. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must file an 
annual financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing the 
standard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid determines 
aid awards, and aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the Office of 
Financial and Accounting Services. The calculation of need, and therefore the amount 
of an award, may vary from year to year. The Committee on Scholarships and Student 
Aid reserves the right to revoke financial aid for unsatisfactory academic achievement, for 
violation of University regulations including its honor code, or for violation of federal, 
state, or local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must remain enrolled on 
a normal full-time basis and be in good standing, making satisfactory progress toward a 
degree. The Committee does not award institutional scholarships to students earning less 
than a 2.0 grade average on all work attempted at Wake Forest, nor is scholarship aid 
awarded for summer school. Need-based scholarship support is extended for a maxi- 
mum of eight semesters, prorated for transfer students. 



Scholarships 



The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each year to up to five extraordinarily capable 
men and women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a 
grant from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, these 
scholarships cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an allowance for 
books and personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each summer for travel 
or study projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The Reynolds Scholarships are 
awarded without regard to financial need and will be renewed annually through the 
recipient's fourth year of college, subject to satisfactory performance. A separate applica- 
tion is required by December 1. 



35 



The Graylyn Scholarship provides in alternate years one full tuition, room, and board 
renewable scholarship to a student who applies for the Reynolds or Carswell Scholarship 
and who possesses extraordinary academic and leadership skills. The Graylyn Scholar- 
ship is provided by the Graylyn International Conference Center in support of under- 
graduate excellence. The fund also provides for leadership awards to the medical, law and 
business schools. 

The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of Yancey County, 
N.C., is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstanding qualities of intellectual 
promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value equivalent to annual tuition and 
provides summer grant opportunities to encourage individual study projects. Awarded 
through the Reynolds and Carswell scholarship applications. 

The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards in alternate years a renewable 
full-tuition academic scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leader- 
ship and aptitude who intends to pursue a premedical course of study. Awarded 
through the Reynolds and Carswell scholarship applications. 

The Guy T. Carswell Scholarships, made possible by and established in honor of the late 
Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, N.C., have an annual value 
ranging from a minimum stipend of $8,000 to a maximum stipend of full demonstrated 
need. Each scholar may apply for at least one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel 
and study projects of the student's design. A Carswell scholar must be a student applying 
to the College who possesses outstanding qualities of intellect and leadership. Up to 
thirty scholars are selected annually. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Thomas E. and Ruth Mullen Scholars of the Upperclass Carszvell Scholarship program 
are chosen among outstanding undergraduates who have a minimum of one year of 
academic work at Wake Forest. 

The Presidential Scholarships for Distinguished Achievement, established by the University's 
alumni/ ae, award twenty renewable $8,000 scholarships on the basis of exceptional 
talent and leadership. Candidates must be students who will enrich and add to the 
diversity of life at Wake Forest through their special talents in the areas of the fine arts 
(including music, art, theater, dance, film, and other arts), debate and public speaking, 
writing, leadership, public service, and entrepreneurial achievement. A separate applica- 
tion must be submitted by December 15. 

The Joseph Gordon and Wake Forest Black Student Scholarships, established by endowment 
from the University's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation, recognize the outstanding achievements of black students and are awarded 
each year to entering first-year students who demonstrate academic promise and 
leadership potential. This program provides seven full-tuition scholarships. All scholar- 
ships are renewable annually through the recipient's fourth year based upon a suitable 
academic and honor record. Awards are made without regard to financial need. A 
separate application is required by January 15. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $8,000 per year, are awarded to 
seventeen entering first-year students. To be eligible, a student must be an active member 
of a church affiliated with the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina or the General 
Baptist State Convention of North Carolina and must be likely to make a significant 
contribution to church and society. A separate application is required by December 15. 



36 



Wake Forest Honor Scholarships provide an annual renewable grant of $5,000 to students 
selected from those who apply for the Reynolds or Carswell Scholarships and who 
demonstrate exceptional academic ability and leadership. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships, made possible by the late Colonel George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, N.C., for residents of North Carolina or children of alumni /ae 
living in other states with preference given to residents of Davidson County, have an 
annual value of up to full demonstrated need. Recipients must demonstrate need as well 
as academic promise. A separate application is due by January 15. 

The Robert P. and Dorothy Caldwell Scholarships, given by family and friends of Robert P. 
and Dorothy Caldwell, provide up to three scholarships annually on the basis of outstand- 
ing academic achievement, demonstrated leadership ability, record of community service, 
and a commitment to helping others. A portion of these funds gives preference to students 
from Gaston and Catawba (N.C.) counties who need assistance in order to attend Wake 
Forest. The student must apply for the merit-based Caldwell Scholarship through the 
Reynolds and Caldwell scholarships applications. 

The Holding Scholarship, provided by a gift from the Robert P. Holding Foundation in 
memory of Mr. Holding, a member of the Class of 1916, offers one full tuition renewable 
scholarship in alternate years to a student of exceptional leadership and academic promise, 
who is in residence at least one year in North Carolina. The student must complete an 
application for either the Nancy Susan Reynolds or Carswell Scholarship. 

The Junius C. and Eliza P. Brown Scholarships are designed to recognize excellence among 
North Carolina students demonstrating financial need in order to attend Wake Forest. 
Preference for selection is given first to students from the Madison area of Rockingham 
County, second to students from the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, and third to 
other applicants from Rockingham County. A separate application is due by January 15. 

National Achievement Scholarships are awarded to four finalists in the achievement 
scholarship program. The minimum of $3,000 ($750 annually for four years) will extend up 
to $2,000 annually depending on need. Students must select Wake Forest as their first- 
choice college in the N ASC program; recipients are chosen by the Scholarship Committee, 
usually by April 1. 

National Merit Scholarships are awarded to four finalists in the merit scholarship program. 
The minimum award of $3,000 ($750 annually for four years) will extend up to $2,000 
annually depending on need. Students must note Wake Forest as their first-choice college 
in the NMSC testing program; recipients are chosen by the Scholarship Committee, usually 
by April 1. 

For all the following scholarships, there is no separate application required except 
where noted. Students who complete the Financial Aid PROFILE of the College 
Scholarship Service will be considered for appropriate scholarships. 

The Page W. Acree Humanities in Science Scholarship Fund was established to provide 
support for students majoring in chemistry, physics, biology, or mathematics /computer 
science, who have career objectives in medicine or science-related fields that require 
human service, and who wish to take unrequired academic work in the humanities. 
A separate application to the dean of the College is required. 



37 



The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship, donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to a first- 
year student from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemistry. The 
scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles I. and Louise Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may be 
interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Alumni and General Scholarship Fund provides assistance to students at the 
discretion of the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. 

The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) Scholarships are awarded for aca- 
demic and personal achievement. These four-, three-, and two-year scholarships annually 
pay: (1 ) $1 6,000 for tuition; (2) a flat rate for texts, equipment, and supplies (presently $450) 
and (3) a subsistence allowance of up to $1,500 ($150 per month for the months spent in 
school). All benefits are tax-free. Recipients must enroll and fully participate in Army 
ROTC. Four-year AROTC scholarships are applied for during the latter part of the junior 
or the early part of the senior year of high school. Two- and three-year AROTC 
scholarships are applied for during the sophomore and freshman years, respectively, 
through the Department of Military Science. 

The Arthur Andersen Accounting Leadership Award is awarded through the accounting 
faculty to an accounting major of at least junior standing who has demonstrated 
excellence in the areas of academic performance, leadership, civic/ community responsi- 
bility, and who is either enrolled in the Master of Science in Accountancy program or 
planning to apply for admission to the program. 

The Teresa Mae Arnold Scholarship is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student 
enrolled in Wake Forest College. 

The Camillo Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made available, 
usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. Well-qualified 
students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested persons should 
apply to the Office of the Provost.) 

The Alice and Harry Baird Endowment Fund for Advanced Study in Religion, established 
by Susan Marie Smith of Anchorage, Alaska, in honor of her grandparents, provides 
scholarships for students attending the Divinity School of Wake Forest. Until the 
Divinity School is established, income from the fund will be used to provide scholarships 
for undergraduate students either majoring in religion or enrolled in at least two religion 
courses beyond the introductory level per academic year, or for a graduate student in the 
Department of Religion. 

The Baker-Martin Scholarship Fund, established by Jerry H. Baker and Cassandra M. 
Baker of Marietta, GA, provides scholarships on the basis of need for undergraduate 
students attending Wake Forest with the following qualifications: (1) who have 
earned their high school diploma from a high school located in North Carolina; and 
(2) whose parents (one or both) are currently employed in private or public education 
or who are employees of the government. Preference will be given to students whose 
residence is located in the counties of Cabarrus or Nash. 



38 



The Hubbard and Lucy Ball Scholarship Fund, established by Robert T. Ball of Surprise, 
Ariz., is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Donald Alan Baur Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of leadership, 
dedication, competitiveness, and citizenship, with preference given to members of Delta 
Nu Chapter, Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The Beach Scholarship, established in memory of the Reverend Benjamin Beach, provides 
funding for the Poteat Scholarship winner from the congressional district encompassing 
Caldwell County, N.C. 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship Fund, donated by Lydia Beavers in 
memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leadership, good 
citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The James Wallace Beavers Scholarship Fund, established by Barbara J. Beavers, PhD of 
Atlanta, Ga.; Olive Beavers Jordan of Greensboro; and Walter L. Beavers of Greens- 
boro, provides a scholarship to entering freshmen, and may be renewed for three 
years of undergraduate study. 

The Becton Family Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
financial need to a premedical student. Preference is given to students from Augusta, Ga., 
and secondly to other students from Georgia. 

The J. Irvin Biggs Scholarship is awarded to needy and deserving undergraduates, with 
preference given to students from Lumberton or Robeson County, N.C. 

The Charles Spurgeon and Inez Black Scholarship provides one annual scholarship to that 
chemistry major having the second highest academic record in the given year. 

The Peter Bondy Scholarship for study abroad is available through application with 
the Office of International Studies. 

The Robert C. Bridgerjr. Scholarship, donated by George R. Bridger in honor of his father, 
is made to a senior major in the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 
Selection of the recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial need, 
with preference given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North Carolina. 

The William D. Brigman Scholarship Fund is awarded to a student in the Wayne 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy on the basis of academic ability and 
outstanding leadership potential. 

The H. Grady Britt Scholarship was created under the will of H. Grady Britt to benefit 
students in the Department of Biology. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a first-year or upperclass student with 
preference given to students from St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte. 

The Gov. J. Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of 
Governor, Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, Alice W. 
Broughton, by the Broughton family of Raleigh, N.C, awards one scholarship annually 
to a North Carolina student on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. Bryan, 
dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full-tuition 
scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who demonstrates 
financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work in the education 
field for a minimum of five years following graduation or must repay the scholarship to 
the University. 



39 



The Joseph M. Bryan Sr. Scholarship is awarded to undergraduates in the form of both 
athletic and general scholarships. 

The Jack Buchanan Scholarship is awarded on the basis of financial need and academic 
ability, with preference given to students from western North Carolina planning a 
business major. 

The Lib andjoyner Burns Scholarship is awarded on the basis of both ability and need, with 
preference given first to students having a physical handicap and second to students from 
Forsyth or Guilford County, N.C. 

The D. Wayne Calloioay Scholarship Fund provides scholarships for students attending 
the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy Management Program for 
liberal arts majors. 

The John Douglas Cannon Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
need to freshmen students, with preference to a student from Rock Hill, South 
Carolina. 

The James Lee Carver Memorial Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her 
children, James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver, in memory of her husband, 
James Lee Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need for 
financial assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage in 
Oxford, N.C. 

The J. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student who 
demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evidence of need, 
for an approximate annual value of $600. 

The Neal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established by Mrs. June Booth of Charlotte 
in memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting Christian ideals 
and good academic achievement. 

The W.H. and Collie Anne Coughlin Clark Scholarship Fund, established by W.H. and 
Callie Anne Coughlin Clark of Hinsdale, 111., provides assistance to undergraduate 
students, with preference to needy students. 

Tlxe Cobb Foundation Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and financial 
need, with preference given first to students from Oxford Orphanage or other children's 
homes and second to students from Granville or Vance counties, N.C. 

The Wake Forest College Scholarships are available to first-year and upperclass students 
presenting satisfactory academic records and evidence of need. 

The William and Susan Collins Scholarship Fund, established by William A. and Susan 
A. Collins of Collinsville, Virginia, provides awards to students from the Common- 
wealth of Virginia, with preference to students from certain counties and cities in 
southwest Virginia. 

The Howard F. and Ruby C. Costello Scholarship Fund was created under the will of Ruby 
C. Costello to benefit financially needy students. 

The William Henry Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established by the 
Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte in honor of its pastor. The scholarship is valued 
at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina Baptist ministerial student or 
students based upon merit or need. 



40 



TheO.B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donatedbyhouiseT. Crowell of Hendersonville, 
N.C., in memory of her husband, O. B. Crowell, is awarded on the basis of character, need, 
and promise. 

The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin Culler, is 
awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership potential, with 
preference given to students from High Point, N.C. 

The Nathan D. Dail/Poteat Scholarship, established by Robert L. and Barbara D. 
Whiteman of Raleigh, N.C. to supplement the William Louis Poteat Scholarship 
program, provides scholarships to undergraduate students and is awarded by way of 
the Poteat Scholarship selection. 

The Egbert L. Davis Jr. Scholarsh ip, provided by the Davis family in honor of Egbert L. Davis 
Jr., noted Wake Forest alumnus and benefactor, provides merit and need assistance to one 
or more students demonstrating outstanding academic performance, diligence, integrity, 
character, leadership, and reasonable athletic competence. Awards are renewable on the 
basis of a B average, exemplary personal conduct, and participation in the religious life of 
the University. 

The Eleanor Lay field Davis Art Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student with 
interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended by the chair of the art 
department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield Davis. 

The Mrs. Paul Price Davis Scholarship Fund was established by Jessie Leigh Davis Boney 
and Betty Davis Britt to assist North Carolina students. Preference is given to students who 
have been residents of Baptist Children's Homes of North Carolina. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of the former 
Piedmont Aviation Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chair, is awarded to a senior 
business major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for business 
leadership. 

The Deal Family Scholarship provides funding for the Carswell Scholarship program, 
with preference first to students from Catawba, Caldwell, Burke, and Alexander 
counties, N.C; second to other North Carolinians; and third to other students. 

The Otis William Deese Presidential Scholarship is awarded as a supplement to the 
Presidential Scholarships for Distinguished Achievement program to undergraduate 
students with demonstrated financial need. 

The Justus and Elizabeth S. Drake Scholarship is awarded to an English major who 
demonstrates academic ability and financial need, upon the recommendation of the chair 
of the English department. 

The Fred H. Duvall Scholarship provides funds for needy students. 

The Ernst and Young International Scholarship is awarded through the Wayne Calloway 
School of Business and Accountancy to an accounting student or rising accounting 
student in the Master of Science in Accountancy program. 

The Douglas Esherick Aivard Fund is used annually for a member of the Sigma Chi 
fraternity. 

The Theodore and Freda Fisher Scholarship, donated by Emile T. Fisher in honor of his 
parents, is awarded to North Carolina students with demonstrated financial need and with 
grade point averages in the C and low B categories. 



41 



The Bobbie Fletcher Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
uncommon leadership qualities to a female student from North Carolina. Recipients will 
possess the qualities of kindness, thoughtfulness, unselfishness, patience, and determina- 
tion which distinguished Bobbie Fletcher. Preference will be given to students demonstrat- 
ing financial need. 

The Lecausey P. and Tula H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Singleton 
of Raleigh, in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, is available to a first-year student, 
sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West Chowan Baptist Association of North 
Carolina, with preference given to Bertie County students, on the basis of need and ability. 
Residents of the Roanoke Association may be considered for the scholarship. 

The Wallace G. Freemon Memorial Scholarship is awarded to needy premedical students in 
Wake Forest College. 

The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. Frueauf f 
Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. Amounts vary 
according to need. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee Fulton, 
is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic ability, and 
need. 

The James Walker Fulton Jr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need and merit, with 
preference to students who meet one or more of the following conditions: North 
Carolina resident, evangelical Christian, member of Kappa Alpha, or varsity basketball 
player. 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Anson, Union, and Wake counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean H. 
Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a first-year student or upperclass- 
man with preference given to a premedical student. The award shall be made on the basis 
of academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall be known as Lewis Reed 
Gaskin scholars. 

The Daniel Eugene and Beulah B. Gatewood Scholarship, given by Beulah B. Gatewood in 
honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting major based on 
academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Roy all Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, and high 
ideals. Preference is given to graduating seniors from Youngs ville, N.C. 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband, James 
W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given to students 
from Montgomery and Prince Georges counties, Md. 

The Samuel T. Gladding Scholarship Fund for Leadership provides scholarships for 
students on the basis of merit, demonstrated leadership ability, and community 
service. Preference is given to students from Alabama. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from Halifax 
County, N.C. 



42 



The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from Miriam 
M . Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference given to a student 
with an interest in literature, second preference to a student with an interest in 
history, and third preference to a student enrolled in the premedical program. 

The George Washington Greene Memorial Scholarship Fund may provide an award to 
the rising senior in Delta Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa who has the highest academic 
average, upon the recommendation of the chairman of Delta Chapter of Phi Beta 
Kappa. 

The Stanley McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year to a 
needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Va. 

The David Hadley /Worrell House Scholarship Fund provides a scholarship to an 
undergraduate student who otherwise qualifies for the Worrell House program, but 
who would incur excessive financial sacrifices without the scholarship. 

The John Locksley Hall Scholarship Fund provides scholarships on the basis of need to 
North Carolinians interested in business careers. Preference is given to intercollegiate 
athletes. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of Everett C. Snyder of Wake 
Forest, N.C., in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate students from the Mills 
Home in Thomasville, N.C. 

The George G. and Georgine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of varying 
stipends annually to students with high academic potential and financial need, with 
preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Henri) Russell and Clara Stephenson Harris Scholarship Fund, established by Elizabeth 
Harris in memory of her parents, provides a scholarship awarded on the basis of academic 
ability and financial need to a senior business major who plans to pursue a career in 
banking. 

The M. Elizabeth Harris Music Scholarship Fund provides an annual scholarship for a 
music major, with preference given to a student whose primary interest is church music. 
The award is made on the basis of academic ability and financial need. 

The Margaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge Fred H. Hasty in 
memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female undergraduate students 
with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship is renewable if the student 
places in the upper third of her class. 

The Louise Patton Hearn Scholarship for Human Service is awarded to a student who has 
demonstrated exceptional service to improve the well-being of other people and who 
shows interest and potential in leading others to make similar contributions to humanity. 

The Thomas K. Hearn Jr. Scholarship for Excellence in Leadership and Service recog- 
nizes exemplary contributions by a rising senior to the University and the larger 
community. 

The Hixson Fund provides assistance to students studying in the Wake Forest 
London program. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, N.C, in 
memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis of character, 
purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who plan to enter the 



43 



ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, the preference being in 
the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville area recommended by the deacons of 
the First Baptist Church of Reidsville. 

The J. Sam Holbrook Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert D. 
Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, need, 
Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County. 

The Forrest H. Hollifield Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in memory 
of their son, Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with evidence of character 
and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and Rutherford counties, N.C., and 
to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi Fraternity. 

The Murray A. Honeycutt Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need to a male 
student. 

The Hubert Humphrey Studies Abroad Scholarship is awarded on the basis of need and 
merit to undergraduate students participating in the Wake Forest programs in 
London or Venice. 

The Jeanette Wallace Hyde Scholarship, donated by Jeanette Wallace Hyde of Raleigh, is 
awarded on the basis of financial need and academic ability. Preference is given, but not 
limited to, students from Yadkin County. 

The Stanton B. Ingram Scholarship Fund provides assistance to needy students. Prefer- 
ence is given first to students from Alabama, second to students from Mississippi, 
Georgia, Louisiana, Tennessee, or Florida. 

The Japan Foundation Grants for study in Japan are made available through applica- 
tion with the Office of International Studies. 

The H. Broadus Jones Scholarship Fund provides an award to a rising senior student 
showing superior achievement in English and outstanding qualities of character. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of the 
dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising 
senior business major who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 

The Dyeann B. and Henry H. Jordan II Theater Scholarship Fund supports junior and senior 
theater majors. A separate application to the department is required. 

The John Council Joyner Sr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of merit and need to 
a student from North Carolina. 

The J. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL-Carolina 
Telephone Company service region. 

The Senah C. and C.A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to first-year and upperclass 
students on the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard 
to race, religion, sex, or geographical origin. The Committee on Scholarships and 
Student Aid nominates recipients and provides an application to be submitted to the 
Foundation. 

The Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by the Delta Nu Chapter of 
Sigma Chi Fraternity, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference given to 
members of the Sigma Chi Fraternity, upon recommendation of the Kirkpatrick-Howell 
Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 



44 



The Roena B. and Petro Kulynych Scholarship provides aid to students on the basis of 
ability and need with preference first to students from Wilkes County, N.C., and second 
to students from Avery County, N.C. 

The Kutteh Family Scholarship is awarded as a part of the Hankins Scholarship 
program, with strong preference given first to students from Iredell County, and 
second to students from counties contiguous to Iredell County. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established by Charles L. Little, is given to students 
who demonstrate academic ability and financial need. 

The Thomas D. and Betty H. Long Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of need, 
with preference first to students from Person County, N.C. and second to other North 
Carolinians. 

The Lowden Family Scholarship Fund provides scholarships as part of the Hankins 
Scholarship program, with preference first to students from Montgomery County and 
second to students from Anson, Stanley, Davidson, Randolph, Moore, or Richmond 
counties, N.C. 

The Lowe's Food Fund provides scholarships on the basis of merit and demonstrated 
leadership qualities to students in the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy, with preference to students from North Carolina and Virginia. 

The Dr. George C. Mackie Sr. Fund is awarded to a junior or senior premedical student 
on the basis of need and merit. 

The Lex Marsh Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and financial 
need to a student from North Carolina. 

The James Capel Mason Scholarship, established under the will of the Rev. Oscar W. 
McManus of Laurinburg, N.C, provides assistance to worthy students. 

The Burke M. McConnell Management Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace Com- 
munications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy who holds the highest grade-point average for his or her first 
three years at the University. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of character, 
academic standing, and need. 

The Thane Edward McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible by the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available to a 
deserving and qualified music student. Applications must be made to the Department of 
Music. 

The James McDougald Scholarship provides assistance to students first from Robeson 
County and second from Scotland County, N.C, on the basis of leadership and ethics, 
academic preparation, desire, community pride, and financial need. 

The McGladrey & Pullen Scholarship, granted by the public accounting firm, McGladrey 
& Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major designated by the accounting faculty 
on the basis of merit, financial need, and interest in public accounting, and has a value of 
$750. 

The Robert A. and Margaret Pope Mclntyre Scholarship is awarded annually, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 



45 



The Jasper L. Memory Fund provides scholarships to students selected by the 
Department of Education. 

The Robert Lee Middleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of Nash- 
ville, Term., in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of character, purpose, 
intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning to enter the field of 
literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other full-time religious work. 

The Marcus C. Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Marcus C. Miller of Chicago, 111., 
is awarded to freshmen who have demonstrated ability in the innovative use of 
information technology. 

The Mildred Bronson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlanta, 
Ga., is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, competitiveness, and 
citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif ("Bif") 
Myers who died early in his first year at Wake Forest, awards one scholarship to a senior 
from Roswell High School, Roswell, Ga., who best exemplifies the ideals and character- 
istics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recommended by the Roswell High School principal. 

The Charlie and Addie Myers Memorial Scholarship is awarded to preministerial students 
or to students contributing to Christianity. 

The George Tliompson Noel, M.D., Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
academic ability and financial need, with preference given to students from Cabarrus 
County and North Carolina. The Noel Scholarship is renewable for succeeding school 
years, provided the recipient demonstrates continuing need and ranks in the top third of 
his or her class. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
N.C., in memory of his parents, John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are available to 
deserving and promising students needing financial assistance. 

The North Carolina Scholarships axe made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who are 
bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order to attend 
college, for a value up to $1,500 per year. The amount of assistance a student may receive 
depends upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the 
college chosen. 

The Gordon Alexander O'Brien Scholarship Fund, donated by Mrs. Verna O'Brien of 
Naples, Fla., is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to students 
from Rockingham County, N.C. 

The Curtis Eugene Overby Sr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
financial need, and outstanding leadership potential to a North Carolina junior or senior 
majoring in communication, with an interest in broadcasting. Preference is given to 
students from Forsyth, Rockingham, and Caswell counties. 

The Benjamin Wingate Parham Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, N.C, 
in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need and may be 
renewed for succeeding years. 



46 



The H. Franklin Perritt III Memorial Scholarship Fund provides a scholarship of at least 
$1,000 annually to one or more rising sophomores enrolled in the Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps. Selection is based upon outstanding leadership potential. 

The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist Founda- 
tion under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson County, N.C., make 
two or more scholarships available each year in memory of Mr. Pettus and are awarded 
on the basis of merit and need, with preference given to North Carolina Baptist students. 

Presidential Aide Scholarships are awarded through a selection process with the 
Office of the President. 

The Mark Christopher Pruitt Scholarship Fund is awarded to a junior or senior pre- 
medical student on the basis of need and merit. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor of her 
husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to students from 
North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Beulah Lassiter and Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarships, donated by friends of the late 
Kenneth Tyson Raynor, professor of mathematics, are awarded annually by the Depart- 
ments of English and Mathematics on the basis of academic ability to individuals who 
have achieved junior standing. 

The Resident Technology Advisor Scholarships are awarded on a merit basis through 
the Office of Information Services. 

The Oliver D. and Caroline Revell Scholarship is awarded to needy preministerial students 
or needy students entering full-time Christian service. 

The Revelle Family Scholarship provides financial assistance to needy students from 
Northampton and Hertford counties, with second preference to students from other areas 
of northeastern N.C. 

The Leroy and Teresa Robinson Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of financial 
need, with preference first to graduates of East Montgomery High School, second to 
other Montgomery County residents, and third to other North Carolina students. 

The Roy O. Rodzvell Sr. Scholarship, established by Roy O. Rodwell Jr. and Rebecca 
Tarry Rodwell of Durham and by Nancy Rand Rodwell of Chapel Hill, awards one 
scholarship each year, up to the cost of tuition, to an undergraduate student. 
Preference will be given to students who are current residents of North Carolina. 

The George D. Rovere Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship annually to a student 
planning to become an athletic trainer. 

The William Royall Scholarship Fund, given by family and friends of William Royall, 
provides a scholarship award for excellence in classical studies, with preference given to 
students planning to travel abroad to classical sites. Applications must be made to the 
Department of Classical Languages. 

The William Lee Rudd and Ruth Crosby Rudd Scholarship is awarded to worthy and needy 
students majoring in religion. 

The W.D. Sanders Scholarships, in the amount of $750 to $2,000 each, are awarded 
annually for language study in Germany or Austria. Sophomores, juniors, or seniors who 
have completed German 153 or above are eligible. The scholarships are designated, in 
order of priority, for summer language study, semester or year programs with the 



47 



Institute of European Studies (IES), or junior year abroad programs with other institu- 
tions. Applications should be made to the Department of German and Russian. 

The Scales International Studies Fund, established in honor and recognition of Dr. 
James Ralph Scales and his outstanding contributions to international studies, pro- 
vides support for undergraduate study outside the United States. Applications 
should be made to the Office of International Studies. 

The Emily Crandall Shaw Scholarship in Liberal Arts is made through the Departments 
of Art, English, Music, and Theater to a student who best exemplifies a diverse interest 
in literature, art, music, and the theatre. 

The Sara Jo Brownlow Shearer Scholarship is awarded to students specializing in the area 
of learning disabilities. 

Tlie Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin R. 
Shirley, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who has 
debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate program. 

The James F. Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who plans 
a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and interest in the 
ministry. 

The Joseph Pleasant and Marguerite Nutt Sloan Memorial Scholarship, established by 
Patricia Sloan Mize in honor of her parents, is awarded annually to an applied music 
student on the basis of academic ability and need. It has a value of approximately $500. 
Applications must be made to the Department of Music. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated by the Rev. and Mrs. Robert Forest 
Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickory, N.C., in memory of Robert Forest Smith EI, is 
awarded to an entering first-year student who qualifies on the basis of need and 
distinction in high school government. Preference is given to those who plan to enter 
government service, with strong preference given to students exemplifying positive 
Christian principles. It has a value of $1,000. 

The Zachary T. Smith Leadership Scholarships, given by the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation, provide scholarships to needy North Carolinians with outstanding 
evidence of and promise in leadership skills, often to reduce loan expectations for 
recipients. 

The Ann Lewallan Spencer and Lewallan Family Scholarship Fwndprovides scholarships 
for children of alumni /ae on the basis of need. 

Spires Travel Grants provide support for undergraduate study outside of the United 
States. Applications should be made to the Office of International Studies. 

The Gilbert T. Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W. Stephenson in memory of 
her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student from Kirby Township 
or Northampton County, N.C. 

The Sigmund Sternberger Scholarships, donated by the Sigmund Sternberger Foundation, 
are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate students from 
Greensboro and Guilford County. 

The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Business, donated by the Belk Foundation in honor 
of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular interests in retailing 
or marketing and is based on academic merit. 



48 



The Edna and Ethel Stowe Scholarship is awarded to a first-year or upperclass student, 
with preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The J. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Straughan in 
memory of their brother, J. W. Straughan, of Warsaw, N.C., with preference given to 
students from Duplin County, N.C., who are interested in pursuing a medical career 
(especially in the field of family practice), is for those who need financial assistance to 
continue their education. 

The Amos Arthur Swann Scholarship Fund provides scholarships to needy students 
from Sevier County, Tenn., or other Tennessee counties. 

The Ralph Judson Sykes Scholarship Fund provides scholarships to North Carolina 
residents on the basis of need, moral character, and outstanding Christian fellowship. 

The Saddye Stephenson and Benjamin Louis Sykes Scholarship, donated by Charles L. Sykes 
and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is awarded on the basis of 
Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with preference given to 
first-year students from North Carolina. It is renewable. 

The Walter Lowe Tatum Scholarship in Mathematics provides in alternate years a renew- 
able merit scholarship. The stipends of $500 each for the first two years are replaced by 
$5,000 awards in each of the last two years, provided that the Tatum Scholar fulfills the 
expectation to enroll in and maintain a major in mathematics in the Department of 
Mathematics and Computer Science. Given by the late Samuel Tatum, a life trustee from 
Greensboro, and named in honor of his late brother, Dr. Walter Lowe Tatum, the Tatum 
Scholarship is renewable with a minimum 3.00 grade-point average (3.30 in mathematics) 
and an exemplary record of honor and conduct. 

The Augustine John Taylor and Roby Ellis Taylor Accountancy Scholarship is awarded to 
accounting students, with preference given to students whose permanent residence is 
within 50 miles of Winston-Salem. 

The H. Hozvell Taylor Jr. Risk Management Scholarship Fund, established by H. Howell 
Taylor of Denver, Col., is awarded though the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy to students interested in the Risk Management Internship Program. 

The Russell Taylor Scholarship is awarded to a high school senior with a distinguished 
record in citizenship and scholarship. Preference is given to students planning careers in 
the areas of religion or law, students exemplifying positive principles of the Christian 
faith, needy students, and students from Iredell County, N.C. 

The Thomas C. Taylor Scholarship Fund for International Studies provides scholarships 
for accountancy majors studying outside the United States, or studying international 
studies within the United States, on the basis of integrity, compassion, cooperative- 
ness, and an accumulated record of outstanding academic achievement. 

The Teague Scholarship Fund provides scholarships to needy students enrolled in the 
Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy who express an interest in 
entrepreneurism. 

The Lowell and Anne Smith Tillett Scholarship provides scholarships for undergradu- 
ate students studying in eastern Europe, Russia, and other countries in the former 
Soviet Union. The scholarship(s) may be awarded to pay tuition, living expenses, 
travel or other expenses incurred with respect to the foreign study. 



49 



The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor the late 
President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students enrolled in the 
College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 

The Kenneth Monroe Tucker Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic merit, with 
preference given to students from Wilkes, New Hanover, or Brunswick counties, North 
Carolina. It may be renewed provided the recipient's cumulative average is in the upper 
twenty percent of his or her class. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes available at 
least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The Gerald C. Wallace Jr. Scholarship Fund, established by R. Douglas Maclntyre and 
Elizabeth W. Maclntrye of Atlanta, Ga., provides awards to needy students from 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. 

The John W. Ward Jr. Scholarship is awarded on the basis of demonstrated need, with 
preference given to students from Robeson County, N.C. 

The Brian James Watkins Scholarship Fund is awarded on the basis of demonstrated 
leadership ability, community involvement, and character, with preference to stu- 
dents from North Carolina, Mississippi, and Delaware. 

The Watkins-Richardson Scholarship is awarded on the basis of academic ability and 
outstanding leadership potential to students from the southeastern United States. Watkins- 
Richardson Scholarship awards are renewable for succeeding school years, provided the 
recipient ranks in the top third of his or her class and continues to display leadership 
potential. 

The Lettie Pate Wliitehead Scholarships provide support to needy Christian women 
students from the nine Southeastern states. 

The Alexander Hines Whitley Jr. Scholarship is awarded to qualified students selected by 
the Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. 

The A. Tab Williams Scholarship Fund provides scholarships to needy North 
Carolinians. 

The Jesse A. Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams of 
Union County, N.C, give preference to deserving students of Union County. 

The Leonidas Polk Williams Sr. Scholarship Fund was established to provide aid to 
students from Chowan and Camden counties, N.C, on the basis of merit. 

The John G. Williard Scholarship is awarded to middle income students, with preference 
given to students from Davie County, N.C. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, N.C, 
gives preference to needy North Carolina Baptist students interested in the ministry and 
Christian education. Applications must be made to the Departments of Religion or 
Philosophy. 

The Marie Thornton Willis and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by 
James B. Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to needy North 
Carolina Baptist students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson in 
memory of her husband, Charles Littell Wilson, is for a needy student. 



50 



The O. W. Wilson-Yancey County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of 
Yancey County, N.C., are awarded to students from Yancey County who have excellent 
academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Phillip W. Wilson/Peat Manvick Memorial Scholarship, established as a memorial to 
Phillip W. Wilson by his friends, colleagues, and family, is awarded to a senior accoun- 
tancy major who has demonstrated leadership skills, outstanding interpersonal skills, 
and a strong commitment to the community and the accounting profession. The recipient 
must also be in the top fifth of his or her class based on grade-point average within the 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

The William H. and Anne M. Woody Memorial Scholarship is awarded on the basis of 
character, scholastic achievement, and financial need, with preference given to students 
from Person County, N.C., and to students intending careers in medicine, education, or 
ministry. 

The William Luther Wyatt III Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt Jr. of Raleigh, in memory of their son, William Luther Wyatt III, with preference 
given to a male student entering the junior year who has shown an interest and an ability 
in the field of biology, is based on need and ability. 

The Matthew T. Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of mission- 
aries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on the basis of merit 
and need. The applicant must notify the Office of Financial Aid of his or her eligibility to 
be considered for this award. 



Federal Financial Aid Programs 



The federal government, through the Department of Education, sponsors a number of aid 
programs to help pay college costs. Among these programs are Federal Pell Grants, 
Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG), Federal Work-Study 
(FWS), Federal Perkins Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans (including Federal 
Stafford Loans, both subsidized and unsubsidized, and PLUS Loans). 

To receive assistance through these programs, a student must complete the necessary 
applications, meet basic eligibility requirements, and maintain satisfactory academic 
progress, earning a minimum of 12 credits per semester of enrollment with a grade-point 
average at or above the published minimum level for continued enrollment. A copy of the 
full policy on satisfactory academic progress is available upon written request from the 
financial aid office. 

Federal aid programs are described more fully in the Wake Forest University brochure, 
"Need-Based Financial Aid Information," and in the federal publication, "The Student 
Guide," available upon request from the Financial Aid Office and the U.S. Department of 
Education. 



51 



Exchange Scholarships . 



The German Exchange Scholarship, established in 1959 with the Free University of Berlin, 
is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the equivalent, who 
has junior standing by the end of the semester in which application is made, but who need 
not be a German major. It provides 850 German marks per month for ten months, 
remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 300 marks per month for rent. 
(Interested students should communicate with the chair of the Department of German.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the Andes 
in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Burgos in Spain. The Bogota scholarship 
may be awarded to two students for one semester's study each or to one student for two 
semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two years of college Spanish or the 
equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the cost of books, board, and 
accommodations. (Interested students should communicate with Professor Candelas 
Gala in the Department of Romance Languages.) 

The French Exchange Scholarship, established with the University of Burgundy, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship at a 
lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with the chair 
of the Department of Romance Languages.) 

Loans 

The James F. arid Mary Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. The 
amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest rate of 1 
percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the repayment 
period. 

The Bushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds supplied by the 
Bushnell Baptist Church of Fontana Dam, N.C., is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 by C. T. Council of Durham, is for the aid of senior 
students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 by James William Denmark of 
Dudley, N.C., is available to qualified students, with preference given to students from 
North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and $10,000 during the 
entire period of enrollment. 

The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of Wake 
County, N.C., in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 by anonymous friends of the College, is 
limited to students from Duplin County, N.C. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaw Loan Fund, established by the Board of Trustees, is a memorial to 
the former bursar. 



52 



The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh, in 
memory of her sister, Mary Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit of worthy students who 
need financial aid. 

The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, gives preference to applicants from Davidson County, N.C. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, N.C, in 
memory of his first wife, Lucy Shearon Harris, and his second wife, Lucy Jones Harris, is 
for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational advantages to the 
rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who require financial 
assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Hutchins Student Loan Fund, originated by Robert W. Hutchins Jr. on behalf of 
himself and his late wife, Nancy D. Hutchins of Winston-Salem, is in honor of members 
of the Hutchins' family who have attended Wake Forest and is for the benefit of needy 
undergraduate students. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942 by Henry J. Langston of Danville, Va., 
in memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor and the College. 

The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, is for 
worthy students enrolled with the Department of Religion who need financial assistance. 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 by Frank P. Powers of Raleigh, in memory of his 
parents, Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy students, with 
preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J. G. Raby of Tarboro, N.C, 
in memory of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the First Baptist Church of 
Tarboro. 

The James F. Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 by J. F. Slate of Stokes County, N.C, is 
available for ministerial students who have been licensed to preach. 

The Sidney G. Wallace Loan Fund, created under the will of Mrs. Blanche Wallace, is used 
to assist undergraduate students. Preference is given to students studying in a Wake 
Forest-sponsored or approved overseas program. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearly grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (through October 1 in the fall 
and through the tenth day of classes in the spring) and complete a Residency Form 100. 
The student must not have received a bachelor's degree previously. To receive the grant, 
the student must also complete an NCLTG application and return it to the financial aid 
office by a specified deadline. 

Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if they (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to repay 
the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve five years in 
the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 



53 



Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 conces- 
sion per year if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) missionaries of the 
Southern Baptist International Missions Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State Conven- 
tion of North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges or universities 
who are ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 

Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a $150 
concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and they have 
a demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church to 
encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reliability, and 
interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee of the church and 
the Department of Music, for the value of $300. (Interested students should communicate 
with the chair of the Department of Music.) 

The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of J. A. Melke, is available to 
preministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and need, and, 
particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student/Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off-cam- 
pus work, for a recommended maximum of twenty hours per week for full-time students. 
Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should communicate 
with the Office of Financial Aid.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs in the 
Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress are kept 
by this institution on veteran and non- veteran students alike. Progress records are 
furnished to the students, veterans and non- veterans alike, at the end of each scheduled 
school term. 

Outside Assistance 

Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the Financial Aid 
Office if they receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited 
to National Merit or Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service-sponsored 
scholarships; local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. This outside 
assistance will be considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 



54 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 



Students in the College are encouraged to apply to special programs, both on and 
off campus, which correspond to their abilities and interests. These include the 
programs described below and the special degrees, minors, and concentrations 
described on page 59 and beyond. 



Honors Study 



For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is described 
under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the Honors 
Program, students may participate in three or more honors seminars during the first, 
sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with a superior record 
and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete a final directed study 
course. With a superior record in that course and a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work, 
a student may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in the 
College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular discipline. 
The minimum requirement is a grade-point average of 3.0 in all work and 3.3 (or higher 
in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research requirements vary from 
one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open Curricu- 
lum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the framework 
of a liberal arts education but not necessarily fulfilling all basic and divisional require- 
ments for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum, a limited number of 
students are selected by previous record of achievement, high aspirations, ability in one 
or more areas of study, strength of self-expression, and other special talents. The course 
of study for the lower division is designed by the student and his or her adviser. 

Study at Salem College 

For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of exchange 
credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the other. An 
application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the College or the 
dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of 
private instruction, there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade points 
earned at Salem College are evaluated as if they were earned at Wake Forest. 



55 

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES 



Office of International Studies 



The Office of International Studies provides information on all programs in international 
studies. Students interested in studying abroad should visit the office for assistance and 
program information. Any student seeking credit for non-Wake Forest courses taken 
overseas for either the summer, semester, or year is required to schedule an appoint- 
ment with the Office of International Studies for program approval and a course 
approval form. For detailed information on study abroad in a non-Wake Forest 
program see page 58. 

The office also administers the international studies minor. For a full description of the 
minor see page 143. 

International Students 

International students can obtain information and assistance in the Office of International 
Studies. 

Residential Language Centers 



For students prepared to speak French or German on a regular basis with other students 
studying the same language, the University offers residential language centers coordi- 
nated by members of the Romance languages department and the German and Russian 
department. Such students attend regular classes on the campus. Organized social and 
conversational programs are available in all these languages. 

International Studies House 



Students interested in international studies who would like to live with other students 
sharing these interests may apply to live in an International Studies House. Further 
information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For a full description of these 
programs, see page 65 and the various listings under Courses of Instruction. 



56 



Opportunities for Study Abroad 

Wake Forest Programs 

Ecuador (Quito) 

Students who wish to take intermediate (second year) Spanish in an immersion 
setting may apply for Wake Forest's summer program at the Pontificia Universidad 
Catolica del Ecuador in Quito. This six-week program, designed for students with one 
year of college Spanish or the equivalent, offers a 10-credit intensive course in Spanish 
language and the cultures of the Hispanic world. Students who have already taken 
Spanish 153 or any more advanced course in the language are ineligible for this 
program. Further information may be obtained in the Department of Romance 
Languages. 

England (London) 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University' s residential 
center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass aspects of the art, 
theater, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, for example, Art 2320, 
English Art, Hogarth to the Present, and History 2260, History of London, in the course listings 
of those departments.) Each term a different member of the faculty serves as the director 
of the program, which accommodates sixteen students. Further information may be 
obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Italy (Venice) 

Students wishing to spend a semester in Italy may apply to study at Casa Artom, the 
University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. Under the direction of 
various members of the faculty, approximately twenty students per semester focus on the 
heritage and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693, 
Venetian Renaissance Art; Italian 2213, Spoken Italian; Italian 215, Introduction to Italian 
Literature I; Italian 216, Introduction to Italian Literature II; and other courses offered by the 
faculty member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice program are 
required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited scholarship aid is 
available to one or two students each semester to assist with expenses. Further informa- 
tion may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

France (Dijon) 

Students wishing to study in France may apply for a semester's instruction at the 
University of Burgundy. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the 



57 



Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Burgundy by 
student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French is not required, but 
French 220 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain (Salamanca) 

Students wishing to study in Spain may apply for a semester's instruction at the 
University of Salamanca. Under the direction of a faculty residential adviser from the 
Department of Romance Languages, courses are taken at the University of Salamanca by 
student groups of varying levels of preparation. (Students need not major in Spanish, 
but Spanish 220 or its equivalent is required.) 

Institute of European Studies 

Students who wish to spend a semester or year in a German- or Slavic-speaking country 
may apply to programs of study available through the Institute of European Studies. 
Qualified Wake Forest applicants may study during their junior or senior year in Berlin 
or Freiburg, Germany; or Vienna, Austria. Interested students should contact the Depart- 
ment of German and Russian. 

China (Beijing) 

Students who wish to study in China may apply to participate in the Wake Forest/ 
SASASAAS Program in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. Offered in the fall semester, 
the program includes courses in both Chinese language and culture. It is open to students 
with no previous knowledge of Chinese or to those wishing to continue their study of the 
language. Further information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Japan (Hiratsuka) 

For students wishing to study in Japan, Wake Forest offers a fall semester in Tokai 
University, outside Tokyo. Coursework focuses on Japanese language and culture: one 
course is taught by a Wake Forest professor; another course is taught by Japanese faculty 
members, in English, on various aspects of Japanese society; a third course is the Japanese 
language at the appropriate level. No prior knowledge of Japanese is required. Further 
information may be obtained in the Office of International Studies. 

Russia 

One or two students wishing to study individually in Russia can apply to spend a fall 
or spring semester at Moscow State University each year. The requirements are a good 
academic record and the ability to attend and pass classes that are taught entirely in 
Russian. For more information, contact William Hamilton, associate dean of the College. 



58 



Study Abroad in Non-Wake Forest Programs 

Students wishing to study abroad in a non-Wake Forest program must visit the Office of 
International Studies for assistance. The office maintains a sizable collection of material 
on a wide variety of overseas programs. All students planning to study in non-Wake 
Forest programs in other countries for a summer, a semester or a year must obtain 
advance approval for their program from the Office of International Studies. An 
Approval Form for Study Outside the United States, available in the Office of 
International Studies, must be completed once one is accepted into a program. Using 
that form, the office will determine what approvals are required prior to departure, 
and will advise the student in the completion of the required Approval Form. In no 
case may a studen t undertake study elsewhere without completing this process in 
advance to the satisfaction of the Office of International Studies, the Registrar, and the 
academic departments which oversee the granting of credit for each course. A process 
exists so that normally students who successfully complete a full semester in a non- 
Wake Forest program will receive sixteen (16) credits. For further information, 
consult with the Office of International Studies. 

Students may request to have scholarship and financial aid applied to approved non- 
Wake Forest programs. Further information is available in the Office of International 
Studies and the Office of Financial Aid. 




59 

REQUIREMENTS FOR DEGREES 



Degrees Offered 



The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the bachelor of arts and bachelor 
of science degrees. The bachelor of arts degree is conferred with a major in anthropology, 
art history, studio art, chemistry, classical studies, communication, economics, English, 
French, German, Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, 
religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, or theater. The bachelor of science degree is 
conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, computer science, health and exercise 
science, mathematical business, mathematical economics, mathematics, or physics. The 
bachelor of arts degree is available with a major in elementary education or education with 
a state teacher's certificate in social studies. The bachelor of science degree is available with 
a major in education with a state teacher's certificate in science. The bachelor of science 
degree may be conferred in combined curricula in dentistry, engineering, forestry and 
environmental studies, medical technology, and the physician assistant program. 

The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy offers undergraduate 
programs leading to the bachelor of science degree with a major in business, analytical 
finance, or mathematical business; and offers a five-year program of study leading to a 
bachelor of science and a master of science degree with a major in professional accoun- 
tancy. (See page 228 of this bulletin.) 

A student who receives the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree may not 
receive another bachelor's degree from Wake Forest. 

General Requirements 

Students in the College have considerable flexibility in planning their courses of study. 
Except for two semesters of required health and exercise science courses, only three 
specific courses are required, the writing seminar, one in a foreign language, and a first- 
year seminar. To complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field or 
fields, students select courses in each of five divisions of the undergraduate curriculum: 
(1) literature; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; (3) history, religion, and philoso- 
phy; (4) the social and behavioral sciences; and (5) the fine arts. Normally the basic and 
divisional requirements are completed in the first and sophomore years and the require- 
ments in the field or fields of the major are completed in the junior and senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless accepted 
for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of study approved by the department or 
departments of the major, and (3) elective courses, for a total of 144 credits. No more than 
sixteen credits toward graduation may be earned from among all of the following courses: 
Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-121 (ensemble courses); Dance 128; 
and elective 100-level courses in health and exercise science. A cross-listed course may be 
taken one time for credit toward graduation, unless otherwise specified by the course 
description. 

All students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and universities 
and on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at least 72 must be 
completed in the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the work 



60 



of the senior year (except for combined degree curricula). All financial obligations to the 
University must be discharged. 

A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin 
of the year in which he or she enters, except in the case of major or minor requirements 
which are those in effect during the term in which a student begins taking courses after 
the declaration of a major or minor. If course work is not completed within six years 
of entrance, the student must fulfill the requirements for the class in which he or she 
graduates. 



Basic Requirements 



All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted through 
procedures established by the departments concerned): 

A first-year seminar 

English 111 (writing seminar) 

Foreign language (literature), one course from among the following: 

French 213, 215, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 213, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian 215 or 216 

Greek 111 or 212 

Latin 111, 212, or 216 

Near Eastern Languages & Literature 111 or 212 (Hebrew) 

Javanese 111 

Chinese 111 
Health and Exercise Science 100 and 101 

A note about the Language Placement procdures: All students new to Wake Forest 
with some high school language courses must meet at a testing site to take the 
placement exam to determine their language placement or, in the case of students 
with Advanced Placement scores of 4 or above (in Language or Literature), to register 
their AP scores and discuss their options. Students will not receive credit for a class 
at a lower level than that at which they placed on the placement exam, unless they a) 
register for the class in which they placed; b) attend a few class meetings; c) consult 
with their professor; d) and then successfully appeal their placement to the language 
placement appeals officers of the Department and be reassigned to a lower level 



Divisional Requirements 



All students must complete courses as specified below in each of the five divisions of the 
undergraduate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement 
requirements or by participation in the open curriculum): 



Division I. Literature (two courses; no more than one course from any 
one of the three groups) 

1. English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the course used for the basic requirement) 
Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 

Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 
German 215 or 216 
Chinese 211 

Near Eastern Languages & Literature 211 or 212 (Hebrew) 
Japanese 211 

Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish) literature 
Russian 215 or 216 
In English translation: 

Classics 255, 261, 263, 264, 265, or 272 

Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, or 222 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two 
of the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 113 (if one course, 111; if two courses, the pair 
must include 111) 

2. Chemistry 108, 111 (with 111L), 116 (with 116L), 120* (unless advanced 
preparation indicates a higher course); if one course, 108, 111 (with 
111L), or 120; if two courses, 111 (with 111L), 116 (with 116L), or 111 
(with 111L), 120* 

3. Physics 109, 110, 113, 114, 120* 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 111 (any one; 
if two, the pair must include Mathematics 108 or Mathematics 111 but 
not both) 

* Credit not allowed for both Chemistry 120 and Physics 120. 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101, 102, 103, or 104 

2. Religion 101, 102, or 103 

3. Philosophy 111 



Division IV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 101 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psychology 151 

5. Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154 



62 



Division V. The Fine Arts (one course) 

1. Art 103, 104, or 111 

2. Music 101, 102, 109, 181, or 182 

3. Theater 110 or 112 

4. Dance 202 

Requirement in Health and Exercise Science . 



All students must complete Health and Exercise Science 100 and 101. This requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and exercise science elective courses, 
and in any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 



Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a requirement 
in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the grade for any course, 
may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing is unsatisfactory, 
regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of transfer students is 
evaluated during the orientation period each term, and students whose writing is 
deficient are given a composition condition. 

A student who has been assigned a cc will receive a "Not Reported" for the course. The 
student will have one semester in which to work in the Writing Center, revising the course 
work to the instructor's satisfaction. If the student fails to work in the Writing Center, or 
fails to revise the work to the instructor's satisfaction, the grade will become an "F" 
automatically, unless some action is taken by the instructor. (If extenuating circumstances 
make it impossible for the student to make significant progress in a semester, the student 
may appeal to the dean's office for an additional semester of work to remove the "NR.") 
Removal of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 



The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to various 
fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major subject and 
related fields during the junior and senior years. For these reasons, as many of the 
requirements as feasible should be taken in the first and sophomore years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of the 
faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should have earned at least sixty credits. The normal time 
for reaching this point is the end of the second semester of the sophomore year. Thirty days 
before the end of the sophomore year, each student who will have acquired the requisite 
credits by the end of the semester or the end of the summer school is required to indicate 
to the registrar and to the department or departments concerned the selection of a major 



63 



for concentration during the junior and senior years. Before this selection is recorded by 
the registrar, the student must present a written statement from the authorized represen- 
tative of the department or departments indicating that the student has been accepted as 
a candidate for the major in that department. An adviser is available to assist the student 
in planning a course of study for the junior and senior years. A department which rejects 
a student as a major must file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating 
the reason(s) for the rejection. 

If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she will 
begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult the 
registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business, analytical finance, mathematical business, or 
the five-year accounting program, should make application to the Wayne Calloway 
School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 228 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields to 
accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the under- 
graduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major field or a 
given course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits to both faculty 
and facilities. 

After the initial declaration, a student may not change from one major to another 
without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course of study for the 
junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the departmental major, 
with other courses selected by the student and approved by the adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accounting, analytical 
finance, anthropology, art history, studio art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, 
communication, computer science, economics, education, English, French, German, 
Greek, health and exercise science, history, Latin, mathematical business, mathematical 
economics, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, 
Russian, sociology, Spanish, and theater. 



Maximum Number of Courses in a Department . 



Within the College, a maximum of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowed within 
the 144 credits required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation are allowed 
in any department authorized to offer two fields of study or more, except for the 
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 111; and, for students majoring 
in a foreign language, elementary courses in that language. These limits may be exceeded 
in unusual circumstances only by action of the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 



For purposes of satisfying graduation requirements, a student must select one, and 
only one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the 
student's permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major and a 



64 



minor, (4) a single major and a double minor, (5) a double major. In addition to the options 
above, a student may complete the requirements of a foreign area studies program. 



Double Majors and Joint Majors . 



A student may major in two departments in the College with the written permission of 
the chair of each of the departments and on condition that the student meet all require- 
ments for the major in both departments. A student may not use the same course to meet 
requirements in both of the majors. For administrative purposes, the student must 
designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which appears first on the student's 
record. For purposes of the double major, the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science is considered as two departments. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in classical 
studies, mathematical business, and mathematical economics. 

Minors 

A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major — not those 
working toward a double or joint major — may choose a minor field from among the 
following: anthropology, art history, studio art, astrophysics, biology, chemistry, 
communication, computer science, dance, economics, educational studies, professional 
education, English, French language and culture, French literature, German, Greek, 
history, Italian, journalism, Latin, mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, 
psychology, religion, Russian, sociology, Spanish, and theater. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in the 
section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 

Interdisciplinary Minors 

Interdisciplinary minors are listed alphabetically under Courses of Instruction in the 
bulletin. The following programs are offered: 

American Ethnic Studies (page 68) 

Asian Studies (page 77) 

Cultural Resource Preservation (page 97) 

Early Christian Studies (page 98) 

Environmental Studies (page 119) 

Humanities (page 136) 

International Studies (page 143) 

Latin American Studies (page 147) 

Linguistics (page 148) 

Medieval Studies (page 156) 

Russian and East European Studies (page 203) 

Urban Studies (page 215) 

Women's Studies (page 215) 



65 



Foreign Area Studies 



The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary concen- 
tration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concentration may 
include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is chosen. Foreign area 
studies programs do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement either or both. 
A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and advises students, 
and students who wish to participate in one of these programs must consult with the 
program coordinator, preferably in their sophomore year. Questions also may be directed 
to the Office of International Studies. 

Foreign area studies are listed alphabetically under Courses of Instruction in the 
bulletin. The following programs are offered: 

East Asian Studies (page 101) 
German Studies (page 124) 
Italian Studies (page 144) 
Spanish Studies (page 209) 

Senior Testing 

All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide objective 
evidence of educational development and employing measures of academic achievement 
such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and other tests deemed 
appropriate by the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are administered during the 
spring semester, and relevant results are made available to the student for his or her 
information. The primary purpose of the program is to provide the University with 
information for assessing the total educational process. The program does not supplant 
the regular administration of the Graduate Record Examination for students applying 
for admission to graduate school. 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 



Students may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in medical technology by 
completion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and by 
satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the Division 
of Allied Health Programs of the Wake Forest School of Medicine. A grade of at least C 
is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. At least one year 
(thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. 
(Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the baccalaureate degree in 
August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the junior 
year with the Division of Allied Health Programs of the medical school. Selection is based 
upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, Allied Health Professions 
Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal interviews, and work experience 
(not essential, but important). Students must complete the basic course requirements; the 
divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and IV; the health and exercise science 



66 



requirement; Biology 111, 112, 113, 214 (three courses or equivalents); Biology 326; 
Chemistry 111/111L, 116/116L, 221/221L, and 222/222L; mathematics (one course); 
and electives for a total of 1 08 credits. Desirable electives outside the area of chemistry and 
biology include physics, data processing, and personnel and management courses. 
(Interested students should consult a biology department faculty member during the first 
year for further information.) 



Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 



Wake Forest students may apply for entry into the Physician Assistant Program 
either of two ways: 

A. The degree in the Physician Assistant Program, a combined 3+2 program, 
open to no more than two students a year 

No more than two students a year may qualify for the bachelor of science degree in 
the Physician Assistant Program by completing three years (108 credits) in the College 
with a minimum average grade level of C, and by satisfactory completion of the full 
twenty-four-month course in the Physician Assistant Program offered by the Division 
of Allied Health Programs of the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. This 3+2 
contract program requires that at least one year (thirty-six credits) of the required 
academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the degree must 
complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course requirements, the 
health and exercise science requirement, and at least four courses in biology (includ- 
ing one year in anatomy-physiology or one semester each of anatomy and physiology, 
and in microbiology). At least four courses in the social sciences (including sociology, 
psychology, and economics), a course in statistics, and three or four courses in 
chemistry are recommended. Applicants to the program must have a minimum of six 
months of clinical experience in patient care services. Interested students should 
consult the health professions adviser during the first year for further information. 

B. Certificate of Completion, for regularly-graduating four-year students 

Students intending to graduate regularly must apply no later than January 1 of the 
senior year. They must have completed two courses in general biology, two courses 
in general chemistry, and one full year of anatomy and physiology (or one semester 
each of anatomy and physiology). One course in microbiology is strongly recom- 
mended. Applicants must have one thousand hours of clinical experience in patient 
care services. Interested students should consult the health professions adviser for 
further information. 

Degrees in Dentistry 

A student may fulfill the requirements for the bachelor of science degree with a major in 
dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimum average grade 
of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in one of certain approved 
dental schools designated by the University, with a record entitling advancement to the 
third-year class. 



67 



Degrees in Engineering 



The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineering 
schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined with 
specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers five years 
of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years in one of the 
schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be advisable for a 
student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after transfer.) Admission 
to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineering school. Those decisions 
are based on the student's transcript, performance, and status at the time of application. 
Upon successful completion of the five years of study, the student receives the bachelor 
of science degree in engineering from the University and the bachelor of science degree 
in one of the specialized engineering fields from the engineering school. 

The curriculum for the first three years must include all the basic and divisional 
requirements and additional courses in science and mathematics which will prepare 
the student for the study of engineering, such as Mathematics 111, 112, 251, 301, 302, 
and 304; Physics 113, 114, 141, 162, 165, and 166; Chemistry 111, 111L, 116, and 116L; 
and Economics 150. 

These electives are chosen in consultation with the chair of the Department of Physics. 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 



The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and Environmental 
Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of earning both bachelor's 
and master's degrees within five years. For details about the program, students should 
consult a faculty member in the biology department. 

Five-Year Cooperative Degree Program in Latin American Studies 



Wake Forest and Georgetown universities have instituted a Five- Year Cooperative 
Degree Program in Latin American Studies. Under this program, undergraduate 
students who minor in Latin American Studies may apply to have a limited number 
of credits from their undergraduate work count toward a master's degree in Latin 
American Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. The BA degree is 
awarded by Wake Forest, while the master's degree is awarded by Georgetown. 
Those whose application is accepted may complete both their B A and MA degrees in 
a five-year period. To apply for the combined BA/MA, students should declare an 
interest in the Five- Year Cooperative Degree program during their junior year. 
Students must then complete the regular Georgetown graduate application process 
and seek formal acceptance to the MA program during their senior year. The five-year 
program is an opportunity for exceptional students to complete degree requirements 
at an accelerated pace. Interested students should contact the five-year degree 
program coordinator, Peter Siavelis, assistant professor of politics. 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the academic 
year 1997-98 unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through March 18, 
1998. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. The courses listed in this Bulletin are not 
necessarily taught every year; their availability is a function of both staffing constraints and 
student demand. While no guarantees about future scheduling can be made, students are 
encouraged to alert their advisers and department heads to their needs and desires as soon 
as they can be foreseen. Tor an exact list of courses offered in each particular semester and 
summer, students consult the course schedules issued by the Office of the Registrar during 
the preceding term. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is 
shown by numerals immediately after the course title — for example, (3) or (3,3). The 
symbols P — and C — followed by course numbers or titles are used to show 
prerequisites and corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for first-year students and sophomores; courses 
200-299 are primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced 
undergraduate students. Graduate courses are described in the bulletin of the 
Graduate School. 



American Ethnic Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Earl Smith (Sociology), Director 



The interdisciplinary minor in American Ethnic Studies requires twenty-four credits. 
The student must take American Ethnic Studies 151, Introduction to American Ethnic 
Studies, during the second or third year at Wake Forest, and American Ethnic Studies 
300, Research in American Ethnic Studies. At least one additional four-credit course 
must be taken from the behavioral and social sciences, and one from the humanities. 
This structure gives students an understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of 
American Ethnic Studies within the context of the traditional liberal arts curriculum. 

151. Introduction to American Ethnic Studies. (4) A systematic survey of American 
ethnicity. An interdisciplinary approach to the examination of multiethnic America. 

300. Research in American Ethnic Studies. (4) Survey of multidisciplinary method- 
ologies used to study American ethnicity. Supervised research projects required. 

Other courses may be chosen from a list on file in the office of the director of the 
program. 



69 



Anthropology 



Carole L. Browne, Acting Chair 

Professors David K. Evans, Jay R. Kaplan, Stanton K. Tef ft, 

David S. Weaver, J. Ned Woodall 

Director/Curator, Museum of Anthropology/ Associate Professor Mary Jane Berman 

Adjunct Associate Professor Sara A. Quandt 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Steven Folmar, Ronda C. Stavisky 

Visiting Assistant Professor Nancy L. Nelson 

Adjunct Instructor Beverlye H. Hancock 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of forty credits and must include Anthro- 
pology 101, 201, 202, 203, 340, 390, and one course from each of the following three 
groups: Methods 378, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 387; Subfield Topics 305, 315, 332, 336, 
337, 339, 342, 361, 362, 363, 366, 368, 370; Area 330, 358, 373, 374, 376, 377. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive field 
research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and four 
credits from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the time 
the major is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all anthropology courses 
is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty- four credits and must include Anthropology 
101, 201, 202, 203. Only one course (excluding Anthropology 101) can be taken under the 
pass /fail grading option and used to meet minor requirements. Only four credits from 
Anthropology 398, 399 may be used toward the minor. Only four credits from 
Anthropology 381, 382, 383, and 384 may be used to meet minor requirements and 
departmental permission must be obtained for minor credit in these courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors (3.5 grade-point average in anthropology) should apply to the department for 
admission to the honors program. They must complete a senior research project, docu- 
ment their research, and satisfactorily defend their work in an oral examination. For 
additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

101. General Anthropology. (4) Basic concepts of anthropology, focusing on human 
biological and socio-cultural evolution and an analysis of contemporary cultural 
diversity. 

201. Archeology. (4) An introduction to the fundamentals of archeology, including the 
history of archeology, methods, theory, interpretation and conservation. P- Anthro- 
pology 101. 

202. Biological Anthropology. (4) Introduction to biological anthropology, including 
human biology, variability and genetics, and primatology. P- Anthropology 101. 

203. Cultural Anthropology. (4) Investigates and interprets the historic cultural 
diversity of the world's peoples and cultural transformations taking place in the 
modern world. P- Anthropology 101. 



70 Anthropology 



305. Museum Anthropology. (4) Examines the historical, social, and ideological 
forces shaping the development of museums. Emphasizes the history of anthropol- 
ogy, the formation of anthropological collections, representation, and the intellectual 
and social challenges facing museums today. P-Anthropology 201 or 203 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

315. Material Culture Studies. (4) Explores the social and cultural roles of objects 
through the study of materials, technology, economy, context, and meaning. P — Anthro- 
pology 201 or 203 or permission of instructor. 

330. Seeing World Cultures. (4) Focuses on selected cultures throughout the world to 
better understand these societies through the use of ethnographic literature and 
assesses the effectiveness of visual communication in conveying ideas about these 
cultures through the use of ethnographic videos and films. P — Anthropology 101. 

332. Race, Gender, and Ethnicity. (4) Examines the biological and cultural bases of 
human identity as expressed in the concepts of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. 
Cross-cultural data will be used to demonstrate the diversity of meanings associated 
with these concepts. P-Anthropology 101. 

336. Myth, Ritual, and Symbolism. (4) Explores how people envision and manipulate 
the supernatural in cross-cultural perspective. Emphasizes functional aspects of 
religious beliefs and practices. P-Anthropology 101. 

337. Economic Anthropology. (4) Examines the relationship between culture and the 
economy and its implications for applied anthropology. The variable nature and 
meaning of economic behavior will be examined in societies ranging from non- 
industrial to post-industrial. Discusses the impact of economic development pro- 
grams, foreign aid and investment, technology transfer and a variety of other 
economic aid programs. P-Anthropology 101. 

339. Culture and Nature. (2) A study of the reciprocal effects of the culture and nature 
relationship, with an emphasis on how different cultures define, use, and value 
nature. 

340. Anthropological Theory. (4) A study and evaluation of the major anthropological 
theories of humans and society. The relevance and significance of these theories to 
modern anthropology are discussed. P — Anthropology 201 and 202 and 203, or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

342. Applied Anthropology. (4) Seminar exploring the ways anthropological concepts 
and data contribute to understanding and solving contemporary problems facing human 
populations everywhere. Emphasis will be on change and conflict situations in develop- 
ing areas, but problems encountered by urban and industrialized cultures also are 
considered. P — Anthropology 203. 

358. The American Indian. (2) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. P — 
Anthropology 101. 



Anthropology 71 



361. Evolution of Human Behavior. (4) The application of Darwinian principles to the 
study of human nature and culture. Considers the existence, origin, and manifesta- 
tion of human behavioral universals and the theoretical and practical implications of 
individual variability. 

362. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory on 
non- Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world health 
problems. P — Anthropology 101. 

363. Primate Behavior and Biology. (4) Examines the evolution and adaptations of the 
order Primates. Considers the different ways that ecology and evolution shape social 
behavior. A special emphasis on the lifeways of monkeys and apes. 

366. Human Evolution. (4) The paleontological evidence for early human evolution, 
with an emphasis on the first 5 million years of bio-cultural evolution. P — Anthropol- 
ogy 202 or permission of instructor. 

368. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, emphasiz- 
ing archeological and anthropological applications. 

370. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survey of Old World prehistory, with particular attention 
to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P — Anthropology 201 or 
permission of instructor. 

373. Southwestern Archeology. (2) Prehistoric cultural development of the Mogollon, 
Hohokam, Anasazi, and associated groups. Topics include environment, early peo- 
pling of the Southwest, ceramic and architectural traditions, origins of agriculture, 
rise of social complexity, and abandonment. 

374. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America as 
outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and sociocultural 
processes. P — Anthropology 201 or permission of instructor. 

376. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (2) A study of human adaptation in 
the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of ecological factors 
in determining the formal aspects of culture. P — Anthropology 101. 

377. People and Cultures of the Southwest. (2) Survey of the major Native American 
cultures with emphasis on their history, contemporary ecology, economics, social, 
political, and religious organizations, artistic expression, and interaction and shared 
histories with Hispanic, Anglo, and other ethnic groups. 

378. Conservation Archeology. (2) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, programs, 
and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural resources. 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in anthropo- 
logical research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit 
for Biology 380, Business 201, or Mathematics 109.) 



72 Anthropology/Art 



381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) The recovery of anthropological data through 
archeological fieldwork. Students will learn archaeological survey, mapping, excava- 
tion, recording techniques and artifact and ecofact recovery and analysis. P — Anthro- 
pology 101 and permission of instructor. 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4,4) Training in techniques for the 
study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P — Anthropology 101 and permission 
of instructor. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P — Permission of instructor. 

387. Ethnographic Research Methods. (4) Designed to familiarize students with 
ethnographic research methods and their application. Considers the epistemological, 
ethical, political, and psychological aspects of research. Laboratory experience and 
data analysis. P- Anthropology 203. 

390. Student-Faculty Seminar. (4) A review of contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology, and biological and cultural anthropology. P — Junior standing or permission 
of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course designed 
to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under the 
supervision of a departmental faculty member. P — permission of instructor. 



Art 

Margaret S. Smith, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Terisio Pignatti (Venice) 

Professors Robert Knott, Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professors Bernadine Barnes, David L. Faber, Page H. Laughlin, 

Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Assistant Professors David Finn, John R. Pickel 

Visiting Instructor Alix Hitchcock 

Lecturer Brian Allen (London) 

Assistant Lecturers Maria A. Chiari (Venice), Katie Scott (London) 

Gallery Director Victor Faccinto 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, and sculpture. A visiting artist program and varied exhibi- 
tions in the gallery of the Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships in local cultural 
organizations supplement the regular academic program of the department. 

The department offers two fields of study, art history and studio art. A major in art 
history requires forty credits in the department. Thirty-two credits are to be in art history, 
and eight credits are to be in studio art. A major in studio ail requires forty credits in the 
department. Thirty-two credits are to be in studio art, and eight credits are to be in art history . 



Art 73 



A minor in art history requires twenty credits in the department, sixteen in art history 
and four in studio art. A minor in studio art requires twenty credits in the department, 
sixteen in studio art and four in art history. Students may major in one field and minor in 
the other within a limit of fifty-six credits. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair of the art 
department. 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate in the 
department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Art," 
students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results of their efforts 
must be presented and defended before a committee of the departmental faculty. 
Interested students should consult any member of the department for additional informa- 
tion concerning the requirements for this program. 

Art History 

103. History of Western Art. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of various cultures 
and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. Satisfies the 
Division V requirement. 

104. Topics in World Art. (4) An examination of the visual arts in selected world 
cultures, with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and terms. Topics may 
include one or more of the following: the arts of China, Japan, India, Africa, Islamic 
cultures or the indigenous cultures of the Americas. Satisfies the Division V require- 
ment. 

231. American Art. (4) A survey of American painting and sculpture from the Colonial 
period through the Armory Show held in 1913 in New York. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture in the South from 1600 to the present. 

241. Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the prehistoric 
through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the prehistoric 
through the Hellenistic periods. 

245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women in art 
and the role of women artists. 

252. Romanesque Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance through 
the twelfth century. 



74 Art 



253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and the 
sculpture, stained glass, metalworks, and paintings designed for them. 

254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) Medieval illuminated manuscripts and precious 
objects made of gold, silver, ivory, enamel, and other luxury materials are the subjects of 
this course. 

258. The History of Prints. (4) A survey of the technical and stylistic developments in 
printmaking from the fifteenth century to the present. Special attention will be given to 
the function of prints in society. Student research will focus on prints in the University 
Print Collection. 

259. The History of Photography. (4) A historical and critical survey of photography 
from its invention in 1826 to the present. Special attention to the medium's cultural 
and artistic reception. 

268. Italian Renaissance Art. (4) The development of the art and architecture in Italy, 
from around 1300 to the late 16th century. 

270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, and printmaking in 
Northern Europe from the mid-fourteenth century through the sixteenth century. 

271. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, and 
architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered in Dijon. 

272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the nineteenth 
century. 

281. Nineteenth Century Art. (4) A survey of European and American art from the 
French Revolution to 1900, emphasizing the major movements from Romanticism to 
Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. 

282. Twentieth Century Art. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A study of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism with an 
emphasis on stylistic innovations and the social and cultural context in which they 
were produced. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 



Art 75 



293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the art 
department. Pass /fail. 

296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice. A paper is required. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art h. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art j. Special Topics 

299. International Studies in Art. (4) Offered by art department faculty in locations 
outside of the United States, on specific topics in art history or studio art. Offered in the 
summer. 

2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculpture, and 
architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lectures, student 
reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. Offered in London. 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, with 
slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 320. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and 
tribal cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — Permis- 
sion of instructor. 

Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Studio Art Fundamentals. (4) Students will be introduced to basic 
elements of two-dimensional and three-dimensional fine art through hands-on 
experimentation and critical thinking. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division 
V requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. (4) An introduction to painting fundamentals in a variety 
of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic medium. 

114. Introduction to Digital Media. (4) An introduction to basic concepts in computer 
generated art. No previous experience with computers required. Art 111 recom- 
mended as a prerequisite. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and multi- 
media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the following 
areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. 

119. Introduction to Photography. (4) An introduction to photography as an expres- 
sive medium, including basic camera and darkroom techniques. Preference to art 
majors. Not open to students who have had Sociology 205. 

*Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor. 



76 Art 



211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated emphasis on 
drawing fundamentals and idea development in realistic and abstract styles, emphasiz- 
ing composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 112, with concentrated emphasis on 
idea development. P — Art 112. May be repeated. 

214. Intermediate Digital Art/Photography. (4) Intermediate computer-based and 
analog imaging techniques emphasizing multimedia through web page design, 
interactivity, hypertext and digital video. Topics include conventional darkroom- 
based photography, motion pictures, and digital art. P-Art 114 or Art 119. 

215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea devel- 
opment. P — Art 115. May be repeated. 

217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P — Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May be 
repeated. P— Art 211. 

222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May be 
repeated. P — Art 212. 

224. Advanced Digital Art/Photography. (4) Semester-long digital projects working 
with faculty, staff, and fellow students to create web pages, interactive CD-ROMS, 
digital portfolios, and independent digital art and analog photography projects. 
Semester could also include internships within the University and in the community. 
P-Art 214. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. Maybe 
repeated. P— Art 215. 

227. Advanced Printmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P— Art 217. 

290. Printmaking Workshop. (4) A workshop course exploring relief, intaglio, lithog- 
raphy, and monotype techniques, open to students at any skill level. Offered in the 
summer. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2,4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on topics 
of their choice and related studio activities. P — Permission of instructor. 



Asian Studies 77 



Asian Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Wei-chin Lee (Politics), Coordinator 

The minor in Asian Studies consists of a total of twenty-four credits which students 
must select from an approved list of courses on file with the coordinator and listed 
below. Candidates for the minor are required to take these courses from at least three 
different departments and /or programs. While some study of an Asian language is 
strongly recommended, it is not required. Although students may repeat Asian Studies 
381, Independent Research in Asian Studies (2-4) for credit, only four of these credits can 
apply toward completion of the Asian Studies minor. 

Appropriate credit in various fields of Asian Studies also may be obtained by study in 
China through the SASASAAS/Wake Forest Program or in Japan through the Wake 
Forest /Tokai University Program, or through other Wake Forest approved courses of 
study in Asia. Students intending to minor in Asian Studies should consult the coordina- 
tor, preferably in their sophomore year. Courses maybe chosen from among the following 
list. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

311. Special Topics in Asian Studies. (2-4) An intensive survey of one or more 
important issues in Asian Studies not included in the regular course offerings. 

381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) Supervised independent research 
project on a topic related to Asia. Requires the approval of both the instructor and the 
coordinator of Asian Studies. May be repeated for credit. 

Art 104. Topics in World Art (when focus is on Asia). (4) 

Chinese Lang. Ill, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) 
& Liter. 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) 

Communication 351. Comparative Communication. (2,4) 
(a) Japan 

History 341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 

343. Imperial China. (4) 

344. Modern China. (4) 

346. Japan before 1600. (4) 

347. Japan since World War II. (4) 

348. Japan since 1600. (4) 

Humanities 170. Understanding Japan. (4) 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 
221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 
347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 



78 



Asian Studies 



International 
Studies 

Japanese Lang. 
& Liter. 



Linguistics 
Philosophy 
Politics 



Religion 



Women's 
Studies 



348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 

210. Japanese and American Culture: A Cross-Cultural 
Comparison. (4) 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) 
151, 152. Intermediate Japanese (5,5) 
199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern 
Japanese. (4) 

220. Advanced Conversation. (4) 

230. Advanced Japanese I. (4) 

231. Advanced Japanese II. (4) 

231. Language and Gender in Japanese Culture. (4) 
(Also listed as Women's Studies 231.) 

253. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 
(Also listed as Religion 380.) 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) 

259. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4) 

260. East Asian International Relations. (4) 

361. Buddhism. (4) 

362. Islam. (4) 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

231. Language and Gender in Japanese Culture. (4) 
(Also listed as Linguistics 231.) 



Biology 79 



Biology 



William E. Conner, Chair 

Babcock Professor of Botany Mordecai J. Jaffe 

Wake Forest Professors Gerald W. Esch, Raymond E. Kuhn 

Professors Carole L. Browne, Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, Ronald V. 

Dimock Jr., Herman E. Eure, Hugo C. Lane, Peter D. Weigl 

Associate Professors James F. Curran, Kathleen A. Kron, Gloria K. Muday, 

Wayne L. Silver 

Assistant Professors David J. Anderson, Miriam A. Ashley-Ross, Rosanne J. 

Spolski, Brian W. Tague, Clifford W. Zeyl 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Terry C. Hazen 

Adjunct Associate Professor Margaret Mulvey 

Visiting Assistant Professors Hanya E. Chrispeels, Steven K. Rice 

At the end of the sophomore year a student electing to major in biology meets with a major 
adviser to plan the course of study for the junior and senior years. The requirements for 
completion of the major are those in effect at the time of the conference, since the 
curriculum and departmental requirements may change slightly during the student's 
period of residence. All majors are required to take Biology 112, 113, and 214, and at least 
three 300-level 5-credit biology courses. Co-major requirements are Chemistry 1 1 1, 1 1 1L, 
116, 116L, and two additional physical science courses with labs. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirements for a major are a 
minimum of forty-one credits in biology. A minimum grade average of C on all courses 
attempted in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation with a major 
in biology. (Students declaring a major later than the spring should consult with a biology 
major adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 

A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken pass /fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A minimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake 
Forest University biology courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to select either Biology 1 12 or 1 13 as their first 
course in biology. Most prospective majors also should take Chemistry 111, 111L and 
116, 116L in their first year; the majority continue with two additional physical sciences 
with labs as sophomores. 

Advanced work in many areas of biology may require additional courses in mathemat- 
ics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology . The adviser calls these to the attention 
of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in Biology," a 
graduating student must have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in all courses and a 3.3 in his/her 
biology courses. In addition, the student must submit an honors paper (written in the form 
of a scientific paper) describing the research which must be defended before his/her 
advisory committee. Specific details regarding the honors program including selecting 
an adviser and an advisory committee, deadlines, and writing of the honors thesis, may 
be obtained from the chair of the departmental undergraduate studies committee. 



80 Biology 



Most 300-level courses have the 1 12, 113, 214 series as prerequisites. Any exceptions to 
the stated prerequisites must be approved by the chair of the department. Students 
enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in biology at other institutions to satisfy 
divisional requirements. 

111. Biological Principles. (5) A study of the general principles of living systems with 
focus on the cellular, organismal, and populational levels of biological organization, 
emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Course may count for 
major credit in biology, but is intended for students with little or no previous experience 
in biology. Lab— three hours. 

112. Comparative Physiology. (5) An introduction to the form and function of organisms, 
with emphasis on physical principles, structural organization, and critical function of 
plants and animals. Intended as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and 
for any students with adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab — three hours. No 
prerequisites. 

113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles of 
genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, populations and communi- 
ties, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecological context. Intended as 
a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and for any students with adequate 
high school preparation in biology. Lab— three hours. No prerequisites. 

214. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (5) An introduction to the principles and processes 
of cellular and molecular biology including molecular organization of cellular structures, 
regulation of cellular functions, energetics and metabolism, molecular nature of the 
genome and the regulation of gene expression. Lab — three hours. P — Chemistry 111, 
111L, and 116, 116L. 

301-306. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and / or lecture courses in selected topics, some 
involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs. 

311. Genetics. (4) A lecture course on the use of genetic analytical methods to establish 
the principles of inheritance and the mechanisms of gene function. Covered topics 
include mechanisms of genetic change, the genetics of development, and population 
genetics. Students may not receive credit for both Bio 311 and Bio 312. P-Biology 112, 
113, and 214. 

312. Genetics. (5) A lecture and lab course on the use of genetic analytical methods to 
establish the principles of inheritance and the mechanisms of gene function. Covered 
topics include mechanisms of genetic change, the genetics of development, and popula- 
tion genetics. The lab will include projects involving classical and current techniques 
of genetic investigation. Students may not receive credit for both Bio 311 and Bio 312. 
Lab-3 hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolution. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. 



Biology 



315. Biology of Stress. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the ways in which plants 
and animals react to and cope with abiotic stresses. Foci include mechanisms at the 
ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. A term paper is required, reviewing 
the literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not allowed for both Biology 315 
and 316. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

316. Biology of Stress. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of the ways 
in which plants and animals react to and cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. Foci include 
mechanisms at the ecological, organismic, cellular and molecular levels. A laboratory 
project implementing the scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is 
required. Credit not allowed for both Biology 315 and 316. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

317. Life of the Green Plant. (5) The growth and development of plants are followed 
throughout the life cycle. Emphasis will be placed on structure-function relationships 
from the molecular level to the level of gross morphology. The laboratory will start 
with instruction in experimental methods and lead to a research project. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of the vertebrate body from an evolutionary, 
functional, and developmental perspective. Laboratories emphasize structure and 
function, primarily through the dissection of representative vertebrates. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites from the 
standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host /parasite relationships. 
Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112, 113, 214. 

322. Biomechanics. (5) An analysis of the relationship between organismal form and 
function using principles from physics and engineering. Solid and fluid mechanics 
are employed to study design in living systems, especially vertebrates. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. 
(May count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P — 
Permission of instructor. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with 
emphasis on bacteria. Covered special topics include microbial ecology, industrial 
microbiology, and medical microbiology. The lab emphasizes microbial diversity through 
characterizations of isolates from nature. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of invertebrates, with emphasis on functional 
morphology, behavior, ecology, and phylogeny. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, 
and 214. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and experi- 
mental studies. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 



82 Biology 



335. Insect Biology. (5) A study of the diversity, structure, development, physiology, 
behavior, and ecology of insects. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

336. Bioacoustics. (5) A lecture and laboratory course analyzing mechanisms of sound 
production, transmission, and reception and their relevance to animal orientation and 
communication. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

338. Plant Systematics. (5) A study of the diversity and evolution of flowering plants. 
Lectures emphasize the comparative study of selected plant families, their relationships 
and the use of new information and techniques to enhance our understanding of plant 
evolution. Labs emphasize more practical aspects of plant systematics such as the use of 
identification keys, recognition of common local plants, molecular techniques, and basic 
phylogenetic analysis. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

339. Principles of Biosystematics. (5) An exploration of the current theoretical and 
practical approaches to the study of macroevolution in plants and animals. Topics include 
theory and methods of constructing evolutionary trees, sources of data and cladistic 
biogeography. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecology. 
Lab— three hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 
112, 113, and 214. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and concepts 
of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A major portion 
of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. Lab — three hours. 
P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

344. Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics. (4) Principles of genetics in the context of 
ecological and evolutionary studies, including micro- and macro-evolutionary processes. 
P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. Permission of instructor. 

345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous systems. 
P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system 
including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical 
approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and central nervous systems. 
The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological techniques with experiments from 
the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab — three hours. P — Permission of instructor. 

350. Biological Resources and the Environment. (4) Lectures, readings, and discussions 
examining biological resources, their limitations and methods for sustainability . Genetic, 
aquatic, terrestrial, and ecosystem resources will be examined. P — Biology 112, 113, and 
214, or permission of instructor. 



Biology 83 



351. Vertebrate Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course examining regulatory 
principles, integration in the nervous system and the physiology of the cardiovascular, 
respiratory, and renal systems of vertebrates. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant systems 
function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

354. Vertebrate Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the 
endocrine glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways of 
vertebrates. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

355. Avian Biology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course emphasizing ecological and evolution- 
ary influences on the physiology, behavior, and population biology of birds. Includes 
taxonomy of the world's major bird groups. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlying them. Special attention is 
given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also given to 
other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertilization, early 
development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of genes in develop- 
ment, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, and cancer. Lab — three 
hours. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

363. Sensory Biology. (4) A lecture course involving a study of the nature of energy in the 
environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, 
physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of 
sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A term paper is required reviewing the 
literature in some area covered by the course. Credit not allowed for both Biology 363 and 

364. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

364. Sensory Biology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course involving a study of energy in 
the environment and how it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, 
physiological, biochemical and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of 
sensory mechanisms in plants and animals. A laboratory project implementing the 
scientific method and designed to produce new knowledge is required. Credit not 
allowed for both Biology 363 and 364. P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

365. Biology of the Cell. (5) A lecture and laboratory course on classic experiments and 
recent advances in cell biology. Lectures will emphasize analysis and interpretation 
of experimental data in the primary literature, focusing on topics such as the targeting 
of macromolecules, cell-cell communication and the control of cell division. The text 
for this course will consist of papers that have led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology and 
Medicine and more current work using biological tools. The laboratory will introduce 
basic techniques in cell biology and lead to an independent project. Lab — three hours. 
P— Biology 112, 113, and 214. 



Biology 



366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or anthropology 
but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P — Permission of instructor. 

370. Biochemistry I. Enzymes and Metabolism. (4) A lecture course introducing the 
principles of biochemistry, with an emphasis on the experimental approaches that 
elucidated these principles. Major topics will include structure, function, and biosynthe- 
sis of biological molecules, analysis of enzyme function and activity, and regulation of 
metabolic pathways. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

371. Biochemistry I. Enzymes and Metabolism Laboratory. (1) The laboratory will 
emphasize approaches to isolation and analysis of both proteins and nucleic acids. Lab — 
three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. P — or C — Biology 370. This course, paired 
with Biology 370, may be used as one of the three 300-level 5-credit courses required for 
the major. 

372. Biochemistry II. Molecular Biology. (5) An analysis of the molecular mechanisms by 
which stored genetic information directs cellular development. Emphasis will be placed 
on storage and transmission of genetic information, regulation of gene expression, and the 
role of these processes in development. The laboratory will focus on modern techniques 
of recombinant DNA analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

375. Optical Methods in Biological Sciences. (5) Methods in light and electron micros- 
copy including specimen preparation, image generation and recording. Students will 
learn the basic techniques of photography (developing and printing), fixation and 
sectioning of specimens, and video-enhanced, computer-generated imaging as well as 
image and motion analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure /function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

379. Molecular Techniques in Evolution and Systematics. (5) A lecture and labora- 
tory course that explores molecular methods that are basic to many disciplines within 
biology, especially ecology, evolution, and systematics. Laboratories focus on the 
acquisition of molecular techniques, including allozyme electrophoresis, mitochon- 
drial plastid, and nuclear DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, 
gene amplification, PCR (polymerase chain reaction), direct and / or cycle sequencing, 
and RAPDs (randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs). Lab — three hours. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

380. Biostatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, including 
descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regression and corre- 
lation. May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to be made at 
registration. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also receive credit for 
Anthropology 380, Business 201, or Mathematics 109.) 

381. Biostatistics Laboratory. (1) Application of computer-based statistical software. P — 
Biology 112, 113, and 214. P— or C— Biology 380. This course, paired with Biology 380, 
may not be used to satisfy one of the three 300-level 5-credit courses required for the major. 



Biology 85 



382. Behavioral Ecology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course analyzing behavioral 
solutions to challenges faced by animals in nature, emphasizing the role of natural 
selection in shaping behavior. Topics include mating systems, optimal foraging, sociobi- 
ology, parental care, and evolution of sexual reproduction. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214 
or permission of instructor. 

385. Cellular Physiology. (5) In-depth examination of current topics in cell biology such 
as cellular signalling, the extracellular matrix, biogenesis of mitochondria and chloro- 
plasts, control of cell division, protein sorting in the Golgi, protein translocation across 
membranes, and molecular motors. Lab — three hours. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

391, 392. Research in Biology. (2,2) Independent library and laboratory investigation 
carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass /fail or for grade at 
discretion of the instructor.* P — Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. Research in Biology. (2,2) Courses designed for students who wish to continue 
research projects beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass /fail optional. Not to be counted 
toward major.* P — Permission of instructor. 

395S. Marine Models in Biological Research. (6) An eight-week course that is taught 
at the Marine Biology Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Students attend lectures and 
seminars in areas of cell and developmental biology and marine ecology. Each student 
will be guided in a research project selected from the area of expertise of participating 
faculty and which takes advantage of the special facilities of the MBL, such as confocal 
microscopy and intracellular Ca+-i- imaging. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

396. Biomedical Ethics. (4) Lectures and seminars examining contemporary issues in 
biomedical ethics including the proper role of biomedical research, and current contro- 
versies in health care and medical practice. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 

397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through intensive 
reading and discussions. P — Biology 112, 113, and 214. 



*The same numbered course cannot be repeated. Subsequent courses should be taken in consecutive 
order. 



86 Chemistry 



Chemistry 



Roger A. Hegstrom, Chair 

Wake Forest Professors Roger A. Hegstrom, Willie L. Hinze 

Professors James C. Fishbein, Dilip K. Kondepudi, Gordon A. Melson, 

Ronald E. Noftle, Robert L. Swofford, Mark E. Welker 

Associate Professors Bradley T. Jones, Abdessadek Lachgar 

Assistant Professors Christa L. Colyer, Steven C. Haefner, Angela Glisan King, 

S. Bruce King, Richard A. Manderville 

Visiting Professors Neal E. Busch, Herman J. Benezet 

The department offers programs leading to the B A and BS degrees in chemistry. The BS 
degree is certified by the American Chemical Society. 

The bachelor of arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 111L, 116, 116L, 221, 
221L, 222, 222L, 341, 341L, 342 or 344, 342L, and 361, 361L; Mathematics 111, 112; and 
Physics 113, 114. Chemistry 120 may be taken instead of Chemistry 116, 116L. 

The bachelor of science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111, 111L, 116, 116L, 
221, 221L, 222, 222L, 334, 334L, 341, 341L, 344, 342L, either 351 or 356 / 357, 361, 361L, 381, 
382, 383, 391 or 392; Mathematics 111 and 112 and either 113 or 301; and Physics 113, 114. 

Additional mathematics and science courses are strongly recommended for BS degree 
candidates. The number and selection of these courses depends on the professional goals 
of the individual student. Examples of these courses are Mathematics 302 and 304; Physics 
161 and 164; and Biology 370 and 371 . 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include at least 
one of the following courses: 334, 341 and 341L, 342 or 344 and 342L, 351, 356/357, 361 and 
361L. The department will not accept courses taken pass /fail to count toward the minor. 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on a letter- 
grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter-grade basis the required 
physics and mathematics courses. 

A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required 
of students who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contingent 
upon satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced courses 
must be approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA or BS degree with a 
major in chemistry must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in their chemistry courses 
numbered 200 or above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry," a student must have a minirnurn GPA in chemistry 
courses of 3.3 and a minimum overall GPA of 3.0. In addition, the honors candidate must 
satisfactorily complete an approved research project, prepare a paper describing the 
project, and present results at a seminar for departmental approval. For additional 
information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

For the B A major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 



Chemistry 



87 



First Year 

Chem. Ill, 111L 
Chem. 116, 116L 
Math. Ill, 112 



Sophomore 

Chem. 221, 221 L 
Chem. 222, 222L 
Physics 113, 114 



Junior 

Chem. 341, 341 L 
Chem. 342, 342L 



Senior 

Chem. 361, 361 L 



For the BS major, the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 
First Year Sophomore Junior Senior 



Chem. Ill, 111L 
Chem. 116, 116L 
Math. Ill, 112 



Chem. 221, 221 L 
Chem. 222, 222L 
Physics 113, 114 
Math 113 (or 301) 



Chem. 341, 341 L 
Chem. 344, 342L 
Chem. 381, 382 
Chem 383 
Chem 391 or 392 
Math 113 (or 301) 
Science courses 



Chem. 334, 334L 
Chem. 361, 361 L 
Chem 381, 382 
Chemistry 
300-Level 
Elective 



For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a member of 
the faculty in chemistry. 

Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage and 
for certain consumable materials as determined by the department. 

108. Everyday Chemistry. (5) Introduction to chemistry for non-science majors. 
Laboratory covers experimental aspects of topics discussed in lecture. Satisfies 
Division II requirement. A student may not receive credit for both Chemistry 108 and 
Chemistry 111. Lab — three hours. 

*111. College Chemistry. (4) Fundamental chemical principles. C — Chem. 111L. 

*111L. College Chemistry Lab. (1) Laboratory covers experimental aspects of basic 
concepts. Lab — three hours. C — Chem. 111. 

*116. Equilibrium and Analysis. (4) Fundamental principles of equilibrium as applied to 
inorganic and generalized acid-base systems. P — Chem. 111. C — Chem. 116L. 

*116L. Equilibrium and Analysis Lab. (1 ) Laboratory covers aspects of quantitative and 
inorganic qualitative analysis. Lab — three hours. P — Chem. 111. C — Chem. 116. 

120. Physics and Chemistry of the Environment. (5 ) The course coheres the basic physical 
and chemical processes in the earth's atmosphere, biosphere and the oceans. It consists of 
two parts: 1) chemical processes in the environment such as element cycles and the 
chemistry of the pollutants in air and water and, 2) physical aspects of the environment 
such as solar energy and the atmosphere, and the physics of weather and climate. Lab — 
three hours. P — Chemistry 111 or Physics 113. (Also listed as Environmental Studies 225.) 

*221. Organic Chemistry I. (4) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. P — Chem. 
116. C— Chem. 221L. 

*221L. Organic Chemistry I Lab. (1) Lab— four hours. P— Chem. 116. C— Chem. 221. 

*222. Organic Chemistry II. (4) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. P — Chem. 
221. C— Chem. 222L. 

*222L. Organic Chemistry II Lab. (1) Lab— four hours. P— Chem. 221. C— Chem. 222. 



*The lecture and corresponding lab are strict coreauisites of each other. A student must register for both 
during the same semester. (However, either can be repeated independently if the student wishes.) 



88 Chemistry 



301, 302. Elective Research. (0,0) P — Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

*334. Chemical Analysis. (5) Theoretical and practical applications of modern methods 
of chemical analysis. Lab — four hours. C — Chem. 341, 341L 

*341. Physical Chemistry I. (4) Fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics and 
electrochemistry, phenomenological kinetics, and introductory computational methods. 
P— Chem. 116, Math. Ill, Physics 113-114. C— Chem. 341L, Math. 112, (Physics 113, 
with permission of instructor). 

*341L. Physical Chemistry I Lab. (1) Lab — four hours. P — Chem. 116, Math. Ill, Physics 
113-114. C— Chem. 341, Math. 112. 

*342. Physical Chemistry II A. (4) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical 
thermodynamics, and introductory computational methods. P — Chemistry 341, Math. 
111-112, Physics 113-114. C — Chem. 342L, (Physics 114, with permission of instructor). 

*342L. Physical Chemistry IIA Lab. (1) Lab— four hours. P— Chem. 341, Math. 111-112, 
Physics 113-114. C— Chem. 342 or 344. 

344. Physical Chemistry IIB. (4) Fundamentals of quantum mechanics, statistical thermo- 
dynamics, and introductory computational methods. Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 
341, Math 111-112 and 301 (or 113), Physics 113-114. C— Chem. 342L, (Physics 114, with 
permission of instructor). 

351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with particular 
emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity, and drug 
action. P — Chemistry 222. 

356, 357. Chemical Spectroscopy. (2,2) Fundamental aspects of the theory and application 
of chemical spectroscopy, as found in the areas of analytical, inorganic, organic, and 
physical chemistry. Emphasis will vary. Seven-week courses. P — Chemistry 342 or 344, 
361, or permission of instructor. 

*361. Inorganic Chemistry. (4) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. P — 
Chemistry 342 or 344. C— Chem. 361L. 

*361L. Inorganic Chemistry Lab. (1) Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 342 or 344. C — 
Chem. 361. 

381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0,0) Discussions of contemporary research. Attendance 
required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P — Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2,2) Undergraduate research. Lab — eight hours. 



*Tlie lecture and corresponding lab are strict corcquisites of each other. A student must register bor both 
during the same semester. (However, either can be repeated independently if the student wishes.) 



Classical Languages 89 



Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chair 

Professors John L. Andronica, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Associate Professors Mary L. B. Pendergraft, James T. Powell 

The Department of Classical Languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and classical 
studies. Minors are offered in Greek, Latin, and classical studies. 

A major in Greek requires thirty-five credits in the department beyond Greek 112. 
Twenty-eight of these credits must be in Greek courses. Greek 225 and Classics 270 are 
required. 

A minor in Greek requires Greek 153, 211, one other 200-level course in the Greek 
language; Classics 270; and one additional course (three or four credits) in Greek (200- 
level) or Latin or Classics. 

A major in Latin requires thirty-two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a requirement, 
and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six credits of 
course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight credits in the 
department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work in both Latin and 
Greek. The student must take a ininimum of two courses at the 200-level in either Greek 
or Latin and the following: Art 241 (Ancient Art), Classics 265 (Greek Literature), Classics 
272 (Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek Civilization), and Classics 271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits may be taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 245 
(Roman Art), 246 (Greek and Roman Architecture), 252 (Romanesque Art); History 215, 216 
(The Ancient World); Philosophy 201 (Ancient and Medieval Philosophy), 230 (Plato), 231 
(Aristotle); Politics 271 (Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy), 27 A (Noble Greeks 
and Romans); Religion 311 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible), 314 (Ancient Israel and Her 
Neighbors), 363 (Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 112, 153, 211. Other courses may be 
allowed with the permission of the department. 

A minor in classical studies requires five courses in addition to Latin or Greek 153: 
Classics 265, 272, and either 270 or 271; and two additional courses (8 credits) in Greek, 
Latin, classics, or other courses allowed by the department. 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as the 
requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an appropriate part 
of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in high school. A student 
wishing to secure this certification should confer with the chair of the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Studies," a student must 
complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive oral examination. For 
honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted toward the major must be 



90 Classical Languages 



seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one seminar course in Latin, Greek, 
or classics is required. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty 
should be consulted. 

Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5,5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose writers 
and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and selected readings. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212. Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221. Greek Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

225. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) Intensive work in morphology and 
syntax, with practice in composition and stylistic analysis of selected readings. 

231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (4) Close study of a selected tragedy or tragedies. This course 
includes consideration of the origin and history of Greek tragedy, with collateral reading 
of other tragedies in English translation. Seminar. P — Greek 211, 212, or equivalent. 

242. Greek Comedy. (4) Close study of a selected comedy or comedies of Aristophanes. 
This course includes consideration of the origin and history of Greek comedy, with 
collateral reading of other comedies in English translation. Seminar. P — Greek 211, 212, 
or equivalent. 

291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4,4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material of 
Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with an 
introduction to literary criticism. 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, with 
attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 

216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry through 
readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 



Classical Languages 9 1 



221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of Cicero and 
Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with a 
study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, with 
study of the elegiac tradition. 

241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention to the 
origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2,3, or 4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction to 
prose stylistics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4,4) A reading course and workshop in problems 
of Latin pedagogy and the secondary Latin curriculum, designed to meet the needs and 
interests of selected students. 

Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and authors of 
their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 

281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

151. Ethics in Greece and Rome. (2) Reading and discussion of Aristotle's Ethics and 
Cicero's On Moral Du ties, with attention to our own ethical dilemmas. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (2) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabularies 
(e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) The course explores the place of women in Greek and 
Roman society, men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their contribution to 



92 Classical Languages 



society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

255. Classical Epic: Iliad, Odyssey, Aeneid. (4) A study of the three principal epic 
poems from ancient Greece and Rome. A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages 
is not required. 

259. Virgil and His English Legacy. (4) A study of Virgil's Eclogues, Georgics, and 
selected passages of the Aeneid, and their influence on English literature, using 
translations and original works by writers of the sixteenth through the eighteenth 
centuries, including Spenser, Marlowe, Milton, Dryden, and Pope. Knowledge of 
Latin is not required. (Also listed as English 319.) 

261. Greek Myth. (4) A consideration, principally through close study of selected 
literary works, of Greek myth in its various forms, primary (archaic and classical 
periods) and secondary (Hellenistic and Roman); the course also will consider Greek 
myth's afterlife in the modern period. A knowledge of the Greek language is not 
required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and its 
influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menander, 
Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedy. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject of 
Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is 
not required. 

272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in English 
translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

279. Studies in Roman Biography. (2,3, or 4) A study in depth of a key figure of Roman 
history using the evidence of history, literature, numismatics, and epigraphy as well as art 
and archeology when appropriate. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

280. Topics in Greek History. (4) The course will examine three central events in Greek 
history: the Persian War (490-479 B.C.), the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), and the 
career of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), through close study of the works of 
Herodotus and Thucydides and of the Alexander tradition. Particular attention will be 
devoted to literary form and historiographical method. A knowledge of the Greek 
language is not required. 



Classical Languages/Communication 93 



285. Interdisciplinary Seminar in the Greco-Roman World. (4) This seminar is designed 
specially to meet the needs of students earning the interdisciplinary minor in early 
Christian studies, but is not limited to them. It will explore from various points of view 
the culture of the Mediterranean world from which Christianity was born and grew: 
literature and art, history and economics, religions and philosophies. Also offered by the 
Department of Religion as Religion 285. Course may be repeated for credit. 

288. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2,2) Directed research for honors paper. 



Communication 

Michael David Hazen, Chair 

University Distinguished Chair in Communication Ethics and 

Professor of Communication Ethics Michael J. Hyde 

Professors Michael David Hazen, Jill Jordan McMillan 

Adjunct Professor Jo Whitten May 

Associate Professors Allan D. Louden, Randall G. Rogan, 

Margaret D. Zulick 

Assistant Professors John T. Llewellyn, Ananda Mitra, Eric K. Watts 

Visiting Assistant Professor Mary M. Dalton 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Andrew W. Leslie, Dee Oseroff-Varnell 

Adjunct Instructors Susan L. Faust, Denise Franklin 

Ernest S. Jarrett, Mardene G. Morykwas, Karen L. Oxendine 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

Visiting Instructor Theresa R. Castor 

A major in communication requires forty credits, at least twelve of which must be at the 
300-level. All majors are required to take courses 100, 110, and 220 or 225 and should begin 
their study of communication with these courses. In addition, at least twelve credits must 
be taken from among the following courses: 113, 114, 200, 201, 245, 246, 335, and 340 (or 341 ). 
An overall minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all communication courses attempted 
is required for graduation. 

A minor in communication requires twenty-four credits, at least four of which must be 
at the 300-level, and shall include courses 100, 110, and 220 or 225. Remaining course work 
must include at least four credits from among the following courses: 1 13, 1 14, 200, 201, 245, 
335, and 340 (or 341). An overall minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all communica- 
tion courses attempted is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in communication. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Communication," students must pass the departmental honors course, complete a senior 
research project, and satisfactorily defend their work in an oral examination. For more 
details, consult faculty members in the department. 



94 Communication 



100. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theories, 
research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human beings share 
meanings and influence one another. 

110. Public Speaking. (4) A study of the theory and practice of public address. Lab 
experiences in the preparation, delivery, and critique of informative and persuasive 
speeches. 

111. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio and 
television. 

112S. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with empha- 
sis on selection, analysis, and performance. Offered in summer only. 

113. Interpersonal Communication. (4) An introductory overview of interpersonal 
communication theories and principles designed to improve the student's understanding 
of and ability to effectively communicate in interpersonal contexts. 

114. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of group 
interaction and decision-making. The course features lectures and discussions of theory 
and includes opportunities to participate in formal and informal group processes. 

115. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, and 
film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, public 
service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analyses, com- 
mentaries, and editorial). 

116. On-Camera Performance. (4) Designed to introduce students to the theory and 
practice of performing for the camera. This course covers basic method acting, 
newscasting, and other performance formats. (Also listed as Theater 141.) 

117. Writing for Public Relations and Advertising. (2,4) Principles and techniques of 
public relations and applied advertising. Students use case studies to develop public 
relations and advertising strategies. Permission of Instructor. (Also listed as Journal- 
ism 286.) 

160. Sign Language for the Deaf I. (2) An introduction to the basic expressive and 
receptive skills for finger spelling and the language of signs with attention to the culture 
of the deaf. 

161. Sign Language for the Deaf II. (2) Advanced work on basic expressive and receptive 
skills for finger spelling and the language of signs with attention to the culture of the deaf. 

200. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advocacy: 
research, speeches, and debate. 

201. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contemporary 
society. 

210. Advanced Public Speaking. (4) Advanced study in the art of public address. This 
course is recommended for students with some previous speech experience and /or 
training. 



Communication 95 



211. Media Production: Studio. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and video 
media projects. Multiple camera studio production emphasized. Lecture /laboratory. 

212. Media Production: Field. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and video 
media projects. Single camera field production and post-production emphasized. Lec- 
ture/laboratory. 

213. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

220. Empirical Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to methodological 
design and univariate statistics as used in communication research. 

225. Historical/Critical Research in Communication. (4) Introduces students to the 
historical and critical analysis of rhetoric. Examines current methods of rhetorical 
criticism with a view to researching and composing a critical paper in the field. 

245. Introduction to Mass Communication. (4) A historical survey of mass media and an 
examination of major contemporary media issues. 

246. Introduction to Film. (4) An introduction to the aesthetics of motion pictures through 
a study of the basic elements of film such as cinematography, editing, sound, lighting, 
color, etc. 

261. Disorders of Articulation and Phonology. (4) Etiology, evaluation and management 
of articulation and phonological disorders. Offered in alternate fall semesters. 

262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing-Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect of 
hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, speech 
reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing-impaired individual. 

Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

263. Introduction to Communication Disorders. (4) An introduction to the disorders of 
human communication including fluency, language, voice, and articulation. Offered in 
alternate fall semesters. 

264. Diagnosis and Treatment of Communication Disorders. (4) The basic principles of 
evaluation, remediation and instruction for children and adults with communication 
disorders. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

270. Special Seminar. (1-4) An examination of selected topics in the study of commu- 
nication. 

280. Communication Practicum I. (2,4) Individual projects in debate or communication 
internship to be approved, supervised, and evaluated by an appropriate faculty adviser. 
No student may register for more than two credits of practicum in any semester. No 
student is allowed to take more than a total of eight credits in practicum, only four credits 
of which may be counted toward a major in communication. Pass /fail only. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

281. Communication Practicum II. (2,4) See previous description. 

283. Individual Study. (1-4) Directed study in an area of interest to be approved and 
supervised by a faculty adviser. P — Permission of instructor. 



96 Communication 



285. Honors Course. (2,4) Intensive research in an area of special interest for selected 
seniors who wish to graduate with departmental honors. P — Permission of department. 

300. Classical Rhetoric. (4) A study of major writings in Greek and Roman rhetorical 
theory from the Sophists to Augustine. Offered in alternate years. 

301. Semantics and Language in Communication. (4) A study of how meaning is created 
by sign processes. Among the topics studied are language theory, semiotics, speech act 
theory, and pragmatics. (Also listed as Linguistics 301.) 

302. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criticism; 
examines both theoretical issues and social practices. Offered in alternate years. 

303S. Directing the Forensic Program. (2,4) A pragmatic study of the methods of 
directing high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate 
Workshop. Offered in the summer. 

304. Freedom of Speech. (4) An examination of the philosophical and historical traditions, 
significant cases, and contemporary controversies concerning freedom of expression. 
Offered in alternate years. 

305. Communication and Ethics. (4) A study of the role of communication in ethical 
controversies. 

310. Advanced Media Production. (1-4) Special projects in audio and video production 
for students with previous media production experience. P — Communication 211, 212, 
213, or permission of instructor. 

330. Communication and Conflict. (4) A review of the various theoretical perspectives on 
conflict and negotiation as well as methods for managing relational conflict. 

335. Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An overview of the role of commu- 
nication in constituting and maintaining the pattern of activities that sustain the modern 
organization. 

336. Organizational Rhetoric. (4) Explores the persuasive nature of organizational 
messages — those exchanged between organizational members, and those presented in 
behalf of the organization as a whole. Offered in alternate years. 

337. Rhetoric of Institutions. (4) A study of the communication practices of institutions 
as they seek to gain and maintain social legitimacy. Offered in alternate years. 

340. American Rhetorical Movements to 1900. (4) Examines the interrelation of Ameri- 
can rhetorical movements through the nineteenth century by reading and analyzing 
original speeches and documents with emphasis on antislavery and women's rights. 

341. American Rhetorical Movements since 1900. (4) Examines the interrelation of 
American rhetorical movements in the twentieth century by reading and analyzing 
original speeches and documents. Among the movements addressed are labor, civil 
rights, student radicals, and women's liberation. 

342. Political Communication. (4) Study of electoral communication, including candi- 
date and media influences on campaign speeches, debates, and advertising. 



Communication/Cultural Resource Preservation 97 



345. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of communi- 
cation in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of communication. 

346. Film Theory and Criticism. (4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the 
work of selected filmmakers and film critics. P — Communication 246 or permission of 
instructor. 

347. Film History to 1945. (4) A survey of the developments of motion pictures to 1945. 
Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

348. Film History since 1945. (4) A survey of the development of motion pictures from 
1946 to the present day. Includes lectures, readings, reports, and screenings. 

349. Communication and Technology. (4) An exploration of how communication 
technologies influence the social, political, and organization practices of everyday 
life. 

350. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communication 
phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural backgrounds. Offered 
in alternate years. 

351. Comparative Communication. (2,4) A comparison of communicative and rhetorical 
processes in the United States with one or more other national cultures with an emphasis 
on both historical and contemporary phenomena. A. Japan; B. Russia; C. Great Britain; D. 
Multiple countries. Offered in alternate years. 

370. Special Topics. (1-4) An examination of topics not covered in the regular curriculum. 

380. Great Teachers. (2,4) An intensive study of the ideas of three noted scholars and 
teachers in the field of communication. Students will interact with each teacher during a 
two to three-day visit to Wake Forest. 



Cultural Resource Preservation 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Ned Woodall (Anthropology), Coordinator 

The Departments of Anthropology, Art, History, and Sociology offer an interdisciplinary 
minor in Cultural Resource Preservation (CRP) which will give students preliminary 
training in the field of historic preservation and cultural resource management aimed at 
the protection and enhancement of archeological, historical, and architectural resources. 
The minor requires History 366, Studies in Historic Preservation (4), and four other 
courses for a total of twenty credits. These twenty credits must be distributed among at 
least three departments. The following courses may be included in the minor. (See course 
descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



98 Cultural Resource Preservation/Early Christian Studies 



Anthropology 101. General Anthropology. (4) (May 
count as a Division IV requirement.) 
305. Museum Anthropology. (4) 
370. Old World Prehistory. (4) 
374. Prehistory of North America. (4) 
378. Conservation Archeology. (2) 
381, 382. Archeological Research. (4,4) 

Art 233. American Architecture. (4) 

% 275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) 
288. Modern Architecture. (4) 
293. Practicum. (4) 

History 381, 382. Preservation Practicum I, II. (4,4) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) 

Sociology 151. Principles of Sociology. (4) (May count as a Division IV 

requirement.) 
205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) 

Students intending to minor in Cultural Resource Preservation should consult the 
adviser appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the registrar. 
Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the first semester of their junior 
year. Equivalent courses must be approved by the adviser. 



Early Christian Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 

Mary Pendergraft (Classics) and 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (Religion), Coordinators 

The interdisciplinary minor in Early Christian Studies requires twenty-two to twenty- 
three credits. The student must take the following core courses: 

Greek 231. The Greek New Testament (4); 

Religion 112. Introduction to the New Testament (4) or 

164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition (4); 

Classics 270. Greek Civilization (3) or 

271. Roman Civilization (3); and 

Classics /Religion 285. Interdisciplinary Seminar in the Greco-Roman World (4). 

The student must take two additional courses, with no more than one from any one 
department, from the following list. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



Early Christian Studies/East Asian Languages and Literatures 99 



Art 241. Ancient Art. (4) 

244. Greek Art. (4) 

245. Roman Art. (4) 

296. Art History Seminar. (2,4) a. Ancient Art / b. Medieval Art 

Classics 270. Greek Civilization. (3) 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) 

(whichever is not used to satisfy the core requirement 
for the Early Christian Studies minor) 

History 215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) 

Philosophy 232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) 

Religion 319. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) 
322. The General Epistles. (4) 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) 

327. Early Christian Theologians: the Fourth Evangelist. (4) 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) 



East Asian Languages and Literatures 

Associate Professor Patrick Moran, Coordinator 

Assistant Professor David P. Phillips 

Visiting Assistant Professor Kyoko T. Wilkerson 

Introductory courses are offered in the Chinese and Japanese languages to meet the 
basic requirements in language. In addition, advanced language and literature 
courses are offered, as well as literature in translation and culture courses. Students 
also may study abroad with Wake Forest programs in China and Japan. 

Chinese 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills in Mandarin. Introduction to the writing system and to basic sentence 
patterns. Lab required. 

Chinese 151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Chinese 112 or equivalent. 

Chinese 199. Individual Study. (1-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Chinese 211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) Readings in 
Chinese in prose and poetry. P — Chinese 152 or permission of instructor. Satisfies a 
Division I requirement. 



1 00 East Asian Languages and Literatures 

^Humanities 221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 
^Humanities 348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 
*Humanities 349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 
""Humanities 350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 
^Philosophy 253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

Japanese 

Japanese 111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) Emphasis on the development of listening 
and speaking skills. Introduction to the writing systems. Basic sentence patterns covered. 
Lab required. 

Japanese 151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) Further study in grammar, reading, 
conversation, and composition. Lab required. P — Japanese 112 or equivalent. 

Japanese 199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

Japanese 211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern Japanese. (4) 

Readings in Japanese in prose and poetry. P — Japanese 152 or permission of instructor. 
Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

Japanese 220. Advanced Conversation. (4) Study of conversational and interactional 
skills using reading materials and audiovisual materials as basis for class discussion. 
P — Japanese 211. 

Japanese 230. Advanced Japanese I. (4) Integration of speaking, reading, and writing 
skills with emphasis on written and audiovisual sources including newspapers, 
literature, and film. P — Japanese 220. 

Japanese 231. Advanced Japanese II. (4) Continuation of Japanese 230, with emphasis 
on oral presentation and compositional skills. P — Japanese 230. 

Humanities 170. Understanding Japan. (4) Understanding Japanese culture and 
behavior from the structure of social units such as family, educational institutions, 
and sports, artistic, and professional organizations. 

*Humanities 219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 

*Humanities 347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 

International Studies 210. Japanese and American Culture: A Cross-Cultural Com- 
parison. (4) An exploration and comparison of values, behavior, and beliefs in 
Japanese and American culture, with special attention to such topics as education, 
gender differences, and social hierarchy. 

Linguistics 231. Language and Gender in Japanese Culture. (4) Analyses of social 
and psychological factors related to gender differences in Japanese language usage. 
(Also listed as Women's Studies 231.) 

*See the appropriate listings for descriptions and prerequisites of courses given in English. 



East Asian Studies 



101 



East Asian Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Wei-chin Lee (Politics), Coordinator 

East Asian Studies requires twenty-four credits, which must be taken from at least three 
different departments and /or programs. One of these must be either Chinese 211 or 
Japanese 211. Although Asian Studies 381, Independent Research in Asian Studies, may be 
repeated for credit, only four of these credits can apply toward East Asian Studies. 
Appropriate credit in East Asian Studies also may be obtained by study in China through 
the SASASAAS/Wake Forest program or in Japan through the Wake Forest /Tokai 
University program, or through other Wake Forest approved courses of study in Asia. 
Study abroad is strongly encouraged but not required. Courses may be chosen from 
among the following list. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



Art 

Asian Studies 

Chinese Lang. 
& Literature 



Communication 
History 



Humanities 



International 
Studies 

Japanese Lang. 
& Literature 



104. Topics in World Art (when focus is on Asia). (4) 
311. Special Topics in Asian Studies. (2-4) 
381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) 

111,112. Elementary Chinese. (5,5) 

151, 152. Intermediate Chinese. (5,5) 

199. Individual Study. (1-4) 

211. Wen-xue: Introduction to Literature Written in Chinese. (4) 

351. Comparative Communication. (2,4) 
a. Japan 

310. Seminar. (4) 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 

343. Imperial China. (4) 

344. Modern China. (4) 

346. Japan before 1600. (4) 

347. Japan since World War II. (4) 

348. Japan since 1600. (4) 

170. Understanding Japan. (4) 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) 
221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 

348. Chinese Revolutionary Literature to 1948. (2) 

349. Chinese Liberation Literature since 1948. (2) 

350. Modern Chinese Literature. (4) 

210. Japanese and American Culture: A Cross-Cultural 
Comparison. (4) 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (5,5) 
151, 152. Intermediate Japanese. (5,5) 
199. Individual Study. (2-4) 

211. Bungaku: Introduction to Literature Written in Modern 
Japanese. (4) 

220. Advanced Conversation. (4) 



1 02 East Asian Studies/Ecomomics 



230. Advanced Japanese I. (4) 

231. Advanced Japanese II. (4) 

Philosophy 253. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 

(Also listed as Religion 380.) 

Politics 248. Government and Politics of China. (4) 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) 
260. East Asian International Relations. (4) 

Religion 361. Buddhism. (4) 

362. Islam. (4) 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) 
(Also listed as Philosophy 253.) 

Women's 231. Language and Gender in Japanese Culture. (4) 

Studies (Also listed as Linguistics 231.) 



Economics 

Claire Holton Hammond, Chair 

Archie Carroll Professor of Ethical Leadership John C. Moorhouse 

Reynolds Professor John H. Wood 

Professors David G. Brown, Donald E. Frey, J. Daniel Hammond 

Associate Professors Allin F. Cottrell, Claire Holton Hammond, 

Michael S. Lawlor, Perry L. Patterson, Robert M. Whaples 

Assistant Professors Jac C. Heckelman, Andrew J. Yates 

Visiting Assistant Professors John W. Dawson 

Instructor Chiara Gratton 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective partici- 
pation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills in solving 
economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative economic systems, 
and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for graduate study or positions 
in industry and government. 

The major in economics consists of thirty-six credits in economics, including Economics 150, 
205, 206, 207, and 208. The remaining economics courses are selected by the student and his 
or her adviser. A rninimum grade of C is required in Economics 150, 205, and 207, and an overall 
C average in economics courses. The student also must pass either Mathematics 1 08 or 1 1 1 and 
Mathematics 109 (or similar course with permission of department chair). 

The minor in economics consists of twenty-four credits, including Economics 150, 205, 
and 207. The mathematics and minimum grade requirements for the minor are the same 
as for the major. 

Economics majors are encouraged to take complementary courses in mathematics, the 
humanities, or other social sciences to sharpen their analytical skills and to acquire a 
broader understanding of important issues. The faculty adviser will assist each student 
in determining the particular combination of courses that satisfies his or her needs. 



Ecomomics 1 03 



Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of Econom- 
ics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken first. 

The Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the development 
of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major consists of the following 
course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 210, 211, 215, 218; Mathematics 111, 112, 
113, 121, 254, 255; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the 
program advisers. Students electing the joint major must receive permission from both 
the Department of Economics and the Department of Mathematics and Computer 
Science. A minimum grade average of C in all courses attempted for the mathematical 
economics joint major is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors program 
in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Mathematical 
Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Economics 298 or Mathematics 
381 by successfully completing a senior research project. Consult the program advisers for 
additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 

First Year Sophomore Junior* Senior 

Lower Division Economics 150 Economics 205, 206 Four electives 

requirements Mathematics 108 Economics 207, 208 in economics 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 

*It is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 

For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is typical: 

First Year Sophomore Junior Senior 

Mathematics 111,112 Economics 150 Economics 205, 207 Economics 218 

Lower Division Mathematics 113, Economics 210, 211 Three electives in 

requirements 121 Economics 215 economics and /or 

Mathematics 254, 255 mathematics 

150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic principles. 
Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some analytic techniques. 
Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore or upperclass standing. 

168. The Political Economy of Environmental Policy. (2) Develops a set of core 
economic principles essential for understanding and evaluating environmental policy 
issues. (Required for environmental studies minor. Does not count toward economics 
major and minor requirements unless Economics 248 also is successfully completed.) 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply analysis, 
neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market structures. 
P — Economics 150. 



1 04 Economics 



206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing behavior 
of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic dynamics. Theory 
employed in assessment of policy issues. P — Economics 205. 

207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts of 
national income, circular flow, income determination, IS-LM analysis, and Phillips 
curves. Emphasizes contributions of Keynes and the Keynesian tradition, including some 
attention to primary literature. P — Economics 150. 

208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Considers extensions of Keynesian theory, 
such as the post-Keynesians, and alternatives to Keynesian theory, such as monetarism, 
traditional classical, and new classical theories. More advanced tools of macroeconomic 
analysis may be introduced, for instance large forecasting models or dynamics. P — 
Economics 207. 

210. Microeconomic Models. (2) Development of formal models of consumer behavior, 
choice under risk, the firm, and demand and supply. Static and dynamic properties 
of the models are explored. P — Economics 205 and Mathematics 111. 

211. Macroeconomic Models. (2) Development of formal Keynesian, post-Keynesian, 
monetarist, and new classical macro models. Static and dynamic properties of the 
models are explored. P — Economics 207 and Mathematics 111. 

212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern economet- 
ric and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P — Economics 150. 
C — Economics 207. 

215. Introduction to Econometrics. (4) Economic analysis through quantitative methods, 
with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P — Economics 205, 207 and 
Mathematics 109 or 121. 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used to develop 
basic tools of economic analysis. P — Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 111, 112. 

219. Decision Analysis. (4) The theory and practice of decision making under 
uncertainty. Applications and examples are drawn from realms of personal, legal, 
business, medical, and environmental decision making. P — Economics 150 and 
Mathematics 109. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P — Eco- 
nomics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. P — 
Economics 207. 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P — Economics 205, 207. 



Economics 1 05 



224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, criminal 
behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P — Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to explore 
such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition formation, the 
optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. P — Economics 205. 

231. Economics of Industry. (4) Analysis of the link between market structure and market 
performance in U.S. industries from theoretical and empirical viewpoints. Examines the 
efficiency of mergers, cartels, and other firm behaviors. Case studies may include 
automobiles, steel, agriculture, computers, sports, and telecommunications. P — 
Economics 205. 

232. Business and Government. (2,4) Analysis of the logic and effectiveness of various 
regulatory instruments used by government to affect the structure and performance of 
industry. Principal topics include economic regulation of natural monopoly, antitrust 
policy, and deregulation in transportation and other industries. P — Economics 150. C — 
Economics 205. 

235. Labor Economics. (4) A theoretical and empirical survey of labor markets. Topics 
include: the demand and supply of labor, compensating wage differentials, education 
and training, discrimination, unions, public sector employment, earnings inequality, and 
unemployment. P — Economics 205, 207. 

246. Urban Economics. (4) Theoretical and empirical study of the city as an economic 
entity, with attention to land-use patterns and prices, urban decay and redevelopment, 
suburbanization, housing, and city finance. P — Economics 150. 

248. Resource Economics. (2) The economic theory of natural resource allocation and 
environmental quality. P — Economics 168 and 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade patterns 
and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. P — Economics 
205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency markets, 
balance of payments, and macroeconomic policy in open economies. P — Economics 205, 
207. 

253. Economies in Transition. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of histori- 
cally socialist nations and the dilemmas of transition. Special reference to the former 
Soviet Union. P — Economics 150. 

258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) A study of the problems of economic 
growth, with particular attention to the less developed countries of the world. P — 
Economics 205, 207. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy. P — Economics 150. 



1 06 Economics/ Education 



262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments in 
economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P — Economics 205, 
207. 

265. Economic Philosophers. (2,4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence of up 
to three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P — Economics 205, 
207. 

270. Current Economic Issues. (2,4) Examines current economic issues using economic 
theory and empirical evidence. Topics may include recent macroeconomics events, 
government budget deficits, banking insurance, corporate takeovers, international eco- 
nomic rivalries, economic differences by race and gender, health care, welfare, labor 
unions, legal reform, global warming and others. P — Economics 150. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (1,2,4; 1,2,4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult the 
instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P — Economics 205, 207. 

290. Individual Study. (2,4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting a 
research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P — Permission of instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research project. 
Required of candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of department. 



Education 



Joseph O. Milner, Chair 

Professors John P. Anderson, Patricia M. Cunningham, Samuel T. Gladding, 

John H. Litcher, Joseph O. Milner, Linda N. Nielsen, Leonard P. Roberge 

Associate Professors Robert H. Evans, Leah P. McCoy, Mary Lynn B. Redmond 

Assistant Professors R. Scott Baker, Donna A. Henderson, Loraine M. Stewart 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Alan S. Cameron, G. Dianne Mitchell, 

Marianne A. Schubert, Elizabeth H. Taylor 

Instructor Johnne W. Armentrout 

Visiting Instructor Vanda D. Thomas 

Wake Forest University believes that the teaching profession is important to society and 
that its welfare is significantly affected by the quality of educational leadership. One of the 
important objectives of the University has been and continues to be the preparation of 
teachers. The University's commitment to quality in teacher education is demonstrated 
by selective admission to the program, a wide range of professional courses, and closely 
supervised internships appropriate to the professional development of students. 



Education 1 07 



Prospective elementary and social studies teachers earn licensure in those broad areas 
and major in education. Prospective secondary teachers of English, Latin, math, sci- 
ence, and prospective K-12 teachers of foreign languages major in that discipline and 
minor in education. In addition to the professional program, the department provides 
elective courses open to all students. 

Teacher Licensure. The state of North Carolina issues the Professional Class A Teacher's 
License to graduates who have completed an approved program, including the specified 
courses in their teaching fields and the prescribed courses in education, who have 
demonstrated specific competencies, and who receive recommendations from the desig- 
nated officials in their teaching areas and from the chair of the department. 

Students who have graduated from an institution of higher education but have not 
completed an approved licensure program may seek admission to the department in 
order to complete the Class A License. 

Admission Requirements. Application for admission to the teacher education program 
normally occurs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an official 
application with the department's licensure officer, being interviewed, and being offi- 
cially approved by the department. In addition, the state of North Carolina requires 
teacher education program applicants to successfully complete the Praxis I before being 
formally admitted. 

All students are required to have a 2.50 or better grade-point average before being 
formally accepted in the Teacher Education Program. Formal acceptance into the pro- 
gram should take place during the first week of the semester prior to student teaching. 
Elementary education students must have a 2.50 GPA at the end of December of their 
junior year; secondary education students must have a 2.50 GPA at the end of August of 
their junior year. 

Program Area Goals. The goals and objectives for each licensure area are available in the 
office of the Department of Education. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candidates 
to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact sequence of 
professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular program and is 
determined by the adviser in conference with the candidate. For those seeking secondary 
certification, the majority of the professional work is taken during one semester of the 
senior year. Candidates for the elementary license typically begin course work required 
for licensure during the sophomore year. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include (1) senior, 
graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of two field experience courses, 
Educational Psychology, and the Foundations of Education course; (3) formal admission 
to the teacher education program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities by public school officials on the 
basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and the public school 
system. One semester of the senior year is reserved for the student teaching experience 
and the block of courses preparatory to that experience in the schools. Students may not 
take other courses during this semester without the approval of the department chair. 

Exit Requirements. Students must maintain a 2.50 GPA while enrolled in the teacher 
education program, and complete the program with a minimum GPA of 2.50. The state 



1 08 Education 



of North Carolina requires candidates for professional licensure to successfully com- 
plete the Principles of Learning and Teaching and the Specialty Area Exam of the NTE 
or the appropriate Praxis II Subject Assessment Exam(s). 



Teaching Area Requirements 

Secondary Certificate 

English — Forty credits, including 287, 323, and 390 or its equivalent. A course in world 
literature is also required. 

French — Licensure in K-12 in French: Thirty-six credits above French 213. French 
219, 220, 222, or their equivalents are required, as are three of the following 
courses: 221, 229, 323 or 324; students also must complete two of the three survey 
courses: 215, 216, 217. 

Spanish — Licensure in K-12 in Spanish: Thirty-six credits above Spanish 213. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, or their equivalents, plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish- American literature. 

German — Licensure in K-12 in German: Thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 
113, including German 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221; one of the following courses: 
249, 281, 285. 

Latin — The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 

Mathematics— -Forty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, 331; four 
credits from 311, 317, or 357; at least two additional 300-level courses. If the student 
does not elect 357, it is recommended that he/she take 109. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188; 
Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. 

Science — Licensure in the individual fields of science: biology (forty-one credits), 
chemistry (fifty-five credits), or physics (thirty-six credits). All credits must be from 
the same courses required for majors in those fields. 

Social Studies — Forty credits, including twenty-four credits in history, with course 
work in United States, European, and Third World history; sixteen credits with one 
course in economics, geography, politics, and anthropology or sociology. 

Education courses required for a secondary license include Education 201, 202, 203, 
307, 311, 354, 364, and 395. (Education 201, 202, 203 are replaced by 361, 362, 363 
respectively for students with graduate or unclassified standing.) In addition to these 
requirements, students seeking K-12 licensure in foreign languages must take either 
Education 313 or Psychology 241, and Education 390. 



Education 1 09 



Elementary Certificate 

A major in elementary education requires forty-eight credits including Education 201, 
202, 203, 221, 222, 250, 293, 294, 295, 296, 298, 301, 311, 382. In addition to or as part of 
lower division requirements, all education majors must have taken at least one course 
in biology, one course in mathematics, and one course in art or music. Elementary 
education majors must complete a minor in any department or have a concentration 
in one of the following areas: language arts, social studies, science, mathematics or 
foreign language. (Because many courses must be taken in the junior year to prepare 
for the senior fall student teaching block, education majors who want to take a 
semester abroad should take that semester during the sophomore year.) 

Education Minor 

A minor in professional education requires Education 201, 202, 203, 307, 311, 354, 364, 382, 
395, 398, and is awarded only to students in the teacher education program. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foundations 
of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass / fail only. P — Permission of 
department. 

203. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary classrooms. 
Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass /fail only. P — Education 202. 

221. Children's Literature and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature appropriate 
for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in reading. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

222. Integrating the Arts and Movement into the Elementary Curriculum. (3) A 

survey of the materials, methods, and techniques of integrating the arts and physical 
development into the elementary curriculum. P — Permission of instructor. 

231. Adolescent Literature. (4) A study of recent fiction centering on the lives of 
adolescents. Attention is given to interpretation of literature ranging from the reader 
response approach to critical pluralism. 

250. Student Teaching: Elementary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades K-6. 
Pass /fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems related 
to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 

272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background references 
for reading are suggested prior to the tour. Offered in the summer. 



1 1 Education 



273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A systematic study of the major compo- 
nents of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topography. 

274. Environmental Geography. (4) A systematic study of major environmental issues 
on a global scale with an exploration of implications and possible solutions. 

281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of abiding 
significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each topic will be 
examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts tradition. Politics 
and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are representative topics. 

293. Elementary School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles of 
curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of audiovisual 
materials and equipment. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary grades. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary grades. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Mathematics. (4) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching mathematics in the elementary grades, 
centering on relevant mathematics content. P — Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary trends 
and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. The course 
is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate their schools as 
informed citizens and decision-makers. 

298. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science. (4) A survey of the basic materials, 
methods, and techniques of teaching science in the elementary grades, centering on 
relevant science content. P — Permission of instructor. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcomputers 
for educators and other users, emphasizing familiarity with computers, use and evalua- 
tion of software, and elementary programming skills. Experience with audiovisual 
materials and techniques is included. 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P — Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, including American education. 

304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. The Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary educational institutions. 
This course examines such issues as school desegregation, schooling and social 
mobility, gender equity, and multiculturalism. 



Education ! 



307. Technology in Education. (3) An introduction to the use of computers as a 
support for teaching and the activities ancillary to teaching. P — Education 203. 

308. School and Society. (4) A study of continuity and change in educational institu- 
tions, including analysis of teachers, students, curriculum, evaluation, contemporary 
problems, and reform movements. P — Education 201 or introductory course in 
history or social science. 

311. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effective 
teaching /learning. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

312. Teaching Children with Special Needs. (4) A survey of the various types of 
learning problems commonly found in elementary children. Students will observe 
exemplary programs, tutor children with special needs, and attend seminars on 
effective instructional techniques. P — Education 221 and 250. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, and 
physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special concern for the 
educational implications of this process. 

341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, theory, 
procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling approaches in 
guidance and personnel work in education, business, and community service agencies. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

351. Adolescent Psychology. (5) An introduction to theories of adolescent psychology as 
related to teaching and counseling in various settings. The readings emphasize research- 
ers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents between the ages of 
thirteen and nineteen. 

354. Methods and Materials. (5) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teaching the 
various subjects. P — Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

358. Studies in Contemporary Leadership. (4) An examination of contemporary 
leadership theory and its various applications in society. Students engage in practical 
leadership exercises, read on a variety of leadership topics, and develop their own 
philosophy of leadership. A twenty-five contact hour internship is required. (Cross 
listed as Humanities 358.) 

361. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foundations 
of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

362. Field Experience One. (2) Practical experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass /fail only. 

363. Field Experience Two. (2) Further experiences in elementary or secondary class- 
rooms. Weekly public school participation and seminar. Pass /fail only. P — Education 
362. 

364. Field Experience Three: Secondary/Student Teaching. (6) Supervised teaching 
experience in grades 6-12. Pass /fail. P — Permission of instructor. 



1 1 2 Education 



382. Reading and Writing in Content Areas. (2) A survey of methods for teaching 
reading and writing to help students learn in the various content areas, and of 
techniques for adapting instruction to the literacy levels of students. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

387. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric with a special 
emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own writing 
process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice tutoring 
techniques in keeping with these theories. (Strongly recommended for those interested in 
working in the Writing Center as peer tutors.) A student may not receive credit for both 
Education 387 and English 287. 

390. Methods and Materials for Teaching Foreign Languages (K-6). (4) A survey of the 
basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching foreign languages in the elementary 
and middle grades. Emphasis is placed on issues and problems involved in planning and 
implementing effective second language programs in grades K-6. Spring semester. 

391. Teaching the Gifted. (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to teachers 
of the gifted. 

392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of giftedness and creativity in 
children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior performance. 
Topics to be covered include a history of the study of precocity, methods and problems 
of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality characteristics 
and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social implications of studying 
giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2,4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
Department of Education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented 
by a qualified student. 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation and 
instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the classroom 
experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special school setting. 

395. Teaching Exceptional Students. (3) An introduction to understanding excep- 
tional students and effective teaching strategies for their inclusion in the regular 
classroom. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to 
programs in education and training in business/ industrial settings. 

397. Research and Trends in the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (4) A study of 
current trends and issues in foreign language education. Research topics include 
language and linguistics, culture, and technology. Offered alternate summers in French- 
or Spanish-speaking countries. Offered other summers on campus. 

398. Seminar in Secondary Education. (1 ) An investigation of the issues that form the 
context for teaching in secondary schools. 



English 1 1 3 



English 



Nancy J. Cotton, Chair 

W.R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Humanities Allen Mandelbaum 

Professors Nancy J. Cotton, Mary K. DeShazer, 

Andrew V. Ettin, James S. Hans, W. Dillon Johnston, 

Robert W. Lovett, Barry G. Maine, Dolly A. McPherson, William M. Moss, 

Gillian R. Overing, Robert N. Shorter, Edwin G. Wilson 

Zachary T. Smith 

Associate Professor Gale Sigal 

Associate Professors Anne Boyle, Bashir El-Beshti, Scott W. Klein, 

Philip F. Kuberski, Claudia N. Thomas 

Assistant Professors Janis Caldwell, Elizabeth A. Petrino, Lisa Sternlieb, 

Olga Valbuena 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Eileen Cahill, Julie Edelson 

Visiting Assistant Professors E. Barnsley Brown, Caroline Levine, 

Shona Simpson, Suzanne Young, Carolyn L. Mathews, 

Jeryl J. Prescott, Michele S. Ware, Karen Weyler 

Lecturer in Journalism Wayne King 

Lecturer Patricia A. Johansson 

Visiting Lecturer in Journalism Justin Catanoso 

Instructor Thomas W. McGohey 

Visiting Instructors Ralph Black, Michael Horn, Jeannine Johnson, 

Steven Shoemaker 

Poet-in-Residence Jane Mead 

The major in English requires a minimum of forty credits, at least thirty-two of which must 
be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. These courses must 
include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature before 1800, one course 
in American literature, and a major seminar, which must be taken no later than the spring 
semester of the junior year. Majors and their advisers plan individual programs to meet 
these requirements and to include work in the major literary genres. 

A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus twenty 
credits in advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an 
adviser in the English department who will plan a program of study with the student. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in British 
and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are offered each 
semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by the department as 
related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they may be taken as electives 
regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second semester 
of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To graduate with 
"Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 in the major 
and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfy the requirements for English 388 during their senior 
year. Interested students may consult departmental faculty members for further information. 



1 1 4 English 



Lower Division Courses 

105. Introduction to Critical Reading and Writing. (4) Training in the fundamentals of 
written English and introduction to the activities basic to undergraduate study: critical 
reading and writing, interpretation, report, and discussion. Admission by placement 
only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 

*111. Writing Seminar. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based on 
readings in a selected topic. 

160. Introduction to British Literature. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in British Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different periods; 
primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — Permission of 
department. 

170. Introduction to American Literature. (4) Emphasis on a minimum of seven writers 
of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including both prose and poetry. 

175. Studies in American Literature. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — 
Permission of department. 

210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent papers 
and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P — Satisfaction of basic composition 
requirement. 

224. Exploring Shakespeare. (4) Six to eight works by Shakespeare in different genres, 
studied through printed texts, films, and videos. Emphasis will be placed on devel- 
oping abilities to understand and appreciate Shakespeare's works in performance 
through attention to language and stagecraft. This course may not be counted toward 
the major or minor in English. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 

Journalism Courses 

See section on Journalism, page 145. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2, 4) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 



*English 111 is a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement is waived. 



English 1 1 5 



286. Short Story Workshop. (2) A study of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

287. Tutoring Writing. (2) Introduction to composition theory and rhetoric, with a special 
emphasis on one-to-one tutoring techniques. Students will analyze their own writing 
process and experiences, study modern composition theory, and practice tutoring 
techniques in keeping with these theories. Strongly recommended for those interested in 
working in the Writing Center as peer tutors. A student may not receive credit for both 
Education 387 and English 287. 

383, 384. Theory and Practice of Poetry Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and discuss- 
ing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. P — English 285 or 
permission of instructor. Either 383 or 384 may count toward the major in English, but 
not both. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in British 
and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170 and 175, all of which are offered each 
semester. 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. Intensive 
practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short essays. Intro- 
duction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a documented paper. 
Required for all majors. 

301. Individual Authors. (2) Study of selected work from an important American or 
British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2, 4) Study of a significant literary theme in selected works. May 
be repeated. 

304. History of the English Language. (4) A survey of the development of English syntax, 
morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention to vocabu- 
lary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English literature, 
including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian mythology. Readings 
from Beowulf and selected poems and prose. 

310. The Medieval World. (4) Through the reading of primary texts, this course will 
examine theological, philosophical, and cultural assumptions of the Middle Ages. Topics 
may include Christian providential history, drama, devotional literature, the Franciscan 
controversy, domestic life, and Arthurian romance. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend in 
France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir Thomas 
Malory. 



1 1 6 English 



312. Medieval Poetry. (4) The origin and development of poetic genres and lyric forms of 
Middle English. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde, with some 
attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and philosophical 
background. 

319. Virgil and His English Legacy. (4) A study of Virgil's Eclogues, Georgics, and 
selected passages of the Aeneid, and their influence on English literature, using 
translations and original works by writers of the sixteenth through the eighteenth 
centuries, including Spenser, Marlowe, Milton, Dryden, and Pope. Knowledge of 
Latin is not required. (Also listed as Classics 259.) 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive of 
Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean tragedies, 
comedies, and tragicomedies. 

323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's develop- 
ment as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spenser, 
Sidney, Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets and The 
Faerie Queene. 

326. Studies in English Renaissance Literature. (4) Selected topics in Renaissance 
literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 

327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on Paradise 
Lost. 

328. Seventeenth-Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, Vaughan, 
Marvel, Crashaw; prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Consideration of religious, 
political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Representative poetry 
and prose, exclusive of the novel, 1660-1800, drawn from Dryden, Behn, Swift, Pope, 
Johnson, and Wollstonecraft. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant 
literary trends. 

335. Eighteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richardson, 
Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. 

336. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 to 
1780, including representative plays by Dryden, Etherege, Wycherley, Congreve, Gold- 
smith, and Sheridan. 

337. Studies in Eighteenth-Century British Literature. (4) Selected topics in eighteenth 
century literature. Consideration of texts and their cultural background. 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. Feminist 
critical approaches to literature. 



English 1 1 7 



350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth-Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works by Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold or 
another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of genres, 
major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, autobiogra- 
phy, and other prose. 

361. Literature and Science. (4) Literature of and about science. Topics will vary and 
may include literature and medicine, the two culture debate, poetry and science, 
nature in literature, the body in literature. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (4) Reading and critical analysis of the poetry of Blake, 
Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries in the Irish 
Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 

363. Studies in Modernism. (4) Selected issues in Modernism. Interdisciplinary, 
comparative, and theoretical approaches to works and authors. 

364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools of 
thought significant in the history of literary criticism. 

365. Twentieth-Century British Fiction. (4) A study of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, Forster, 
Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual back- 
grounds. 

366. James Joyce. (4) The major works by James Joyce, with an emphasis on Ulysses. 

367. Twentieth-Century English Poetry. (4) A study of twentieth-century poets of the 
English language, exclusive of the U.S. poets, will be read in relation to the literary and 
social history of the period. 

368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish writers 
within the context of the political, social, and literary history of Ireland. 

369. Modern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth-century 
realism and naturalism through symbolism and expressionism. After an introduction to 
European precursors, the course focuses on representative plays by Wilde, Shaw, Synge, 
Yeats, O'Neill, Eliot, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Hansberry, and Miller. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American literature and 
thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 



1 1 8 English 



375. American Drama. (4) A historical overview of drama in America, covering such 
playwrights as Boucicault, O'Neill, Hellman, Wilder, Williams, Inge, Miller, Hansberry, 
Albee, Shepard, Norman, Mamet, and Wilson. 

376. American Poetry before 1900. (4) Readings and critical analysis of American poetry 
from its beginnings to the end of the nineteenth century, including Bradstreet, Emerson, 
Longfellow, Melville, and Poe, with particular emphasis on Whitman and Dickinson. 

377. American Jewish Literature. (4) A survey of writings on Jewish topics or experiences 
by American Jewish writers. The course explores cultural and generational conflicts, 
responses to social change, the impact of the Shoah (Holocaust) on American Jews, and 
the challenges of language and form posed by Jewish and non-Jewish artistic traditions. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 

379. Literary Forms of the American Personal Narrative. (4) Reading and critical analysis 
of autobiographical texts in which the ideas, style, and point of view of the writer are 
examined to demonstrate how these works contribute to an understanding of pluralism 
in American culture. Representative authors may include Hurston, Wright, Kingston, 
Angelou, Wideman, Sarton, Chuang Hua, Crews, and Dillard. 

380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of selected 
fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing by representative black Americans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to 1965. (4) To include such writers as Stein, Lewis, 
Anderson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Wolfe, Wright, Ellison, Agee, 
Flannery O'Connor, and Pynchon. 

383. 384. Theory and Practice of Poetry Writing. (4,4) Emphasis on reading and 
discussing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. P — 
English 285 or permission of instructor. Either 383 or 384 may count toward the major 
in English, but not both. 

385. Twentieth-Century American Poetry. (4) Readings of modern American poetry in 
relation to the literary and social history of the period. 

386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided by the 
department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a qualified 
student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques of 
modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 



English/ Environmental Studies 



391. Studies in Postmodernism. (4) Interdisciplinary, comparative, and theoretical 
approaches to works and authors. 

394. Contemporary Drama. (4) The course will consider experiments in form and 
substance in plays from Godot to the present. Readings will cover such playwrights as 
Beckett, Osborne, Pinter, Stoppard, Churchill, Wertenbaker, Albee, Shepard, Mamet, 
Wilson, Soyinka, and Fugard. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post-World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ashbery, 
Ammons, Bishop, and Rich. 

396. Contemporary British Fiction. (4) A study of the British novel and short story, with 
particular focus on the multicultural aspects of British life, including works by 
Rushdie, Amis, Winterson and Ishiguro. 



Environmental Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
John Litcher (Education), Coordinator 

The Environmental Studies minor provides an interdisciplinary approach to the 
study of human-environmental interaction. The program seeks to identify and apply 
perspectives from biology, chemistry, physics, geography, English, government, 
economics, history, law, and anthropology to the human impact on the natural 
environment. The Environmental Studies minor, coupled with a liberal arts major, is 
designed to prepare students for careers in the environment sciences, law, public 
health, public policy, and public administration plus develop attitudes and values 
consistent with a sustainable, environmental future. 

The minor requires the core course, Environmental Studies 201, which is considered 
a prerequisite to all other courses in the minor. It is suggested that a prospective minor take 
this course and any other necessary prerequisites in the freshman and sophomore years. 
A minimum of twenty-six credits is required for this minor, twenty-two of which include 
the following required courses: 

Anthropology 260. Culture and Nature. (2) A study of the reciprocal effects of the 
culture and nature relationship, with an emphasis on how different cultures define, 
use, and value nature. 

Biology 113. Evolutionary and Ecological Biology. (5) An introduction to the 
principles of genetics, ecology, and evolution as they apply to organisms, popula- 
tions, and communities, with emphasis on evolutionary processes within an ecologi- 
cal context. Intended as a beginning course in biology for prospective majors and 
for any students with adequate high school preparation in biology. Lab — three 
hours. No prerequisites. 



20 Environmental Studies/ German and Russian 



Economics 168. The Political Economy of Environmental Policy. (2) Develops a set 
of core economic principles for understanding and evaluating environmental policy 
issues. (Does not count toward economics major and minor requirements unless 
Economics 248 also is successfully completed.) 

Education 274. Environmental Geography. (4) A systematic study of major environ- 
mental issues on a global scale with an exploration of implications and possible 
solutions. 

Environmental Studies 201. Introduction to Environmental Studies. (4) An interdis- 
ciplinary course taught by faculty representing a number of fields. Topics include 
scientific principles, human populations, resource management, pollution, and envi- 
ronmental ethics. 

Environmental Studies 225. Physics and Chemistry of the Environment. (5) The 

course coheres the basic physical and chemical processes in the earth's atmosphere, 
biosphere, and the oceans. It consists of two parts: 1) chemical processes in the 
environment such as element cycles and the chemistry of the pollutants in the air and 
water; 2) physical aspects of the environment such as solar energy and the atmosphere 
and the physics of weather and climate. Lab — three hours. P — Chemistry 111 or Physics 113. 



German and Russian 

Timothy F. Sellner, Chair 

Professors William S. Hamilton, Timothy F. Sellner, Larry E. West 

Associate Professor Kurt C. Shaw 

Assistant Professor Rebecca Thomas 

Lecturers Christa G. Carollo, Perry L. Patterson, Stefanie H. Tanis 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 112 or 113. These must 
include German 217; at least one course from among the sequence 249, 281, 285; and the 
seminar for majors. A minor in German requires five courses beyond German 153, 
including German 217 and at least one course from among the sequence 249, 281, 285. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in German," 
they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive examination. For 
additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin, the W. D. Sanders Scholarships and program of study at Freiburg, 
Berlin, and Vienna, administered by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors 
are strongly encouraged to live at least one semester in the German House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary German. (4, 4) This course covers the principles of grammar and 
pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab — one hour. 



German and Russian 1 2 



113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material of 
German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is inadequate or 
who have demonstrated proficiency in another language. Not open to students who have 
had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetry. Lab — one hour. P — Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four different 
regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant exposure to 
the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. Students attend daily 
language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. They are required to keep a journal 
in German. Pass/fail. Offered in summer. P — German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4,4) The object of this course is to acquaint 
students with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and reports. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of German 
grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required for majors. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

218. Basic Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German, stressing correctness of 
structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for everyday situations. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Conversation. (4) Practice in speaking German at a more advanced level, 
stressing discussion of various topics of current importance in the German-speaking 
countries. Considerable attention is devoted to achieving fluency. P — German 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

220. German Civilization I. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from prehis- 
toric times to 1918. Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

221. German Civilization II. (4) Survey of German culture and civilization from the 
Weimar Republic to the present, with particular emphasis on contemporary Germany. 
Conducted in German. P — 153 or equivalent. 

229. German for Business and Economics. (4) Introduction to the spoken and written 
language of the German business world. Emphasis on business correspondence and oral 
proficiency skills for banking, import /export and commercial transactions. P — German 
217 and 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919-33, 
in historical context. (Also listed as History 318.) 



22 German and Russian 



240. Masterworks in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of selected texts in 
English translation. Literary periods, genres, and authors will vary according to instruc- 
tor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. German Literature before 1700. (4) A survey of German literature of the Middle 
Ages, Reformation, and Baroque eras; emphasizes the chivalric period, medieval drama, 
Martin Luther, and the Baroque period. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

270. Individual Study. (1-4) Readings on selected topics in literature or current events not 
ordinarily covered in other courses. P — German 215, 216, and permission of instructor. 

280. Russian Women Writers. (4) Readings of selected prose works by such writers 
as Teffi, Forsh, Inber, Baranskaya, Grekova, Tokareva, Petrushevskaya, Vaneeva and 
Tolstaya. P — Russian 215 and 216. 

281. German Literature from the Enlightenment through Romanticism. (4) Selected 
works from the Enlightenment, the Storm and Stress period, the poetry and major dramas 
of Goethe and Schiller, and German Romanticism. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

285. German Literature from Poetic Realism to the Modern Age. (4) Intensive study of 
representative works of major German writers from 1848 to the present, including 
literature of the post-war era. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

287, 288. Honors in German. (3,3) A conference course in German literature. A major 
research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected genre topics in German literature. Intensive 
practice in critical discourse, including discussion and an oral presentation 
(Referat). Introduction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a 
documented paper. Required for all majors. P — German 249, 281, 285, or equivalent. May 
be repeated. 

Russian 

A major requires thirty-two credits beyond 153 and must include Russian 215, 216, 221, 
and either 217 or 218. A minor in Russian requires twenty credits beyond 153, four of 
which must be earned in Russian 221. Students of Russian are invited to apply for study 
at Moscow State University and for programs of study in Moscow and Kiev, administered 
by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are strongly encouraged to live 
at least one semester in the Russian House. 

Ill, 112. Elementary Russian. (4,4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversation drill, 
and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Principles of Russian grammar are reviewed and ex- 
panded upon; reading of short prose pieces and materials from the Russian press. Lab 
required. P — Russian 112 or equivalent. 



German and Russian 123 



215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the nineteenth 
century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twentieth 
century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Twentieth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Study of grammar at the advanced 
level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on contemporary Rus- 
sian materials. 

230. The Structure of Russian. (4) The linguistic tools of phonetics, phonemics, and 
morphophonemics are explained and applied to modern Russian. Emphasis is given to 
the study of roots and word formation. P — Permission of instructor required. 

232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) The evolution of Russian from Common 
Slavic to the modern language; theory of linguistic reconstruction and the Indo-European 
family; readings from selected Old East Slavic texts. P — Russian 221 and permission of 
instructor. 

240. Seminar in Translation. (4) Advanced work in English-to-Russian and Russian-to- 
English translation. P — Russian 221 and permission of instructor. 

242. Research on Language and Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by the 
student is carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative paper follows the class 
trip. Credit given for the minor when the project is done in Russian. P — Russian 111 and 
permission of instructor. Limited enrollment. 

250. Russian Culture and Civilization. (4) Survey of Russian contributions to art, 
architecture, music, and religious thought from Russia's beginnings to the present. 
Taught in Russian. P — Russian 215 or 216. 

252. Russian Poetry. (4) Survey of Russian poetry from Slovo o polku Igoreve to the present, 
with particular emphasis on the works of major nineteenth and twentieth century poets. 
P— Russian 215 or 216. 

270. Individual Study. (2-4) Study in language or literature beyond the 215-216 level. P — 
Russian 215 or higher. 

275. Studies in Russian Literature. (4) Selected special topics in Russian literature. P — 
Russian 215 or 216. 

285. Recent Russian Fiction. (4) Readings of selected prose works from the 1970s to 
the present by such writers as Iksander, Voinovich, Bitov, Tolstaya, Petrushevskaya, 
and Viktor Erofeev. P — Russian 215 or 216. 



1 24 German Studies 



German Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Timothy F. Sellner (German/Russian), Coordinator 

Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 215, 216, 217, 220, 221, or 229 are required. 
In addition, the student must take at least one course from three of the following four 
groups. Selected courses taken overseas in German-speaking countries may count 
toward this concentration with the approval of the coordinator. (See course descrip- 
tions under appropriate listings.) 

Group 1 

History 318. Weimar Germany. (4) 

(Also listed as German 231. 

319. Germany to 1871. (4) 

320. Germany: Unification to Unification, 1871-1990 (4) 
333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) 

Group 2 

Politics 231. Western European Politics. (4) 

233. The Politics of Modern Germany. (4) 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized 

Democracies. (4) 
273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) 
Group 3 

Economics and Business. (Selected courses taken in German-speaking 
countries with the approval of the coordinator.) 

Group 4 

Art 270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) 

272. Baroque Art. (4) 

Music 222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (4) 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (4) 

Philosophy 341. Kant. (4) 

352. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) 

Religion 368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4). 



Health and Exercise Science 1 25 



Health and Exercise Science 

Paul M. Ribisl, Chair 

Wake Forest Professor W. Jack Rejeski 

Professors Stephen P. Messier, Paul M. Ribisl 

Professor Emeritus William L. Hottinger 

Associate Professors Michael J. Berry, Leo Ellison 

Assistant Professors Peter H. Brubaker, Jennifer L. Etnier, 

Anthony P. Marsh, Gary D. Miller 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Johnnie Foye, Michele Pitbladdo, David Stroupe 

The purpose of the Department of Health and Exercise Science is to organize, administer, 
and supervise (1 ) a health and exercise science curriculum and (2) a required/elective health and 
exercise science program consisting of conditioning activities and lifetime sport activities. 

Health and Exercise Science Requirement 

All students must complete Health and Exercise Science 100 and 101. This requirement 
must be met before enrollment in additional health and exercise science elective courses, 
and in any case by the end of the second year. 

Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Exercise Science 

All the 100-level courses listed below are for one credit each, and they can only be taken 
once for credit except HES 180 and HES 183 which may be repeated once. 

100. Lifestyle and Health. A lecture course that deals with the effect of lifestyle behaviors 
on various health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and sexually- 
transmitted diseases. 

101 . Exercise for Health. A laboratory course on physical fitness that covers weight control, 
cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility. 

112. Sports Proficiency (May be taken only one time.) 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity (May be repeated one time for credit.) 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning (May be taken only one time.) 

116. Weight Training 
140. Beginning Swimming 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 
156. Racquetball 

160. Beginning Golf 

161 Intermediate Golf 

163. Bowling 

170. Volleyball 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding (P / F grade only) 

180. Intermediate/ Advanced Horseback Riding (P/F grade only. May be repeated once for 
credit.) 



1 26 Health and Exercise Science 



181. Snow Skiing (P/V grade only) 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183 Intermediate/ Advanced Ice Figure Skating (May be repeated once for credit) 
190. Karate 

246. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P — Current emergency water safety or lifeguard 
training certification) 

Courses for the Major 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and exercise science. 
A major requires thirty-eight credits and must include Health and Exercise Science 230, 
262, 312, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, and 370. Majors are not allowed to apply any Health and 
Exercise Science 100-level courses or HES 205, 206, or 246 toward the thirty-eight hours 
required for graduation. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 is required for gradua- 
tion in courses that comprise a major in the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in health and exercise science by the second semester of the junior year. 
To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Health and Exercise Science," a student 
must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 for all Health and Exercise Science 
courses and an overall GPA of 3.25 at the end of the junior year and complete an honors 
research project which includes a written and an oral report. For additional information, 
students should consult the departmental chair. 

Any student interested in majoring in health and exercise science should consult the 
chair of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

201. Health Issues on College Campuses - 1. (2) Introduction to concepts and methods of 
peer health education; development of teaching and group facilitation skills. (P/ F grade 
only.) P — Permission of instructor. 

202. Health Issues on College Campuses - II. (2) Development and delivery of educa- 
tional programs on a variety of health issues relevant to college students. (P / F grade only . ) 
P — Health and Exercise Science 201. 

205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in skin and 
SCUBA diving that offers international certification by the Professional Association of 
Diving Instructors (PADI). 

206. Lifeguard Training. (2) A lifeguard training course that offers American Red 
Cross certifications in CPR for the professional rescuer, community first aid, life- 
guard training, and waterfront lifeguarding. 

230. Advanced First Aid. (2) A course designed to provide the first responder with 
knowledge and skills necessary in an emergency to help sustain life, reduce pain, and 
minimize the consequences of injury or sudden illness until more advanced help can 
arrive. Upon completion of the course, Red Cross certifications in CPR /Professional 
Rescuer and Emergency Response will be issued. (Credit not allowed for both HES 
230 and 232.) 



Health and Exercise Science 1 27 



232. Emergency Medical Training. (2) Lectures and practical experiences in prepara- 
tion for responding to medical emergencies, including: patient assessment; airway 
management; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 2 therapy; management of shock; 
trauma and environmental emergencies; and head /spine /musculoskeletal injuries. 
North Carolina state exam for EMT certification is offered. (Credit not allowed for 
both HES 230 and 232.) 

246. Water Safety Instructor. (2) A course designed to train instructor candidates to 
teach American Red Cross swimming and water safety courses. 

262. Statistics in the Health Sciences. (4) Basic statistics with an emphasis on application 
to research in the health sciences. Students are introduced to graphics and statistical 
software for statistical analysis. (A student receiving credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Anthropology 380, Biology 380, Business 201, or Sociology 380.) 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods of 
solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career goals. 
(P/F grade only, open only to majors.) P — Permission of instructor. 

311. Internship in Rehabilitation. (2) A semester experience in the campus rehabili- 
tation programs. This experience includes written case study analyses of selected 
patients with a focus upon risk factor assessment and review of multiple intervention 
strategies, in conjunction with participation in physiologic monitoring of patients during 
therapeutic sessions. (Pass /fail only; open only to majors.) P — Permission of instructor. 

312. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents of 
exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to wellness, 
stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the psychodynamics of 
rehabilitative medicine. P — Health and Exercise Science 262 or permission of instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles and 
concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis on the 
muscular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P — Biology 1 1 1, 1 12, or 214, 
or permission of instructor. 

351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture /laboratory course which presents the 
principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs and 
nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity patterns on 
energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine intervention in 
obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of diet prescription, 
and behavior modification. P — Health and Exercise Science 350 or permission of instructor. 

352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture /laboratory course in which the structure and 
function of the human body are studied. Laboratories are devoted to the dissection and 
study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular systems. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. The 
acute and chronic responses of the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems to exercise are 



1 28 Health and Exercise Science 



examined. Other topics include exercise and coronary disease, nutrition and perfor- 
mance, strength and endurance training, body composition, sex-related differences, and 
environmental influences. P — Health and Exercise Science 350 or permission of instructor. 

354. Assessment Techniques in Health Sciences. (4) A lecture /laboratory course to 
develop clinical skills and knowledge in the assessment of health in areas of exercise 
physiology, nutrition / metabolism, biomechanics / neuromuscular function, and health 
psychology. The laboratory will emphasize use of instrumentation and analysis/ 
interpretation of data collected on human subjects. P — Health and Exercise Science 
262, 350, and 352 or permission of instructor. 

355. Clinical Exercise Programming. (4) A lecture / laboratory course which presents the 
scientific principles of safe and effective exercise prescription for fitness programs. P — 
Health and Exercise Science 353 and 354, or permission of instructor. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles which 
influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design. P — Health and 
Exercise Science 352 or permission of instructor. 

375. Advanced Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which provides an in-depth 
examination of the physiological mechanisms responsible for both the acute and chronic 
changes which occur with exercise. Included are cellular changes in response to exercise, 
the ventilatory response to exercise and metabolic consequences of exercise. P — Health 
and Exercise Science 353 or permission of instructor. 

380. Physical Activity and Aging. (4) A lecture course which examines both normal/ 
abnormal aging from a physiological perspective and explores how aging and chronic 
disease affect performance of activities of daily living, including vocational and 
recreational activities. The potential of regular physical activity to delay or reverse the 
deleterious effects of aging and degenerative disease is investigated. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The student 
must consult the adviser before registering for this course. P — Majors only and permis- 
sion of instructor. 

386. Honors Research. (4) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of mutual interest to the student and faculty honors adviser. Taken only by 
candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of instructor, approval of depart- 
mental honors committee, and prior completion of a 2 credit Individual Study. 

Sports Medicine* 

201. Basic Athletic Training. (3) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. P — 
Health and Exercise Science 352. 

inquiries regarding these two courses should he directed to the athletic trainer in Sports Medicine. 



History 1 29 



History 



J. Edwin Hendricks, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Paul D. Escott 

Wake Forest Professor James P. Barefield 

Professors J. Edwin Hendricks, Thomas E. Mullen, Michael L. Sinclair, 

J. Howell Smith, Alan J. Williams, Richard L. Zuber 

Associate Professors Michael L. Hughes, William K. Meyers, 

Anthony S. Parent Jr., Sarah L. Watts 

Assistant Professors Simone M. Caron, Paul M. Cobb, Joanne Izbicki, 

Claire S. Schen, Susan Z. Rupp 

Visiting Assistant Professors Gloria J. Fitzgibbon, Terence Kehoe, 

Jeffrey D. Lerner, David Libby 

Visiting Adjunct Lecturer Muriel Beth Hopkins 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include History 
288 or 310, and a minimum of seven credits in each of the following three fields: 
European history; Latin American, Asian, or African history; and United States 
history. Courses at the 100-level count toward the major but do not count toward the 
field distribution. 

Majors may include within the required thirty-six credits up to eight credits of 
advanced placement or comparable work and up to four credits of any combination of 
independent study and directed reading other than the credits earned in History 397. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. Courses that the student elects to take 
pass /fail do not meet the requirements for the major or minor. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in history. 
To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student must complete 
History 287, present an honors-quality research paper, successfully defend the paper in 
an oral examination, and earn an overall grade-point average of 3.0 with an average of 3.3 
on work in history. For additional information, students should consult members of the 
department. 

Students contemplating graduate study should acquire a reading knowledge of one 
modern foreign language for the MA degree and two for the PhD degree. 

101. Western Civilization to 1700. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern 
history to 1700. Focus varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 
103, or 102 and 104.) 

102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 1700 
to the present. Focus varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 

103. or 102 and 104.) 

103. World Civilizations to 1500. (4) A survey of the ancient, classical and medieval 
civilizations of Eurasia with a brief look at American and sub-Saharan societies. Focus 
varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 



30 History 



104. World Civilizations since 1500. (4) A survey of the major civilizations of the world 
in the modern and contemporary periods. Focus varies with instructor. (Credit cannot be 
received for both 101 and 103, or 102 and 104.) 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women who 
have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 

162. History of Wake Forest University (2) A survey of the history of Wake Forest from 
its beginning, including its written and oral traditions. The course may include a visit to 
the town of Wake F6rest. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4,4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and Romans in 
the spring. 

222. The Renaissance and Reformation. (4) Europe from 1300 to 1600. Social, cultural, 
and intellectual developments stressed. 

2253. History of Venice. (4) The history of Venice from its origin to the fall of the 
Venetian Republic. Offered in Venice. 

2260. History of London. (2,4) Topographical, social, economic, and political history of 
London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum visits and 
lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and government in 
the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles the Rash, 
1384-1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, including 
the role within Venetian life of music, theater, the church, and civic ritual. Offered in Venice. 

2280. Georgian and Victorian Society and Culture. (4) Social and economic transforma- 
tion of England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with particular attention to the 
rise of professionalism and developments in the arts. Offered in London. 

232. European Historical Novels. (2) The role of the historical past in selected works of 
fiction. 

251, 252. The United States. (4,4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 251: 
Before 1865; 252: After 1865. Students who take History 253 may not take either of these 
courses for credit. 

253. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 251 and 252. Not open to students 
who take either 251 or 252. 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4,4) 287: Seminar on problems of historical synthesis and 
interpretation. All honors students must take HST 287; 288: Writing of a major research 
paper. Permission of instructor. 






History 1 3 



301. The Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works 
of the Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as Natural Sciences 301 
and Philosophy 231.) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 252, Natural 
Sciences 302, and Philosophy 242.) 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically new 
ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time in relativity 
theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, and continental 
drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 253 and Natural Sciences 303.) 

305. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human values: 
biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for extraterres- 
trial life. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 256 and Natural Sciences 352.) 

306. The Early Middle Ages. (4) European history from the end of the Ancient World to 
the mid-twelfth century, stressing social and cultural developments. 

307. The High Middle Ages Through the Renaissance. (4) European history from the 
mid-twelfth through the early sixteenth centuries, stressing social and cultural develop- 
ments. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper is 
required. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History, 1300-1990. (4,4) Changes in Europe's 
economic structures and how they affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes how economic 
forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 314: 1750-1990. 

317. The French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire. (4) The revolution and wars that 
constitute one of the pivotal points in modern history. 

318. Weimar Germany. (4) Art, literature, music, and film of Weimar Germany, 1919- 
1933, in historical context. German or history credit determined at registration. 

319. Germany to 1871. (4) Social, economic, and political forces leading to the creation of 
a single German nation-state out of over 1,700 sovereign and semi-sovereign German 
states. 

320. Germany: Unification to Unification, 1871-1990. (4) The Germans' search for 
stability and unity in a society riven by conflict and on a continent riven by nationalism. 

321. France. (4) A history of France to the Revolution of 1789. 



132 History 



322. France. (4) A history of France from 1789 to present. 

323, 324. Great Britain. (4,4) A survey of British history. Topics include religion, 
revolution and reform, war, poverty and poor relief, women, social and economic 
change, and empire. 323: To eighteenth century; 324: Eighteenth century to present. 

325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of England 
from 1485 to 1641. 

3260. The Industrial Revolution in England. (4) A study of the social, economic, and 
political causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution in England. Offered in London. 

328. History of the English Common Law. (4) A study of the origins and development 
of the English common law and its legacy to modern legal processes and principles. 

331. Russia: Origins to 1865. (4) A survey of the political, social, and economic history of 
Russia, from its origins to the period of the Great Reforms under Alexander II. 

332. Russia and the Soviet Union: 1865 to the Present. (4) A survey of patterns of 
socioeconomic change from the late imperial period to the present, the emergence of the 
revolutionary movement, and the development of Soviet rule from its establishment to its 
collapse. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with some 
attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include the 
unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming of World 
War I. 

335, 336. Italy. (4,4) Cultural, social and political history of Italy. 335: Medieval and 
Renaissance Italy; 336: Nineteenth and twentieth-century Italy. 

340. African American History. (4) The role of African Americans in the development of 
the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, Ameri- 
canization, and influence. 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) A survey of the political, economic, and 
cultural experiences of women in China, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, India, Pakistan, and 
Bangladesh from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. 

342. The Middle East before 1500. (4) A survey of Middle Eastern history from the rise 
of Islam to the emergence of the last great Muslim unitary states. The course provides 
an overview of political history with more in-depth emphasis on the development of 
Islamic culture and society in the pre-modern era. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1850, with emphasis on social, 
cultural, and political institutions. 

344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345. The Middle East since 1500. (4) A survey of modern Middle Eastern history from 
the collapse of the last great Muslim unitary states to the present day. Topics include 



History 133 



the rise and demise of the Ottoman and Safvid empires, socio-political reform, the 
impact of colonialism, Islamic reform, the development of nationalism, and contem- 
porary social and economic challenges. 

346. Japan before 1600. (4) A survey of Japanese history from early origins to the 
beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate. Covers the rise of the Yamato state, the age of 
the Court, the ascendancy of samurai and shoguns, the period of the Warring States, 
and the rule of Hideyoshi. 

3471. Japan During the Tokugawa Era. (4) A study of the years 1600-1868 when the 
Tokugawa shogunate governed Japan. Topics include the relative domestic peace and 
cultural vitality of the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as the intellectual and political 
ferment of the early 19th century. Taught in Hiratsuka, Japan (Tokai University), the 
course will incorporate visits to sites and museums connected with the Tokugawa era. 

347. Japan since World War II. (4) A survey of Japanese history since the outbreak of the 
Pacific War, with emphasis on social and cultural developments. Topics may include 
occupation and recovery of independence, the "1955 System," high-growth economics, 
and the problems of prosperity in recent years. 

348. Japan since 1600. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and 
urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the contempo- 
rary world. 

350. Global Economic History. (4) An overview of the growth and development of the 
world economy from precapitalist organizations to the present system of developed and 
underdeveloped states. 

351. United States Social History to 1850. (4) A survey of American social history from 
colonial settlement to 1850. Topics include immigration, migration, ethnicity, gender, 
race, sexuality, labor, reform, poverty, religion, and urban growth. 

352. United States Social History since 1850. (4) A survey of American social history from 
1850 to 1990. Topics include immigration, ethnicity, gender, race, sexuality, labor, reform, 
poverty, and urban growth. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, alle- 
giances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American Revolu- 
tion, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States history, 1763- 
1890. 

356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, Clay, 
Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 

357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and military events of the war 
and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 



1 34 History 



358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2,4) National progress and 
problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course may be divided into halves 
for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; (b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from World War I through World War II. (4) The transition of 
America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of the New 
Deal and World War II. 

360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation from 
World War II to the present. 

361. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the United 
States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the controversies 
involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to meet the new 
American industrialism. 

363. 364. The South. (4,4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the role of women in America from the 
colonial period to the present. Possible topics include moral reform, the frontier, political 
and social activism, the labor movement, health reform, and peace movements. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analysis of history museums and agencies 
and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through artifacts, restora- 
tions, and reconstructions. P — Permission of instructor. 

367, 368. North Carolina. (4,4) Selected phases of the development of North Carolina from 
the colonial period to the present. 367: To 1850; 368: Since 1850. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and activities 
of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the relationship 
between war and society. 

370. Topics in North Carolina History. (4) A general chronological survey of North 
Carolina with emphasis on selected topics. 

371. Winston-Salem/Forsyth County. (4) A history of the Winston-Salem /Forsyth 
County area utilizing the techniques of local history including local archives, museums, 
and oral history projects. Lectures, readings, and class projects. 

372. Introduction to African History. (4) An introduction to African history from the 
perspective of the continent as a whole. The historical unity of the African continent and 
its relation to other continents will be stressed. 

373. History of Mexico. (4) An examination of the history of Mexico from the colonial 
period to the present. 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) A study of the history of protest 
movements and rebellions in Latin America from primitive and agrarian revolts to mass 
working class and socialist organizations. 



History 1 35 



375. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin- American history since independence, 
with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concentrate chiefly on econom- 
ics, politics, and race. 

376. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious history 
of the African- American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World War II 
to the present. (Also listed as Religion 341.) 

3760. Anglo-American Relations since 1940. (4) A study of the relations between the 
United States and Britain from 1940 to the present. Offered in London. 

377. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the history of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental policies. 

378. Struggles for Freedom in Southern Africa and the United States. (4) Comparison 
of the liberatory movements in Southern Africa and the United States during the 
twentieth century. (Also listed as Religion 348.) 

379. Origins of The Americas. (4) A unified, comparative history of North, Central, and 
South America from ancient times to the present. 

381, 382. Preservation Practicum I, II. (4,4) Training in the techniques and skills of 
historical preservation. Emphasis will vary according to the specific site(s) involved. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. American Foundations I, II. (4,4) Interdisciplinary study of American art, 
history, literature, and music. Using its collection of American art as the basis for study, 
Reynolda House Museum of American Art, in cooperation with Wake Forest University, 
invites twenty students to study with five professors from various disciplines through 
lectures, discussions, and concerts, including a study tour to New York City. (Taught in 
the summer; students enroll for both courses.) 

397. Historical Writing Tutorial. (2) Individual supervision of historical writing to 
improve a project initiated in History 288 or History 310. P — Permission of instructor. 
(Does not count toward major or minor requirements.) 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in the 
department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a qualified 
student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. P — Permission of instructor. 



1 36 Humanities 



Humanities 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 

William S. Hamilton, Coordinator 

W.R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Humanities Allen Mandelbaum 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Associate Professors Robert L. Utley Jr., Ulrike Wiethaus 

Assistant Professor Candyce Leonard 



In order to offer capable students a forum which encourages the pursuit of ideas 
across the disciplinary lines of such fields as history, philosophy, literature, politics, 
religion, and the arts, the minor is offered in Humanities. It requires a total of 20 
credits. Candidates for the minor are required to take HMN 280, Reason and 
Revelation, and HMN 290, Innovation and Inclusivity . When these have been passed, 
the student is assigned a minor adviser who assists in planning the rest of the student's 
curriculum. In accordance with the plan, eight more credits are selected from courses 
in the humanities or related disciplines other than those being used by the student to 
fulfill Divisional requirements of the College or the requirements of major. The minor 
concludes with a four-credit project in Humanities 396 supervised by a member of the 
Humanities faculty and reviewed by a committee of relevant faculty appointed by the 
coordinator of Humanities; the project must represent the further pursuit of an idea 
or topic studied in one of the courses of the minor, and must successfully reflect the 
synthesis of views from at least two traditional disciplines. 

170. Understanding Japan. (4) Understanding Japanese culture and behavior from 
the structure of social units such as family, educational institutions, and sports, 
artistic, and professional organizations. 

Humanities courses 213-222 are designed to introduce students to works of literature which would 
not be included in their normal course of study. Each course includes a reading in translation of ten 
to twelve representative authors. 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Dante, 
Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Division I require- 
ment. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Von Eschenbach, 
Hoffmann, Turgenev, Dostoevsky, Ibsen, and Kafka. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, Calderon, 
Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 



Humanities 1 37 



217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia Lorca, 
Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moricz, Hasek, 
Bulgakov, Andric, Gombrowicz, Kundera, Ugresic, and Erofeev. Satisfies a Division I 
requirement. 

219. Introduction to Japanese Literature. (4) Major works of poetry, drama and fiction 
from the classical and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

221. Introduction to Chinese Literature. (4) Readings and discussions in fiction, drama 
and poetry from the traditional and modern periods. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

222. African and Caribbean Literature. (4) An examination of the negritude movement 
and the negro- African novel. Texts studied are by such authors as Aime Cesaire, Leopold 
Senghor, Ousmane Sembene, and Mariama Ba. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

230. Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) Readings and discussions of texts by 
women writers in post-fascist Italy that reflect the feminine perspective on issues in 
contemporary Italian society and society at large. Authors include Naraini, Morante, 
Fallaci, Ginzburg, deCespedes, and Ortese. (Qualifies, with modifications, for the minor 
in Italian.) 

235. After Auschwitz: Holocaust Literature, Art, and Theology. (4) A survey of the 
ways in which novelists, poets, theologians, and culture critics have struggled to come 
to terms with the cataclysmic events of the Shoah. The course will consider textual, 
visual, and architectural responses such as poetry, films, memorials, and paintings. 

242. Research on Culture in Russia. (2) An investigation designed by the student is 
carried out in Russia during spring break. An evaluative term paper follows the class trip. 
Students who have studied any Russian should enroll under Russian 242. Limited 
enrollment. P — Permission of instructor. 

245. Interdisciplinary Seminar in Critical Thinking. (2) An investigation of cross- 
disciplinary issues. Designed to encourage experimental, interdisciplinary thinking 
and writing. 

265. Gender, Spirituality, and Art. (4) An introduction to the current discussion of the 
nature of art and spiritual experience, with special attention to definitions of feminin- 
ity and masculinity in the construction of symbols and religious meaning. 

274. Environmental Geography. (4) A systematic study of major environmental issues 
on a global scale with an exploration of implications and possible solutions. P — Permis- 
sion of instructor. (Also listed as Education 274.) 

275. Perspectives on the American Experience in Vietnam. (2 or 4) An examination 
of the American experience in Vietnam from the perspective of literature, art, and 
film, as well as historical and political writings. 



T 38 Humanities 



280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and Biblical 
monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a reading of such 
authors as Plato, Hesiod, Aristophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, and of selections from 
the Bible. 

282. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of abiding 
public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each topic 
will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts tradition. 
"Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" are representative topics. 

283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as viewed 
through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, Nietzsche, 
and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejection of the teachings 
of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

285. Culture and Religion in Modern Native America. (4) An interdisciplinary 
survey of American Indian cultures, including the arts and literature, religions, and 
historical changes. Special emphasis will be placed on the impact of the Conquista, 
encounters with Northern Atlantic societies, and contemporary developments. 

290. Innovation and Inclusivity. (4) An introduction to cultural innovation in the 
Twentieth Century. Written texts, visual arts, and performance art are analyzed 
through the perspectives of (1) paradigms such as psychoanalysis, Marxism, femi- 
nism, and liberation theology, (2) debates about political correctness and 
multiculturalism, and (3) strategies used by minority and non-Western voices. 

320. Perspectives on the Middle Ages. (4) A team-taught interdisciplinary course 
using a variety of literary, historical, and theoretical materials to examine one of the 
following: A. Medieval Women; B. Medieval Constructs of Gender, Race, and Class; 
C. Love and War in the Middle Ages; D. The Medieval Environment: Landscape and 
Culture. May be repeated for credit with different sub-topics. 

325. Ethics and the Professions. (4) An examination of the nature of a profession, and 
of ways in which ethical issues arise in the practice of particular professions and how 
they can be dealt with. Focus will be on standards of professional conduct and ways 
in which they contribute to the solution of ethical problems. Specific issues arising in 
specific professions, such as law, medicine, and education, will serve as detailed case 
studies for the purpose of discussion. 

337. World Poetry in Dramatic Performance. (2) A study, in translation, of ancient 
and contemporary poetry ranging from Japanese to Irish, African American, Spanish, 
German, Scottish, and others. Students will be required, after eight class meetings, to 
perform in a public presentation. Pass /fail only. 

338. Selected Readings in African and African American Cultural History. (4) This 
course provides opportunity for selected readings in and study of African and African 
American cultural history. Informed and active participation of students in discus- 
sion of the readings is required. 



Humanities 1 39 



343. The Philosophy of Liberation in Literature. (4) The concept of freedom as found in 
the works of such writers as Frederick Douglass, Kobo Abe, Wole Soyinka, Germaine 
Greer, Paule Marshall, Franz Fanon, Garcia Lorca, and James Baldwin. 

344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (2) The influence of African culture on 
American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. Pass /fail only. 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) Critical analysis of classical, modern, and 
contemporary writings by Japanese women, with an exploration of the cultural setting in 
which they occurred. 

353. African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) Critical analysis of fiction by female 
authors whose works concern women in Africa and its Caribbean diaspora. 

355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of love 
in selected works of art. (Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 249.) 

357. Images of Aging in the Humanities. (4,3) A multidisciplinary presentation and 
discussion of portrayals of aging in selected materials from several of the liberal arts: 
philosophical and religious perspectives; selections from literature and the visual arts; 
historical development of perceptions of aging; imaging of aging in contemporary 
culture. (Also listed as Honors 257.) 

358. Studies in Contemporary Leadership. (4) An examination of contemporary leader- 
ship theory and its various applications in society. Students will engage in practical 
leadership exercises, read on a variety of leadership topics, and develop their own 
philosophy of leadership. A twenty-five contact-hour internship is required. 

360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 
(Also listed as Interdisciplinary Honors 254.) 

361. Dante I. (2) A study of the Vita Nuova as apprenticeship to the Divina Commedia, and 
of the first half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, autobiography, and poetry, 
relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European present (the birth of modern 
languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and Dante's own afterlife in the West. 

362. Dante II. (2) A study of the second half of the Divina Commedia as epic, prophecy, 
autobiography, and poetry, relating it to antiquity, Christianity, Dante's European 
present (the birth of modern languages and new intellectual and poetic forms), and 
Dante's own afterlife in the West. P — Humanities 361 or permission of instructor. 

365. Humanity and Nature. (4,3) A multidisciplinary exploration of relations of human 
beings to nature, and of scientific, economic, and political factors in current environmental 
concerns. Selected religious, classical, and philosophical tests; works of visual art; selected 
discussions of ecology and human responsibility. (Also listed as Honors 265.) 



1 40 Humanities/ Interdisciplinary Honors 



380. Literature, Film, and Society. (4) A study of major selected works of literature, mainly 
American; of the films which have been based upon them; and of the social and political 
context in which they were read and seen. Texts will include novels, stories, and plays by 
such writers as Dreiser, Lewis, Warren, Steinbeck, Hellman, Harper Lee, Wright, and 
Walker. P — Junior standing. 

381. Independent Research in Asian Studies. (2-4) Supervised independent research 
project on a topic related to Asia. Requires the approval of both the instructor and the 
coordinator of Asian Studies. May be repeated for credit, but no more than four credits 
may count toward East Asian Studies or a minor in Asian Studies. 

382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italy's greatest postwar films, 
with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by major 
directors such as Fellini, DeSica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) Description in the coordinator's office. 

385. Legends of Troy. (4) An interdisciplinary investigation of translations and transfor- 
mations of the Trojan legend from the Greeks through the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance to the present. Texts, studied in English translation, are by such authors as 
Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Chaucer, Racine, and Giraudoux. 

390. Interdisciplinary Seminar on Aging. (2 or 4) A study of aging in an interdisciplinary 
context, including the biological, psychological, neurobiological, cognitive, health status, 
and social structural and demographic aspects of aging. P — Permission of instructor. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue study 
begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 



Interdisciplinary Honors 

James P. Barefield, Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified undergradu- 
ates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, supervised by the 
Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a member of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars and 
who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating in an 
honors paper and an oral examination. Those whose work has been superior in this course 
and who have achieved an overall grade-point average of at least 3.0 in all college work 
may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." Students who 
choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not also be candidates for "Honors 
in the Arts and Sciences." 

Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program rather 
than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to participate in 
only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particularly interested. The 
faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic disciplines. 



Interdisciplinary Honors 1 4 1 



131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4,4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the work of 
three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Klee, Lorenz, Confucius, Dostoevsky, 
Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion based on primary and 
secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. Written reports and a term 
paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4,4) A parallel course to Honors 131, 132, 
concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, Galileo, Keynes, 
Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. Offered in alternate years. 

233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A study of the Darwinian theory of evolution 
and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as economics, 
politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

235. The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, state, 
or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and values. 

236. The Force of Impressionism. (4) Impressionism and its impact on modern painting 
and literature, with attention to origins and theories of style. Painters to include Manet, 
Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Cezanne. Writers to include Baudelaire, Flaubert, Mallarme, 
James, Pound, Joyce, and Woolf . 

237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of the 
scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and social 
sciences and the humanities. 

238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and as 
a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primary materials in philosophy, literature, music, 
and painting. 

239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis on its 
twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other centuries 
and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the arts are 
explored. 

240. Adventures in Self-Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of significant 
accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical periods, cultural 
contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are Augustine, Dante, 
Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern writers. 

241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theater, and film. 

244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various conceptions 
of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited to the 



1 42 t Interdisciplinary Honors 



cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may also include 
theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 

246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and society 
in relation to the environment. 

247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; the uses 
to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern explana- 
tions of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, and historical). 

248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, art, 
history, theater, and film. 

249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of love 
in selected works of art. (Also listed as Humanities 355.) 

250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with ethical 
questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 

254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear weaponry. 

257. Images of Aging in the Humanities. (4) A multidisciplinary presentation and 
discussion of portrayals of aging in selected materials from several of the liberal arts: 
philosophical and religious perspectives; selections from literature and the visual arts; 
historical development of perceptions of aging; imaging of aging in contemporary 
culture. (Also listed as Humanities 357.) 

265. Humanity and Nature. (4) A multidisciplinary exploration of relations of human 
beings to nature, and of scientific, economic, and political factors in current environmental 
concerns. Selected religious, classical, and philosophical texts; works of visual art; selected 
discussions of ecology and human responsibility. (Also listed as Humanities 365.) 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the Commit- 
tee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based on these 
readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on the topic, 
administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. Eligible students 
who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the Committee on Honors 
by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for departmental honors. 



International Studies 143 



International Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Richard Sears (Politics), Coordinator 

The minor in International Studies consists of a total of twenty credits. Candidates for the 
minor are required to take International Studies 150 and sixteen other credits in 
International Studies from an approved list available in the Office of International 
Studies. These may include any INS course other than INS 100* or 101*. No more than 
eight of the twenty credits for the minor can be taken in a single department. Study 
of a foreign language beyond the basic requirements is strongly recommended, as is 
study abroad. Students should consult with the Director of International Studies as 
soon as they declare the minor. For more information contact the Office of Interna- 
tional Studies or the Registrar's Office. 

INS 150. Introduction to International Studies. (4) Applies theoretical assump- 
tions and methods to the analysis of selected global issues. 

INS 210. Japanese and American Culture: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. (4) An 

exploration and comparison of values, behavior, and beliefs in Japanese and 
American culture, with special attention to such topics as education, gender 
differences, and social hierarchy. 

INS 220. Forms of Orientalism. (4) The history of the representational practices 
of Orientalism, the problem of cultural representation, and the relationship 
between Western intellectual constructions of the Orient and Western colonial- 
ism. Case studies, particularly of the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. 

The following courses do not count for the minor but are designed to ensure that 
students who study overseas receive sufficient credit to make satisfactory progress 
toward graduation: International Studies 100 and 101. 

*100. Study Abroad. (1-4) Credit awarded to ensure that students participating in a 
full-time overseas program, as verified by the Office of International Studies, receive 
credit equal to a full semester's work on campus. (A full semester's work at Wake 
Forest is defined, for this purpose, as 16 credits.) P/F grade only. 

*101. Overseas Study. (1-3) Directed reading and /or field work as part of an 
approved overseas program under the supervision of the program director or the 
Office of International Studies. The keeping of a journal and submission of an end of 
program evaluation are required. P — Permission of the instructor. 



144 



Italian Studies 



Italian Studies 



(Foreign Area Study) 
Antonio Vitti (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

A semester in Venice or another approved course of study in Italy (or summer program 
at Middlebury, Vermont) is required. Students must take Italian through the 215 
(Introduction to Italian Literature I) level, plus three courses from the following groups, at 
least one each from Groups II and III. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 



I. Literature 

Classics 

Humanities 



Italian 

II. Fine Arts 

Art 



264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) 
272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) (appropriate topics 
and approval) 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) (appropriate topics and 
approval) 

216. Romance Literature. (4) 

217. European Drama. (4) (appropriate topics and approval) 
230. Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) 

361, 362. Dante I and II. (2,2) 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) (or any Italian course 
above 215) 



245. Roman Art. (4) 
268. Italian Renaissance Art. (4) 
Art 2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) (offered in Venice) 

Humanities 382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) 

383. Italian Fascism in Novels and Films. (4) 

Music 181. Music History I. (3) 

182. Music History II. (3) 
206. Survey of Opera. (4) 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) 

HI. History and the Social Sciences 

Classics 271. Roman Civilization. (3) 

History 222. The Renaissance and Reformation (4) 

2253. History of Venice. (4) (offered in Venice) 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) (offered in Venice) 

335, 336. Italy (4,4) 

398. Individual Study (1-4) (if directed toward Italy) 



Italian Studies/Journalism 145 



Students also may take appropriate courses in anthropology, economics, politics, 
psychology, religion, and sociology taught in the Venice program, and individual study 
courses taught in these departments, with appropriate topics. 

If you wish to graduate with a Certificate in Italian Studies, you must contact the 
registrar's office during the spring semester of your senior year and advise them. 
Request that a copy of your transcript be sent to the Department of Romance 
Languages for approval. 



Journalism 

(Minor) 

Wayne King, Coordinator 

Justin Catanoso, Visiting Lecturer 

The minor in journalism consists of 20 credits, including Journalism 270, 276, and 
either 272 or 280; Journalism 284 does not count toward the minor. In addition to the 
required 20 credits, minors in journalism are strongly advised to take Economics 150 
and 221. The remaining courses must be selected from among the following: 

Accounting 110. Introduction to Financial and Management Accounting (4) 

Communication 115. Writing for Radio-TV Film (4) 
211. Media Production: Studio (4) 
245. Introduction to Mass Communication (4) 

Economics 150. Introduction to Economics (4) 

221. Public Finance (4) 

Journalism 272 or 280. (whichever was not chosen as a required course) 

278. History of Journalism (4) 
282. Investigative Reporting (4) 

Politics 217. Politics and the Mass Media (4) 

Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Fundamentals of news-writing, news judgment, 
and news gathering, including computer-assisted reporting and research. Intensive 
in-class writing. 

272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, and 
make-up; practice on video display terminal. P — English 270. 

273. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, 
and film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, 
public service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analy- 
ses, commentaries, and editorials). (Also listed as Communication 115.) 



1 46 Journalism 



274. Media Production: Studio. (4) An introduction to the production of audio and 
video media projects. Multiple camera studio production emphasized. Lecture/ 
laboratory. (Also listed as Communication 211.) 

275. Introduction to Mass Communication. (4) A historical survey of mass media and 
an examination of major contemporary media issues. (Also listed as Communication 
245.) 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of newspaper 
stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers in journalism. 
P — English 270 or permission of instructor. 

277. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the 
political system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of the 
mass media and the impact of media on political processes and events. (Also listed as 
Politics 217.) 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism and 
its English origins, with attention to broad principles of mass communication from its 
beginnings through the Internet. 

280. Journalism, Ethics, and Law. (4) Explores ethical problems confronting journalists, 
including such things as the public's right to know, invasion of privacy, censorship, 
coverage of politics and elections, objectivity, and race, gender, and bias in news 
reporting, against a background of laws pertaining to areas such as libel and national 
security. P — English 270 or permission of instructor. 

282. Investigative Reporting. (4) Explores the methods and resources used in inves- 
tigative journalism — tracing individuals through public records, Freedom of Infor- 
mation Act requests, and specialized interview techniques. P — Permission of instructor. 

284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication. Emphasis on 
writing techniques. 

286. Writing for Public Relations and Advertising. (2,4) Principles and techniques of 
public relations and applied advertising. Students use case studies to develop public 
relations and advertising strategies. Permission of Instructor. (Also listed as Commu- 
nication 117.) 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical experience 
in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. By 
prearrangement. 



Latin American Studies 147 



Latin American Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Mary Friedman (Romance Languages), and 
William K. Meyers (History), Coordinators 

The minor in Latin American Studies provides an opportunity for students to 
undertake a multidisciplinary study of the history, geography, economics, politics, 
and culture of Latin America and the Caribbean. It consists of a total of twenty credits, 
only four of which may count toward the student's major. Candidates for the minor 
are required to take Latin American Studies 210, Introduction to Latin American Studies. 
In addition, candidates must elect at least four credits of coursework on Latin America 
in each of three different disciplines. 

Candidates should demonstrate proficiency in Spanish or Portuguese either by 
completing Spanish courses through the 213 level or by undergoing an oral 
proficiency interview with a member of the faculty of the Department of Romance 
Languages. 

210. Introduction to Latin American Studies. (4) Introduction to the historical, 
economic, cultural, and social issues which shape Latin America. 

Students may choose from the following list of electives in designing their minor: 

Anthropology 383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4) 
385, 386. Special Problems Seminar.* (4) 

Economics 251. International Trade. (4) 

252. International Finance. (4) 
258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) 

History 373. History of Mexico. (4) 

374. Protest and Rebellion in Latin America. (4) 

375. Modern Latin America. (4) 

Politics 236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. * (4) 
292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. * (4) 

Spanish 218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) 

219. Grammar and Composition. (4) 
223. Latin American Civilization. (4) 
229. Commercial, Official and Social Correspondence. (4) 

361. Latin American Cinema and Ideology. (4) 

362. Spanish American Poetry. (4) 

363. Contemporary Spanish American Theater. (4) 

364. Spanish American Short Story. (4) 

365. Spanish American Novel. (4) 

366. Seminar in Spanish American Novel. (4) 

367. Colonial Spanish America. (4) 

*When focus is on a Latin American topic. 



1 48 Latin American Studies/Linguistics 



* Five-Year BAIMA Degree Program Option. Students who choose to minor in 
Latin American Studies have the opportunity to pursue a joint BA/MA program in 
conjunction with the Center for Latin American Studies at Georgetown University in 
Washington, D.C. This program allows outstanding students interested in Latin 
America to begin work towards an interdisciplinary master's degree in Latin Ameri- 
can Studies while still undergraduates at Wake Forest, and to complete both degrees 
within a five-year period. The BA degree is awarded by Wake Forest, while the 
master's degree is awarded by Georgetown. See pages 67 and 176 of the bulletin for 
complete details. Interested students should contact the five-year degree program 
coordinator, Peter Siavelis, assistant professor of politics. 



Linguistics 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
M. Stanley Whitley (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

The interdisciplinary minor in linguistics requires Linguistics 150, Introduction to Linguis- 
tics, and sixteen additional credits (excluding Linguistics 111). Students minoring in 
linguistics are strongly encouraged to study foreign languages, achieving proficiency in 
at least one, and social and behavioral sciences. The minor may be usefully combined with 
a major in a foreign language, English, anthropology (or other social science), philosophy, 
or communication. 

The sixteen credits in addition to Linguistics 150 may be chosen from the following 
three groups: linguistics courses, historical linguistics, and related topics. It is strongly 
recommended that at least one course be from historical linguistics. 

Linguistics Courses 

111. Fundamentals of Language Study. (4) Introduction to fundamental notions of 
language and the study of foreign languages. Review of grammatical terminology and 
useful strategies for language learning. Comparison of English and selected foreign 
languages. 

150. Introduction to Linguistics. (4) The social phenomenon of language: how it origi- 
nated and developed, how it is learned and used, its relationship to other kinds of 
behavior; types of language (oral, written, signed) and language families; analysis of 
linguistic data; social issues of language use. 

231. Language and Gender in Japanese Culture. (4) Analyses of social and psycho- 
logical factors related to gender differences in Japanese language usage. (Also listed 
as Women's Studies 231.) 

301. Semantics and Language in Communication. (4) A study of how meaning is created 
by sign processes. Among the topics studied are language theory, semiotics, speech act 
theory, and pragmatics. (Also listed as Communication 301.) 



Linguistics 1 49 



310. Sociolinguistics and Dialectology. (4) Study of variation in language: effects of 
regional background, social class, ethnic group, gender, and setting; social attitudes 
toward language; outcomes of linguistic conflicts in the community; evolution of research 
methods for investigating language differences and the diffusion of change. P — Linguis- 
tics 150 or permission of instructor. 

330. Introduction to Psycholinguistics and Language Acquisition. (4) A psychological 
and linguistic study of the mental processes underlying the acquisition and use of 
language; how children acquire the structure of language and how adults make use of 
linguistic systems. 

340. Topics in Linguistics. (4) An interdisciplinary study of selected topics, such as 
morphology, phonology /phonetics, syntax, historical linguistics, history of linguistic 
theory, semiotics, and ethnolinguistics, issues in Asian linguistics, language and gender. 
P — Linguistics 150 or permission of instructor. 

375. Philosophy of Language. (4) A study of such philosophical issues about language as 
truth and meaning, reference and description, proper names, indexicals, modality, tense, 
the semantic paradoxes, and the differences between languages and other sorts of sign 
systems. P — Permission of instructor. (Also listed as Philosophy 375.) 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4,1-4) A reading and research course designed to meet the 
needs of selected students, to be carried out under the supervision of a faculty member in 
the linguistics minor program. P — Linguistics 150 and permission of instructor. 

Historical Linguistics 

(See course descriptions under appropriate department listings.) 

English 304. History of the English Language. (4) 

French 321. History and Structure of the Language. (4) 

Russian 232. The History of the Russian Language. (4) 

Spanish 321. History and Structure of the Spanish Language. (4) 

Related Topics 

(See course descriptions under appropriate department listings.) 

Classics 220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) 

English 390. The Structure of English. (4) 

French 222. French Phonetics. (4) 

Russian 230. The Structure of Russian. (4) 

Spanish 222. Spanish Phonology. (4) 

Students intending to minor in linguistics should consult the coordinator of linguistics 
in the Department of Romance Languages, preferably during their sophomore year. 



1 50 Mathematics and Computer Science 

Mathematics and Computer Science 

Richard D. Carmichael, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Robert J. Plemmons 

Wake Forest Professor John V. Baxley 

Professors Richard D. Carmichael, Elmer K. Hayashi, Fredric T. Howard, 

Ellen E. Kirkman, James Kuzmanovich, J. Gaylord May 

Associate Professors Edward E. Allen, Daniel Cafias, David J. John, 

James L. Norris III, Stephen B. Robinson, Stan J. Thomas, Todd C. Torgersen 

Assistant Professors Jennifer J. Burg, Yaorong Ge, 

Paul F. Hemler, Hugh N. Howards 

Visiting Assistant Professors Richard H. Hammack, Jeffrey K. Lawson, 

David W. Lyons 

Instructors Christa Beck, Janice Blackburn, Jule M. Connolly, 

Patricia Y. Underhill, David C. Wilson 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must include 
courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, one of the courses 311, 317, 352, 357, and at least three 
additional four-credit courses numbered higher than 113, two of which must be 
numbered above 300 (excluding 381). Lower division students are urged to consult a 
member of the departmental faculty before enrolling in courses other than those satisfying 
Division II requirements. 

A major in computer science requires forty credits in computer science and four courses 
in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 112, 211, 212, 235, 236, and 
277. The required courses in mathematics are 111, 112, 117, and 121. Students considering 
graduate work in computer science should consult a major adviser in the department for 
assistance in planning an appropriate course of study. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses, at least sixteen credits, in computer 
science numbered higher than 111, Mathematics 117, and an additional four credits in 
mathematics other than Mathematics 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 113 or 121, and three 
other courses of at least four credits each numbered higher than Mathematics 108, two of 
which must be numbered above 200. Neither Mathematics 301, 302, 303, or 304 can count 
as a course for this minor, but any pair may be so counted. Credit is not allowed for both 
Mathematics 1 2 1 and Mathematics 302 or for both Mathematics 303 and Mathematics 317. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the department 
is required for graduation with any major or minor which the department offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students and 
faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, game 
theory, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of 
Economics offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six credits, 
offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the development of 
economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has the following course 
requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 254, 255; Economics 150, 205, 207, 210, 211, 



Mathematics and Computer Science 1 5 1 

215, 218; and three additional courses chosen with the approval of the program advisers. 
Students selecting the joint major must receive permission from both the Department of 
Mathematics and Computer Science and the Department of Economics. 

The Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and the Calloway School 
of Business and Accountancy offer a joint major leading to a bachelor of science degree 
in mathematical business. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of fifty-six 
credits, prepares students for careers in business with a strong background in 
mathematics. The major has the following course requirements: Mathematics 112, 
256, 301, 302, 353; Business 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 252, 292; Mathematics 253 or 
Business 202; and twelve additional credits, eight in mathematics chosen from four 
credit courses at the 300 level or above excluding 381 and four credits in business. The 
following courses are prerequisites for admission into this major: Mathematics 111, 
Accounting 111, 112, Business 100, Economics 150, and Communication 110. Com- 
puter science 111, 112 and Mathematics 251 are strongly recommended as additional 
courses to be taken by majors in mathematical business. Students electing this joint 
major must seek and receive permission from both the Department of Mathematics 
and Computer Science and the Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. To 
graduate from Wake Forest University with a major in mathematical business, the 
student must satisfy the requirements for graduation of both the Department of 
Mathematics and Computer Science and the Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy. Refer to the description in this bulletin for the admission, continuation, 
and graduation requirements of the Calloway School. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in mathematics, computer science, or the joint major. To be graduated 
with the designation "Honors in Mathematics," "Honors in Computer Science," or 
"Honors in Mathematical Economics," they must complete satisfactorily a senior research 
paper. To graduate with "Honors in Mathematics" or "Honors in Computer Science," 
majors must have a minimum grade-point average of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all college 
course work. For additional information, members of the departmental faculty should be 
consulted. 

Students who are enrolled at Wake Forest may not take courses in mathematics and/ 
or computer science at other institutions to satisfy divisional requirements. 

Computer Science 

111. Introduction to Computer Science. (4) A rigorous introduction to the process of 
algorithmic problem-solving; an introduction to the organization of computers on which 
resulting programs run; and an overview of the societal and ethical context in which 
computer science exists. A scheduled laboratory experience is used for both the computer 
programming and computer organization aspects of the course. Lab — two hours. 

112. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Problem-solving 
and program construction are emphasized using reusable modules, data abstraction and 
parallel computation. Linear data structures, fundamental software engineering tools, 
and problem-solving paradigms are introduced for the beginning computer science 
student. Lab — two hours. P — Computer Science 111 or permission of instructor. 



1 52 Mathematics and Computer Science 



211. Computer Software Organization and Architecture. (4) Lecture and laboratory. 
Hierarchical software organization, representation and manipulation of data, instruction 
sets, addressing and structure of memory. The laboratory focuses on the understanding 
of an assembly language. Lab — two hours. P — Computer Science 112 and Mathematics 117. 

212. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic von Neumann 
computer architectures. Study and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic 
units, and memory devices. Lab — two hours. P — Computer Science 211. 

235. Data Structures and Algorithms I. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Study, analysis and 
implementation of abstract data structures such as list, stack, queue and tree. Complexity 
analysis of algorithms which operate upon these data structures. P — Computer Science 
112 and Mathematics 117. 

236. Data Structures and Algorithms II. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A continuation of the 
study, analysis and implementation of abstract data structures. The complexity of 
algorithms is studied more rigorously than in Computer Science 235 and complexity 
classes are introduced. P — Computer Science 235 and Mathematics 111. 

277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties of 
programming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and run-time 
representations. P — Computer Science 112 and Mathematics 117. 

301. Software Engineering. (4) The principles and methods for the specification, design, 
and validation of large software systems. Topics may include formal specification 
techniques, design techniques, programming methodology, program testing, proofs of 
program correctness, software reliability, and software management. P — Computer 
Science 235. 

302. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for sequenc- 
ing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P — Computer Science 
211 and Computer Science 235. 

310. Design of Central Processing Units. (4) Use of register-transfer notation, hardware 
programming languages, control sequencing, and microprogramming. P — Computer 
Science 212. 

319. Digital Systems Architecture. (4) The unification of hardware, firmware, and 
software. Architectural descriptions, storage systems, paging and associative memories, 
I/O systems, stack machines, and parallelism. P — Computer Science 211. 

323. Computer Graphics. (4) A study of software and hardware techniques in computer 
graphics. Topics include line and polygon drawing, hidden line and surface techniques, 
transformations, and ray tracing. P — Computer Science 235 and Mathematics 121. 

330. Computer Communications. (4) A study of the operation, design, and analytic modeling 
of computer communication and networking systems. P — Computer Science 211. 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Programming in a 
scientific / engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer techniques 



Mathematics and Computer Science 1 53 

for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, integration, 
systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed for both 
Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Mathematics 121, and 
Computer Science 111. 

361. Selected Topics. (2, 3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied in 
regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of techniques for compiling computer 
languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. P — Computer 
Science 211 and Computer Science 235. 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction to 
large-scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, data base 
models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P — Computer Science 235. 

379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in artificial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing. P — Computer Science 
236. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. At most, two credits can be counted toward the major in 
computer science. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer science. 

Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2,3, or 4) A review of the essentials of 
algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a student must have 
taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be eligible for admission). Not 
to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral calculus 
with application to business and the social sciences. No student allowed credit for both 
108 and 111. A student who might take additional calculus should not take Mathematics 

108. Lab — two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution functions, 
means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab — two hours. 

Ill, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4; 5 or 4) Calculus of functions of 
one variable; infinite series. No student allowed credit for both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariable Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; surfaces 
and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P — Mathematics 112. 

117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete mathematics 
applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean algebra, propositional logic, 
functions, computability, proof techniques, graph theory, and elementary combinatorics. 



1 54 Mathematics and Computer Science 

121. Linear Algebra I. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and matrices, 
determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors. Credit not allowed for both 121 and 302. 

165. Problem Solving Seminar. (1 or 2) A weekly seminar designed for students who wish 
to participate in mathematical competition such as the annual Putnam examination. Not 
to be counted toward any major or minor offered by the department. May be repeated for 
credit. 

221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the study 
of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P — Mathematics 121. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coefficients, 
linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness theorems for 
first order equations. P — Mathematics 112. 

253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. Studies in 
allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P — Mathematics 111. 

254. Optimization Theory. (2) Unconstrained and constrained optimization prob- 
lems; Lagrange multiplier methods; sufficient conditions involving bordered Hes- 
sians; inequality constraints; Kuhn-Tucker conditions; applications primarily to 
problems in economics. P — Mathematics 113 and Mathematics 121. 

255. Dynamical Systems. (2) An introduction to optimal control, including the 
Pontryagin maximum principle, and systems of nonlinear differential equations, 
particularly phase space methods. Applications to problems in economics, including 
optimal management of renewable resources. P — Mathematics 113 and Mathematics 
121. 

256. Statistical Methods. (4) A study of statistical methods that have proved useful in 
many different disciplines. These methods include tests of model assumptions, regres- 
sion, general linear models, nonparametric alternatives, and analysis of data collected 
over time. Knowledge of matrix algebra is desirable but not necessary. 

301. Vector Analysis. (2) Vector functions, partial derivatives, line and multiple integrals, 
Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem, divergence theorem. Not to be counted toward any 
major offered by the department except for the major in mathematical business. P — 
Mathematics 112. 

302. Matrix Algebra. (2) Matrices, determinants, solutions of linear equations, special 
matrices, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Not to be counted toward any major 
offered by the department except for the major in mathematical business. Credit not 
allowed for both 121 and 302. 

303. Complex Variables. (2) Topics in analytic function theory, Cauchy's theorem, Taylor 
and Laurent series, residues. Not to be counted toward any major offered by the 
department. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P — Mathematics 112. 

304. Applied Partial Differential Equations. (2) The separation of variables technique for 
the solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations with the 



Mathematics and Computer Science 1 55 



related study of special functions and Fourier series. Not to be counted toward any major 
offered by the department. P — Mathematics 251. 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4,4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, differen- 
tiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform convergence, 
power series and Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions of n real variables, 
implicit and inverse function theorems. P — Mathematics 113. 

317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions, Cauchy's theorem and its consequences, 
power series, and residue calculus. Credit not allowed for both 303 and 317. P — 
Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the study 
of additional properties of groups, rings, and fields. P — Mathematics 221. 

324. Linear Algebra II. (4) A thorough treatment of vector spaces and linear transforma- 
tions over an arbitrary field, canonical forms, inner product spaces, and linear groups. P — 
Mathematics 121 and Mathematics 221. 

326. Numerical Linear Algebra. (4) Numerical methods for solving matrix and related 
problems in science and engineering. Topics will include systems of linear equations, least 
squares methods, and eigenvalue computations. Special emphasis given to parallel 
matrix computations. Beginning knowledge of a programming language, such as Pascal, 
FORTRAN, or C, is required. P — Mathematics 112 and Mathematics 121. 

331. Geometry. (4) An introduction to axiomatic geometry including a comparison of 
Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. 

334. Differential Geometry. (4) Introduction to the theory of curves and surfaces in two 
and three dimensional space, including such topics as curvature, geodesies, and minimal 
surfaces. P — Mathematics 113. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4,4) Properties of integers, including 
congruences, primitive roots, quadratic residues, perfect numbers, Pythagorean 
triples, sums of squares, continued fractions, Fermat's Last Theorem, and the Prime 
Number Theorem. 

348, 349. Combinatorial Analysis I, II. (4,4) Enumeration techniques, generating func- 
tions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, Poly a theory, graph 
theory, combinatorial algorithms, partially ordered sets, designs, Ramsey theory, sym- 
metric functions, and Schur functions. 

352. Partial Differential Equations. (4) A detailed study of partial differential equations, 
including the heat, wave, and Laplace equations, using methods such as separation of 
variables, characteristics, Green's functions, and the maximum principle. P — Mathemat- 
ics 113 and Mathematics 251. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and deter- 
ministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent systems in the 
social, behavioral, and management sciences. 



1 56 Mathematics and Computer Science/Medieval Studies 

355. Introduction to Numerical Methods. (4) Numerical computations on modern 
computer architectures; floating point arithmetic and round-off error. Prograrnming in a 
scientific / engineering language (C or FORTRAN). Algorithms and computer techniques 
for the solution of problems such as roots of functions, approximation, integration, 
systems of linear equations and least squares methods. Credit not allowed for both 
Mathematics 355 and Computer Science 355. P — Mathematics 112, Mathematics 121, and 
Computer Science 111. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, H. (4,4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regression, 
correlation, and analysis of variance. C — Mathematics 113, or P — Permission of instruc- 
tor. 

361. Selected Topics. (2,3, or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered in regular 
courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 

381. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 



Medieval Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Gillian Overing and Gale Sigal (English), Coordinators 

The interdisciplinary minor in medieval studies requires twenty-four credits, chosen 
from at least three different departments. Courses from the student's major may count in 
the minor. Students are encouraged, but not required, to attend the six-week Summer 
Medieval Program at Oxford University in England, for which they receive six credits 
(two courses) which count toward the minor. (For details about application to the Oxford 
program, and possible financial aid, consult Gale Sigal in the English department.) 
Courses may be chosen from the following list. (See course descriptions under appropri- 
ate listings.) 

Art 252. Romanesque Art. (4) 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) 

254. Luxury Arts in the Middle Ages. (4) 
267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) 

296. Art History Seminar: b. Medieval Art. (2,4) 
English 305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) 

310. The Medieval World. (4) 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) 

312. Medieval Poetry. (4) 
315. Chaucer. (4) 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) 

French 330. Seminar in Medieval Studies. (4) 



Medieval Studies/ Military Science 1 57 

German 249. German Literature before 1700. (4) 

History 306. The Early Middle Ages. (4) 

307. The High Middle Ages Through the Renaissance. (4) 
335. Italy. Medieval and Rertaissance. (4) 

Humanities 320. Perspectives on the Middle Ages. (4) 

361. Dante I. (2) 

362. Dante II. (2) 

Music 220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) 

Philosophy 232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) 

Religion 367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) 

372. History of Christian Thought: b. Medieval and Reformation 
Thought. (2,4) 

Spanish 231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) 

Theater 260. History of Western Theater I (Beginnings to 1642). (4) 

Students intending to minor in Medieval Studies should consult one of the coordina- 
tors, preferably during the sophomore year. 



Military Science 



Lieutenant Colonel Donald J. Moser, Professor 

Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth M. Walker, Adjunct Professor 

Assistant Professors: Major James C. Brand, Captain Christian J. Abell, 

Captain Patrick L. Rimron 

Instructors: Master Sergeant Elton L. Richards Jr., Sergeant First Class Anthony 

Pardella 
Adjunct Instructor: Lieutenant Colonel Stephen J. Huebner 

Completion of Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) requirements and 
recommendation for appointment by the professor of military science may result in 
commissioning as a second lieutenant in the active or reserve forces components of the 
Army of the United States, as determined by the Secretary of the Army. The AROTC 
program is composed of the Basic Course and the Advanced Course. The Basic Course is 
composed of four core courses (121, 122, 123, and 124), sometimes with either 117 or 118 
taken each semester as a co-requisite. No military obligation is incurred by enrollment in 
the Basic Course, except by Army ROTC Scholarship cadets, and then only when 
beginning their sophomore year. The Basic Course may be completed, partially or fully, 
by various alternative methods (i.e., through credit for specific types of Junior ROTC or 
other military tiaining, as determined by the professor of military science, or through 
completion of a six-week summer Basic Camp). The Advanced Course is composed of 
four core courses (225, 226, 227, and 228), with either 117 or 118 taken each semester as a 
co-requisite, and a five-week Advanced Camp, usually attended during the summer 



158 Military Science 

between the junior and senior years. Army ROTC scholarships are available to qualified 
applicants (both those already enrolled in the AROTC program and those not yet enrolled) through 
annual competition. 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of sur- 
vival; mountaineering techniques. 

114. Leadership. (2) An examination of the fundamentals contributing to the develop- 
ment of a personal style of leadership with emphasis on the dimensions of junior executive 
management. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time /distance relationships, 
and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 

117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (0,0) Basic military skills instruction designed to 
technically and tactically qualify the student for assumption of an officer leadership 
position at the small-unit level. Either 117 (fall) or 118 (spring) is required each semester 
for contracted AROTC cadets (including those conditionally contracted), advance desig- 
nee scholarship winners, and non-contracted AROTC cadets taking their third and fourth 
military science core courses. Pass /fail only. C — Any other military science core course. 
P — Permission of the professor of military science, except when required as explained 
above. 

121. Introduction to Army ROTC and the US Army. (2) An introduction to the Army 
Reserve Officers' Training Corps and to the United States Army, exploring roles, 
organization, customs and traditions. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

122. Introduction to Military Leadership. (2) Introduction to military leadership, plan- 
ning, organizing, communication skills and problem analysis. Techniques of motivation 
and management of subordinates. Examination of moral issues, requirements and 
dilemma of the military profession. P — Military Science 121 or permission of the professor 
of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as appropriate. 

123. Land Navigation and Terrain Analysis. (2) A study of the methods of land 
navigation and terrain analysis for military operations. P — Military Science 121 and 122, 
or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 117 or 118, as 
appropriate. 

124. Tactics and Leadership in the US Army. (2) An introduction to planning, organizing, 
and conducting military ground operations, with a consideration of the principles of war. 
Focuses on current leadership doctrine within the Army. P — Military Science 121, 122, 
and 1 23, or permission of the professor of military science. C — Military Science 1 1 7 or 1 1 8, 
as appropriate. 

225. Military Operations. (2) An in-depth study of the principles of combined arms 
operations. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by 
the professor of military science). C — Military Science 117. 



Military Science/Music 1 59 

226. Advanced Military Operations. (2) A continuation of Military Science 225 with an 
emphasis on the leadership aspect of combined arms operations. Specific preparation for 
the AROTC Advanced Camp. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit 
as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 225. C — Military 
Science 118. 

227. Leadership and Management in the US Army I. (2) The theory and practice of 
military leadership. Emphasis on the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the Manual for 
Courts-Martial, the Law of Land Warfare and the Army's personnel, training, and 
logistical management systems. P — Military Science 121 through 124 (or equivalent credit 
as determined by the professor of military science) and Military Science 225 and 226. C — 
Military Science 117. 

228. Leadership and Management in the US Army II. (2) A continuation of Military 
Science 227 with emphasis on the transition from cadet to officer. P — Military Science 121 
through 124 (or equivalent credit as determined by the professor of military science) and 
Military Science 225 through 227. C — Military Science 118. 

229. American Military History. (4) The American military experience with emphasis on 
the ideas and activities contributing to the development of the United States' unique 
military establishment. Particular emphasis on civilian control of the military. P — 
Permission of the professor of military science. Credit not allowed for this course if credit 
has been earned for History 369. 

Music 

David B. Levy, Chair 

Professors Susan Harden Borwick, Stewart Carter, Louis Goldstein, David B. Levy, 

Dan Locklair (Composer-in-Residence) 

Associate Professors Peter Kairoff, Teresa Radomski 

Assistant Professor and Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Part-time Assistant Professor Pamela Howland 

Director of Bands C. Kevin Bowen 

Director of Orchestra David Hagy 

Instructors Patricia Dixon, Richard E. Heard 

Part-time Instructor Kathryn Levy 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of thirty- 
six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music History 181, 182, 
six credits; ten credits of individual instruction; and four credits of ensemble, taken in four 
semesters) plus six semesters of Music Recitals 100 and twelve credits of elective courses 
in music, excluding ensembles and Music 165-169, 1 75-1 79. In addition to the course work, 
music majors are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during their first 
year and are required to audition typically during the second semester of their sopho- 
more year before officially being admitted to the program. 



1 60 Music 



Highly qualified majors may be invited by the music faculty to apply for admission to 
the honors program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Music," 
a candidate must have a 3.0 overall GPA and a 3.5 GPA in courses in the major. In addition, 
the candidate must be nominated for this honor by a music faculty member and must 
complete one of the following requirements: (1) an honors-level research paper, (2) an 
analysis project, (3) an original composition, (4) a lecture-recital, (5) a solo recital, (6) a 
chamber-music recital, (7) a solo concert with ensemble, or (8) a conducting project. More 
complete information is available from the Department of Music. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two credits of 
ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of individual instruction (performance 
level must be equal to the level expected of majors at the time of the audition); six credits 
of music electives (excluding ensemble); and four semesters of Music Recitals 100. Each 
minor will be assigned an adviser in the music department and is encouraged to begin 
individual lessons, Music 171, and Music 100 as early as possible. 

Regarding ensemble requirements for the major or minor in music, students who, upon 
the advice of their private instructor, take the audition in voice must fulfill the ensemble 
requirement by singing in Music 112, 115, and/or 116. Students who, upon the advice of 
their private instructor, take the audition on a band or orchestral instrument must fulfill 
the ensemble requirement by performing on that instrument in Music 1 13, 1 1 7, 1 19, and / 
or 121. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the chair of the 
department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the Department of 
Music and the Secrest Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be established 
at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music majors; four 
semesters are required of music minors. (P/F only) 

101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3,4) Basic theoretical concepts and musical 
terminology. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from the Middle 
Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division V requirement. For students 
not majoring in music. 

102. Language of Music I. (3,4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works 
from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can read music. 
Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division V requirement. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

109. Introduction to the Music of World Cultures. (4) A survey of music in selected 
societies around the world. Topics will be selected from the following areas of 
concentration: India, East Asia, sub-Sahara Africa, western Europe, Latin America, 
and vernacular music of the United States (including jazz). Satisfies the Division V 
requirement. 



Music 161 



110. Writing about the Arts. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based 
on music and other arts experiences on campus and in the community, and on 
readings in music and the arts. Fulfills the basic requirement in English. P — Permis- 
sion of instructor and the Department of English. 

202. Language of Music IL (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open to 
music majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music theory 
including key signatures, scales, intervals, chords, and basic sight-singing and ear- 
training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in University ensembles and 
those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and compositional instruction. May not 
count toward the music major or minor. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fundamentals 
and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional techniques. P — 
Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

106. Electronic Music Lab. (2) Foundations of MIDI protocol, with particular attention 
to the study and application of sequencers, notational programs, and synthesizers. 
Development of skills in written notation through use of computerized programs. 
Taught in Music Computer Lab. P-Music 101, 104, or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, intervals, 
triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. Fall. 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part- writing, basic counterpoint, ear 
training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P — Music 171. 

173. Music Theory III. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part-writing, eighteenth and 
nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. 
Fall. P— Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the 
twentieth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, rhythm 
skills, keyboard harmony. Spring. P — Music 173. 

270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestrina. Examination of Renaissance writings on counter- 
point. Composition of canon and motet. P — Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century contrapuntal 
styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue of J. S. Bach. 
Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P — Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers and 
the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and performance 
preparation. P — Music 174. 



1 62 Music 

273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composition. May 
be repeated for credit. P — Permission of instructor. 

276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P — Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical scoring 
and manuscript skills. (Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 280.) 
Spring. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the Division V 
requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1750 to the present. Satisfies the Division V 
requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. Open to 
majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., anthem, 
cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and liturgical function. 
Open to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors and 
non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the present. 
Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined in class via 
record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when possible. Open to 
majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 1650 
to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the Pilgrims to the 
current trends of American composers. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society. P — 
Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship of their 
work to the church program. Offered fall semester of odd years. P — Permission of instructor. 

213. Beethoven. (4) Compositional process, analysis, criticism, and performance practices 
in selected works by Ludwig van Beethoven. P — Music 101 or permission of instructor. 

215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. Musical 
aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of 
instructor. 



Music 1 63 



220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3,4) A study of music before 1600, its 
theory, notation, and performance practices. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instruc- 
tor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3,4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolutions 
toward the end of the era. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3,4) Musical developments from the sons of 
Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. P — Music 174, 
182, or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3,4) Music from the latter part of Beethoven's 
career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post-Beethoven schism and 
its ramifications. P — Music 174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3,4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P — Music 
174, 182, or permission of instructor. 

230. History of Musical Instruments. (4) Historical overview of the form and function 
of musical instruments from the Middle Ages to the present. Emphasis on instru- 
ments in art music of Western Europe and the United States. P — Music 101, 181, 182, 
or permission of instructor. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) A survey of repertoire, including an examination of 
teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. Also offered by the Department 
of Education as Education 284. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Instrumental Literature d. Guitar Literature 

b. Choral Literature e. Vocal Literature 

c. Piano Literature 

Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 354. These 
courses may be taken as music or education but not both. Effective Spring 2000, the 
department will not offer certification in music education. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments of the 
string family. Offered spring semester of odd years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered fall semester of even years. 

188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching brass 
and percussion. Offered spring semester of even years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 162 for a course description. 



1 64 Music 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 167 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3,4) See page 163 for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and choral 
and instrumental problems. Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 
289. Fall. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

354. Methods and Materials of Teaching Music. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques 
used in the teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental music in the public 
schools, all grades. Also offered by the Department of Education as Education 354. Spring. 
P— Music 174, 182. 

Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1,2,3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. By pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1,2,3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department. By pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (1,2,3, or 4) Individual study for honors candidates who have 
fulfilled the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis of one 
credit per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Study, staging, and performance of standard and contemporary 
operatic works. P — Permission of instructor. 

112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P — Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the performance 
of secular repertoire. P — Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a variety 
of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off campus, including 
an annual tour. P — Audition. 

116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance of 
major choral works. P — Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice weekly. 
Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. P — Permission of instructor. 



Music 1 65 

118. Chamber Winds. Study and performance of music for mixed chamber ensembles of 
winds, brass, and percussion. Fall. P — Permission of instructor. 

119. Symphonic Band. Study and performance of music for symphonic band. Regular 
performances on and off campus. Spring. P — Permission of instructor. 

120. Small Chamber Ensemble. Study and performance of music for small ensemble. 
Performers are strongly urged to participate in a larger ensemble as well. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

a. percussion ensemble e. brass 

b. flute choir f. woodwind 

c. string g. guitar 

d. saxophone h. mixed 

121. Jazz Ensemble. Study and performance of written and improvised jazz for a twenty- 
member ensemble. P — Audition. 

Individual Instruction 

Courses in individual instruction are open to students with the permission of the 
instructor on a space available basis. Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration 
and weekly preparation. One credit per semester implies a half-hour of instruction 
weekly and a minimum of one hour of daily practice. Two credits per semester imply 
an hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of two hours daily practice. With the 
permission of the music faculty and with a proportional increase in practice, a student 
may earn three or four credits per semester. Students in individual instruction who 
do not have basic knowledge of notation and rhythm are advised to enroll in Music 
101 or 104 either prior to or in conjunction with individual instruction. An individual 
instruction music fee is charged for all individual instruction. (See page 22 of this 
bulletin for specific information regarding the fee.) 

161. Individual Instruction. (1) May be repeated for credit. Technical studies and 
repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and abilities of the student. 



a. violin 


g. clarinet 


m. baritone 


t. electric bass 


b. viola 


h. bassoon 


n. tuba 


v. voice 


c. cello 


i. saxophone 


o. organ 


w. recorder 


d. bass 


j. trumpet 


p. piano 


x. viola da gamba 


e. flute 


k. French horn 


q. percussion 


y. harpsichord 


f oboe 


I. trombone 


r. guitar 





261. Individual Instruction. (2,3, or 4) May be repeated for credit. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

165 j. Class Brass. (1) Introduction to the fundamentals of playing brass instruments. 
Designed for students with musical experience as well as beginners with no prior musical 
training. Spring. P — Permission of instructor. 



1 66 Music 



165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for the 
beginning piano student. 

165q. Class Percussion. (1) Introduction to the fundamentals of playing percussion 
instruments. Includes an introduction to reading music as well as basic techniques on 
instruments of the percussion family. P — Permission of instructor. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumrning, plucking, arpeg- 
gios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar tablature. For 
beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P — Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice I. (1 ) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, concepts of 
breath control, tone, and resonance. Fall. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P — Music 165v 
or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, articula- 
tion, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed for beginning 
and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare students for Music 
112, but is not a prerequisite. 

167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath control, 
phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study and perfor- 
mance of musical theater repertoire. (One hour per week.) Fall. 

168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1 ) Continuation of theatrical singing techniques 
with increased study and performance of musical theater repertoire. P — Music 167v or 
permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 

169. Musical Theater Practicum. (1 ) Musical stage experiences for vocalists or instrumen- 
talists who participate in a departmentally sponsored theatrical production. May not be 
counted toward a major or minor in music. Credit may be earned in a given semester for 
either Music 169 or Theater 283, but not both. Course may be repeated for no more than 
4 credits. Pass /fail only. P — Permission of instructor. 

175 v. Advanced Voice Class. (1) Development of advanced vocal technique and reper- 
toire. Limited to eight students. (Two hours per week; may be repeated.) P — Music 166v 
or permission of instructor. 

177v. Advanced Theatrical Singing. (1) Development of advanced theatrical singing 
technique and performance of musical theater repertoire. Limited to eight students. (Two 
hours per week; may be repeated.) P — Music 168v or permission of instructor. 



Music/Natural Sciences 1 67 



190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on modifica- 
tion of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, and French. Development of articula- 
tory and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. Individual perfor- 
mance and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with 
ensembles. Offered spring semester of odd years. (Also offered by the Department of 
Education as Education 282.) P — Music 174 or permission of instructor. 



Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shapere, Reynolds Professor of 
Philosophy and History of Science 

301. The Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from 
ancient views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works 
of the pre-Socratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also listed as History 301 and 
Philosophy 231.) 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also listed as History 302 and Philosophy 242.) 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically new 
ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time in relativity 
theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, and continental 
drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or permission of 
instructor. (Also listed as History 303.) 

320. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific picture 
of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

351. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic and critical examination of major views 
concerning the methods of scientific inquiry, and the bases, goals, and implications of 
the scientific conclusions which result from such inquiry. P — One 200-level course in 
philosophy or permission of the instructor. (Also listed as Philosophy 373.) 

352. Modern Science and Human Values. (4) Four revolutionary developments in 
science and technology are studied with a focus on their potential to affect human values: 
biotechnology, cognitive science, recent primate research, and the search for extraterres- 
trial life. (Also listed as History 305.) 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of science. 
Bv invitation onlv. 



By invitation only. 



1 68 Philosophy 

Philosophy 

Win-chiat Lee, Chair 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, Charles M. Lewis 

Associate Professors Ralph C. Kennedy III, Win-chiat Lee 

Assistant Professor Josef ine C. Nauckhof f 

Visiting Assistant Professor H. Lee Overton 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 
Instructors Charles J. Kinlaw, N. Dane Scott 

The objective of the program in philosophy is to lead the student to an understanding of 
philosophical thinking — past and present — about such fundamental questions as what it 
is to exist, to know, to be good, right, true, beautiful, or sacred. In examining such matters, 
philosophy may be said to investigate the presuppositions that inform all human action 
and inquiry and thus to be an essentially interdisciplinary kind of subject. The study of 
philosophy can, therefore, play a useful role in preparing the student for a career in almost 
any field, including law, politics, religion, medicine, business, the arts, and the natural and 
social sciences. 

The thirty-six credits in philosophy required for graduation with a major in the subject 
must include a general introduction to philosophy (Philosophy 111), one course in logic 
(selected from Group II), three courses in the history of philosophy (one from each of 
Groups III, IV and V) and two 200-level or higher topics courses (Group VI), the total to 
include at least three courses at the 300-level. 

A minor in philosophy requires 20 credits in philosophy, which must include at least 
two 200-level or higher courses and one 300-level course. Philosophy being an intrinsi- 
cally interdisciplinary subject, a minor in philosophy can be designed to complement any 
major subject. Students interested in minoring in philosophy should consult with the 
department about choosing an appropriate sequence of courses. 

Highly qualified majors are invited to apply in the spring semester of their junior year 
to the honors program in philosophy. Candidates must have an overall grade-point 
average of at least 3.0 and a grade-point average in philosophy courses of at least 3.3. 
Graduation with honors in philosophy requires successful completion of Honors I and II 
in the fall and spring semesters, respectively, of their senior year. The credits earned in 
these two courses do not count toward the thirty-six credits required of all majors. 

Group I — Introduction to Philosophy 

111. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of several 
representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of knowledge, per- 
sons, God, mind, and matter. 

Group II — Logic 

121. Logic. (4) An elementary study of the laws of valid inference, recognition of fallacies, 
and logical analysis. 



Philosophy 1 69 

221. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of first-order logic; applications 
of first-order logic to arguments expressed in English; some discussion of such topics as 
the unsolvability of the decision problem for first-order logic, the completeness of first- 
order logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorem. 

Group HI — Classical Ancient Philosophy 

231. Beginnings of the Modern World- View. (4) A study of the transition from ancient 
views of the world to the perspective of modern science, with focus on the works of the 
Presocratic philosophers, Plato, and Aristotle. (Also offered as History 301 and Natural 
Sciences 301.) 

232. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such as 
the nature of faith, reason, universals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, 
Augustine, Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P — Philosophy 111. 

331. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most important 
contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, metaphysics, and 
theology. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

332. Aristotle. (4) A study of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, and 
theory of knowledge. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

Group IV — Classical Modern Philosophy 

241. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche. 
P— Philosophy 111. 

242. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) An examination of the philosophical and 
scientific roots, in Descartes, Newton, and Leibniz, of the belief that the universe and 
human beings are "machines" subject to deterministic natural laws, and the relevance to 
this issue of modern scientific ideas. (Also offered as History 302, Interdisciplinary 
Honors 252, and Natural Sciences 302.) 

341. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important 
contributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. P — 
One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

Group V — Other History 

251. American Philosophy. (4) A study exploring the philosophies of Jonathan Edwards, 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, C.S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and others, examining 
their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, education, and God. P — 
Philosophy 111. 

252. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A study of the principal works of several represen- 
tative twentieth-century philosophers. P — Philosophy 111. 



1 70 Philosophy 

253. Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction to the most 
important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, Daoism (Taoism), 
and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Also offered as Religion 380.) 

351. Early German Idealism. (4) An examination of the development of post-Kantian 
idealism through the works of Fichte, Schelling, and Schleiermacher, with particular 
emphasis on their efforts to address the challenge of critical philosophy. P — One 200-level 
course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

352. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources embody- 
ing the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as they relate to 
each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P — One 200-level course 
in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

353. Heidegger. (4) An examination of the structure and development of Heidegger's 
philosophy from the ontological analysis in Being and Time to his later work in the 
philosophy of language and poetry. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission 
of instructor. 

354. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central philosophical 
problems studied and compared with that of Frege, James, and Russell. Topics include the 
picture theory of meaning, truth, skepticism, private languages, thinking, feeling the 
mystical, and the ethical. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

Group VI — Topics in Philosophy 

161. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in the practice of medicine, including 
informed consent, experimentation on human subjects, truthtelling, confidentiality, 
abortion, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. 

162. Ethics and Public Policy. (4) A critical examination of the ethical foundations of 
public policy issues. Topics may include: euthanasia, censorship, racial and gender 
equality, drugs, sexual conduct, and crime. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in ethical 
theory. P — Philosophy 111. 

262. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its relation 
to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical and modern 
authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions of legal principle, 
personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punishment. P — Philosophy 111. 

361. Topics in Ethics. (2-4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

362. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social and 
political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, Rawls, 
and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equality, private property, the state, the 
common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P — One 200-level course in 
philosophy or permission of instructor. 



Philosophy 171 

171. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentally different? 
Are they properties of the physical world or of minds only? Are they finite or infinite in 
extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes in the concept of 
space and in the concept of time travel. 

371. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P — One 200- 
level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

372. Philosophy of Religion. (4) An analysis of the logic of religious language and belief, 
including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, revelation, and arguments 
for the nature and existence of God. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission 
of instructor. 

373. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic and critical examination of major views 
concerning the methods of scientific inquiry, and the bases, goals, and implications of the 
scientific conclusions which result from such inquiry. P — One 200-level course in philoso- 
phy or permission of instructor. 

374. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-body 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the nature 
of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and contemporary 
sources. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. 

375. Philosophy of Language. (4) A study of such philosophical issues about language as 
truth and meaning, reference and description, proper names, indexicals, modality, tense, 
the semantical paradoxes, and the differences between languages and other sorts of sign- 
systems. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of instructor. (Also listed 
as Linguistics 375.) 

381. Topics in Epistemology. (4) The sources, scope and structure of human knowledge. 
Topics include: skepticism; perception, memory, and reason; the definition of knowledge; 
the nature of justification; theories of truth. P — One 200-level course in philosophy or 
permission of instructor. 

382. Topics in Metaphysics. (4) P — One 200-level course in philosophy or permission of 
instructor. 

Group VII — Honors and Independent Study 

385. Seminar. (2-4) Offered by members of the faculty on specialized topics of their 
choice. With permission, may be repeated for credit. P — Permission of instructor. 

391. Honors I. (2) Directed study and research in preparation for writing a major paper. 
Must be taken in the fall semester of the senior year. P — Admission to the honors program 
in philosophy. 

392. Honors II. (2) Completion of the project begun in Philosophy 391. Requires defense 
of the paper in an oral examination conducted by at least two members of the department. 
Taken in the spring semester of the senior year. P — Philosophy 391. 

395. Independent Study. (2-4) 



1 72 Physics 



Physics 



Howard W. Shields, Chair 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors George M. Holzwarth, Natalie A. W. Holzwarth, William C. Kerr, 

George Eric Matthews, Howard W. Shields, George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professors Paul R. Anderson, Keith D. Bonin 

Assistant Professors Eric D. Carlson, Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro 

Adjunct Professors Monroe J. Cowan, George B. Cvijanovich 

Adjunct Associate Professor Frederic H. Fahey 
Adjunct Assistant Professors John D. Bourland, Peter Santago 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consultation with 
the student's major adviser and may lead to either a bachelor of arts or a bachelor of science 
degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic physics courses and allows a wide 
selection of electives related to the student's interests in other disciplines, such as 
medicine, law, and business. The BS degree is designed for students planning careers in 
physics. 

The B A degree in physics requires thirty-two credits in physics and must include the 
following courses: 113, 114, 141, 162, 165, 166, and 230. The remaining eight credits may 
be satisfied with any other 300-level courses in the department. Mathematics 251 also is 
required. Depending on what other physics courses the student takes, additional math- 
ematics courses may be required; e.g., Mathematics 301 is a prerequisite for Physics 339. 
The bachelor of science degree in physics requires forty-seven credits in physics and must 
include the following courses: 113, 114, 141, 162, 165, 166, 230, 301, 302, 343, 344, 346, 337, 
339, 340, and 351. The remaining credits may be satisfied with any other 300-level course 
in the department. In addition, Mathematics 251, 301, 302, and 304 are required; Math- 
ematics 303 and Computer Science 111 are strongly recommended. 

A typical schedule for the first two years: 

First Year Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 Physics 141, 162, 165, 166 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics 251, 302, 304 
Foreign language 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major may be completed with considerable 
flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five year B A / MS program. This saves 
time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship in the senior year 
of the five-year program. A candidate for the 3-2 engineering program would also 
complete three years of the BS physics major program prior to transfer. (Consult the chair 
of the department for additional information on these five-year programs.) 

A minor in physics requires twenty-two credits, which must include the courses 113, 
114, 141, and 162. A minor in astrophysics requires twenty-two credits and consists of the 
courses 113, 114, 141, 310, and 312. Students interested in either minor should so advise 



Physics 1 73 

the faculty member responsible for advising physics majors (inquire in Olin Physical 
Laboratory Room 100). 

If physics is not taken in the first year, the degree requirements in physics may still be 
completed by the end of the senior year if a beginning course is taken in the sophomore 
year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a major in physics with a grade less 
than C in General Physics without special permission of the department. 

Physics courses satisfying Division II requirements must be taken at Wake Forest. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in all 
courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in physics through the major adviser. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Physics," students must pass Physics 381, write a paper on the 
results of the research in that course, pass an oral exam on the research and related topics 
given by a committee of three physics faculty members, and obtain a GP A of 3 .5 in physics 
and 3.0 overall. 

105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the solar 
system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfy Division II requirements. 

109. Astronomy. (5) An introductory study of the universe consisting of descriptive 
astronomy, the historical development of astronomical theories, and astrophysics . Knowl- 
edge of basic algebra and trigonometry is required. Lab — two hours. 

110. Introductory Physics. (5) A conceptual, non-calculus one-semester survey of the 
essentials of physics, including mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, electricity, magne- 
tism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for premedical, mathematics or 
science students. Credit not allowed for both 110 and 113. Lab — two hours. 

113, 114. General Physics. (5,5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, sound, 
electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics treated with some use of calculus. 
Recommended for science, mathematics, and premedical students. C — Mathematics 111 
or equivalent. P — 113 is prerequisite for 114. Lab — two hours. 

120. Physics and Chemistry of the Environment. (5) The course coheres the basic 
physical and chemical processes in the earth's atmosphere, biosphere and the 
oceans. It consists of two parts: 1) chemical processes in the environment such as 
element cycles and the chemistry of the pollutants in air and water and, 2) physical 
aspects of the environment such as solar energy and the atmosphere, and the 
physics of weather and climate. Lab — three hours. P — Chemistry 111 or Physics 
113. (Also listed as Environmental Studies 225.) 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics and 
an introduction to quantum ideas. P — Physics 114 and Mathematics 111. C — Physics 165. 

162. Mechanics. (4) A study of the equations of motion describing several kinds of 
physical systems: velocity-dependent forces; damped and forced simple harmonic 
motion; orbital motion; inertial and non-inertial reference frames; and relativistic me- 
chanics. The course includes extensive use of computers. P — Physics 113 and Mathemat- 
ics 111 or equivalent. 



1 74 Physics 

165, 166. Intermediate Laboratory. (1,1) Experiments on mechanics, modern physics, 
electronics, and computer simulations. C — Physics 141 (for Physics 165); Physics 162 (for 
Physics 166). P— Physics 165 (for Physics 166). 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theory and application of transistors and elec- 
tronic circuits. Lab — three hours. P — Physics 114. 

301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0,0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior physics majors. 

303. Biophysics. (4) An introduction to the structure, dynamic behavior, and function 
of DNA and proteins, and a survey of membrane biophysics. The physical principles 
of structure determination by X-ray, NMR, and optical methods will be emphasized. 
P — Physics 113, 114 as well as Biology 112 or 214 or permission of instructor. 

304. Physics of Medical Imaging. (4) Physical principles of x-ray computed tomog- 
raphy (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed 
tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonic imaging. 
P — Physics 113, 114 as well as Math 111-112 or permission of instructor. 

310. Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. (4) Topics covered include galactic 
structure, models for galaxies and galaxy formation, the large scale structure of the 
universe, the big bang model of the universe, physical processes such as nucleosynthesis 
in the early universe, and observational cosmology. P — Physics 114, 141. 

312. Introduction to Stellar Astronomy. (4) The physics of stellar atmospheres and 
interiors. Topics covered will include radiation transfer, absorption and emission of 
radiation, formation of spectra, models for stellar interiors, nuclear fusion reactions, and 
stellar evolution. Methods of measuring distances to stars and interpretation of stellar 
spectra also will be included. P — Physics 114, 141, Mathematics 301. 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially proteins and 
nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and tertiary structure. P — 
Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biology 371. 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfacing, 
signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data reduction and 
fitting procedures. P — Physics 130, 230. 

337. Analytical Mechanics. (2) The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of me- 
chanics with applications. This course is taught in the first half of the fall semester. P — 
Physics 162, Mathematics 251. 

339, 340, 342. Electricity and Magnetism. (2,2,2) Electrostatics, magnetostatics, dielectric 
and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and applications to radiation, relativistic 
formulation. The first half course is taught in the second half of the fall semester, following 
Physics 337. The other two are taught in the first and second halves of the spring semester. 
These should be taken in sequence. P — Physics 114, Mathematics 251 and 301. 



Physics/Politics ' '5 

343, 344. Quantum Physics. (4,4) Application of the elementary principles of quantum 
mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P — Physics 141 and 
Mathematics 251. 

346. Advanced Physics Laboratory. (1) Lab — three hours. P — Physics 166 and Physics 
343. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 

352. Physical Optics and Optical Design. (5) Interaction of light with materials; diffrac- 
tion and coherent optics; ray trace methods of optical design. Lab — three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P — Physics 343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, computation and laboratory work 
performed on an individual basis. 



Politics 



Kathy B. Smith, Chair 

Professors David B. Broyles, Jack D. Fleer, Charles H. Kennedy, 

Richard D. Sears, Kathy B. Smith 

Associate Professors Katy J. Harriger, Wei-chin Lee, 

David P. Weinstein, Helga A. Welsh 

Assistant Professor Peter M. Siavelis 

Visiting Professor Jerry Pubantz 

Visiting Associate Professor Yomi Durotoye 

Visiting Assistant Professor John J. Dinan 

In its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the way in 
which policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the moral 
standards by which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often described 
alternatively as the study of power, of government, of the state, or of human relations in 
their political context. For teaching purposes, the study of politics has been divided by the 
department into the following fields: (1) American politics, (2) comparative politics, (3) 
political philosophy, and (4) international politics. Introductory courses in these fields 
provide broad and flexible approaches to studying political life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits, at least two-thirds of which must be 
completed at Wake Forest University. The courses must include the following: (a) at least 
one non-seminar course in each of the four fields of politics listed above; (b) at least one 
politics seminar course (290s). No more than eight credits may be taken toward the 
major from introductory courses (100-level courses). Majors may not take the intro- 
ductory courses during their senior year. No more than four credits for any one or any 



1 76 Politics 

combination of the following courses may be counted toward the major: Politics 287, 
288, or 289. Transfer credits toward the major will be awarded on an individual case- 
by-case basis at the discretion of the chairperson. A minimum grade point average of 
2.0 in all courses completed in Politics at Wake Forest is required for graduation with the 
major. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Politics," a candidate must have a 
3.2 overall GPA and a 3.5 Politics GPA. In addition, the candidate's seminar paper 
upon the completion of Politics 291, 292, 293, or 294 must be accepted by the 
department honors committee. The candidate is required to take Politics 285, which 
may not be counted toward the 36-credit requirement for the major. For additional 
information department faculty members should be consulted. 

Politics majors who minor in Latin American Studies also have the opportunity to 
pursue a Five-Year Cooperative BA/ MA Degree Program at Georgetown University 
in Washington, DC. See pages 67 and 148 for details. 

The minor in Politics consists of twenty credits. No more than eight credits may be 
taken toward the minor from introductory courses (100-level courses). No more than 
four credits for any one or any combination of the following courses may be counted 
toward the minor: Politics 287, 288, or 289. Sixteen of the credits must be taken at Wake 
Forest. Transfer credits toward the minor will be awarded on an individual case-by- 
case basis at the discretion of the chairperson. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 
in all courses completed in Politics at Wake Forest is required for graduation with the 
minor. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one of the 
following courses: Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116. Students who are not majors in politics 
may take upper- level courses as electives without having had lower-level courses, unless 
a prerequisite is specified. 

American Politics 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) The nature of politics, political principles, 
and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the United States. 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2,3, or 4) A study of major policies on the current 
public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alternative policy re- 
sponses and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the politics of 
poverty and welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit varies with the 
number of topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of party competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the responsibili- 
ties of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the study of public administration 
emphasizing policymaking in government agencies. 

215. Citizen and Community. (4) An examination of the role and responsibilities of 
citizens in democratic policymaking. Includes discussion of democratic theory, emphasis 



Politics 1 77 



on a policy issue of national importance (i.e. poverty, crime, environment), and involve- 
ment of students in projects that examine the dimension of the issue in their community. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the political 
system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of the mass media 
and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policymaking. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policymaking in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy analysis 
with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analysis and utility 
analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research project centered on 
a local issue. 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contributions by 
contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American cities and suburbs 
as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of the metropolis. 

223. Blacks in American Politics. (4) A survey of selected topics, including black political 
participation, political organizations, political leadership, and political issues. It will also 
show the relationship of these phenomena to American political institutions and pro- 
cesses as a whole. 

225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. (4) 

An analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the national 
government and federal /state relations. Not open to first-year students. 

226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of First 
Amendment freedoms, racial equality, and the rights of the criminally accused. Not open 
to first-year students. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as current policy 
issues and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) An analysis of political institutions, 
processes, and policy issues in selected countries. Case studies will be drawn from 
Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. 



1 78 Politics 



231. Western European Politics. (4) Comparative analysis of political institutions, 
processes, and policy issues in selected West European countries. Special attention 
will be given to case studies involving Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy and to the 
process of European integration. 

232. Politics in Russia and Eastern Europe. (4) Analysis of the political, economic, and 
social patterns of the region emphasizing the internal dynamics of the political and 
economic transition processes currently underway. 

233. The Politics of Modern Germany. (4) A study of the historical legacy, the political 
behavior, and governmental institutions of contemporary Germany (newly unified 
Germany). 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the 
institutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An analysis 
of public policy choices involving such matters as health care, education, environ- 
ment, and immigration in Western Europe and the United States. 

238. Comparative Economic Development and Political Change. (4) An overview of the 
relationship between economic development, socio-strucrural change, and politics since 
the creation of the international capitalist system in the sixteenth century. The course is 
organized around case studies of what we now recognize as industrialized democracies, 
evolving Communist systems and command economies, and "Third World" countries. 

242. Topics in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 

244. Politics and Literature. (2,3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend our 
knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights of selected 
novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Perm Warren, George 
Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 

245. Ethnonationalism. (4) This course is concerned with the role of ethnicity in world 
politics. It focuses on both theoretical and substantive issues relating to: (a) the nature of 
ethnicity and ethnic group identity; (b) the sources of ethnic conflict; (c) the politics of 
ethnic conflict; (d) the policy management of ethnic conflict; and (e) international 
intervention in ethnic conflict. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to politics 
and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

247. Islam and Politics. (4) The course explores the interrelationship of Islam and politics 
in the contemporary world. The course has two main foci. The first deals with Islam as a 
political ideology which shapes the structure of political institutions and behavior. The 
second looks at Islam in practice by examining the interaction between Islam and the 
political systems of Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and others. 



Politics 1 79 

248. Government and Politics of China. (4) A survey of the political institutions and processes 
in China (People's Republic of China and Republic of China). Emphasis on group conflict, 
elites, ideology, as well as current policy changes in the process of modernization. 

249. Government and Politics of Japan. (4) A survey of the political institutions and 
processes in Japan. Attention also is given to the relationship between politics and 
economics. 

International Politics 

116. International Politics. (4) A survey of the forces which shape relations among states 
and some of the major problems of contemporary international politics. 

250. Global Crises. (4) An introductory survey of the major current issues in international 
affairs. Students learn how to effectively read and criticize materials and present critiques 
in oral and written fashion. 

251. The Foreign Policy of Decline: Britain since 1945. (4) The course will study the efforts 
of Great Britain to maintain its status as a world power after 1945 and then, when it 
recognized that this was not possible, to find, or adjust to, a new role in the international 
system. Both theories of international politics and historical analysis will be employed in 
seeking to understand the policies which were adopted and rejected. 

252. Topics in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 

253. International Political Economy. (4) Analyzes major issues in the global political 
economy including theoretical approaches to understanding the tension between 
politics and economics, monetary and trade policy, North-South relations, environ- 
mentalism, human rights and democratization. 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination of 
different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies followed 
by the United States since the early 1960s. 

256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national policy. 
Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special attention will be 
given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear weapons. 

258. U.S. National Security Policymaking. (4) A critical analysis of how U.S. national 
security policy is made with particular emphasis on the period 1960 to present. 

259. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the relationship 
between Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of United States, Israeli, 
Palestinian, and Arab states policies. 



Politics 



260. East Asian International Relations. (4) An analytical survey of the bilateral and 
multilateral political relations of the East Asian states, with particular emphasis on the 
security relations and economic interactions. 

261. International Law and Organizations. (4) Examination of the theoretical and 
substantive problems relating to the development and functioning of international 
law and international organizations and their contributions to international politics. 
Topics such as the United Nations system, human rights, and the law of the sea will 
be considered. 

267. America in Vietnam: Myth and Reality. (4) An analysis of American policy towards 
Vietnam with special emphasis on the period of 1954-75. The focus will be on the 
relationship between American policies and the problems posed by Vietnamese and 
American cultures. 

Political Philosophy 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) A survey of major systematic statements of the rules and 
principles of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and Aristotle. 

270. Ethics and Politics. (4) A seminar on ethical reasoning and politics. Representa- 
tive philosophers include Hume, Kant, Mill, Moore, Ayer, Hare and Maclntyre. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the nature 
and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient Athens and its 
diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. 

273. Marx, Marxism and the Aftermath of Marxism. (4) An examination of Marx's 
indebtedness to Hegel, his early humanistic writings, and the vicissitudes of 20th 
century vulgar Marxism and neo-Marxism in the works of Lenin, Lukacs, Korsch, 
Horkeimer, Marcuse and Sartre. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) The good man and the good citizen as comprehended 
in classical political philosophy. Representative writers are Aristotle, Plutarch, Aquinas, 
Shakespeare. 

275. American Political Philosophy. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the Ameri- 
can polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative writers are 
the Federalists, Lincoln, modern political scientists, and radical critics. 

278. Modern Political Philosophy. (4) Political thought from Machiavelli to the present, 
including such topics as moral and natural rights, positive and negative freedom, 
social contract theory, alienation, and citizenship. Select writings, for example, 
Machiavielli, Locke, Rousseau, Mill, Marx and Rawls. 

279. Varieties of Philosophical Liberalism. (4) A study of varieties of 20th century 
philosophical liberalism such as libertarianism, utilitarianism, liberal utilitarianism, 
Rawlsian liberalism and communitarianism, with special focus on rival conceptions 
of freedom and on utilitarianism and its critics. 



Politics 1 8 1 



Honors and Additional Courses 

280. Political Science Methods. (4) An overview of the methods currently prominent 
in studying politics. Special attention will be given to the relationships between 
theory, method, and findings by focusing on the need to make empirical observation 
systematic. 

285. Honors Study. (2 ) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in seminar 
courses (291, 292, 293, or 294) and oral defense of the paper. Taken in the spring 
semester of the senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P — Politics 291 , 292, 
293, or 294. 

287. Individual Study. (2,3, or 4) Intensive research leading to the completion of an 
analytical paper conducted under the direction of a faculty member. Students are 
responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an appropriate 
instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. Students are responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission 
of an appropriate instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2,3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with related 
readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. Students are 
responsible for initiating the project and securing the permission of an appropriate 
instructor. Normally one course in an appropriate subfield will have been taken prior to 
the internship. P — Permission of instructor. 

Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent study on 
selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 



1 82 Psychology 

Psychology 

Deborah L. Best, Chair 

Wake Forest Professors Deborah L. Best, Mark R. Leary 

Professors Robert C. Beck, Robert H. Dufort, Charles L. Richman 

Associate Professors Terry D. Blumenthal, Dale Dagenbach, 

Catherine E. Seta, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professors Christy M. Buchanan, William W. Fleeson, 

Batja Gomes De Mesquita, James A. Schirillo, Eric R. Stone 

Visiting Assistant Professors H. Janey B. Barnes, Marie M. O'Hara, 

Mark V. Pezzo, Mary M. Roufail 

Adjunct Professors Jay R. Kaplan, W. Jack Rejeski Jr., Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Associate Professors C. Drew Edwards, Carol A. Shively 

Adjunct Assistant Professors Phillip G. Batten, Jerry W. Noble, 

Marianne A. Schubert, William W. Sloan Jr., Elizabeth H. Taylor 

Adjunct Instructor Stephen W. Davis 

Psychology 151 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses numbered 
below 151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major in 
psychology. Psychology 210 or 21 1, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequisite 
for all 300-level courses except 313, 335, 344, 357, 359, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 
Psychology 151 in their first year and Psychology 211 no later than the fall of their junior 
year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the time the major 
is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a minimum of forty credits 
in psychology, including 151, 211, 212, and 313. In addition, the major student must 
complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 320, 326, 329, 331, and 333; 
341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than forty-eight psychology credits may be counted 
toward the graduation requirements of 144 credits. No more than four credits of 
directed study (280) or independent research (282) may be counted toward the 40 
credits required for the major; up to a maximum of six credits may be counted with 
more than 40 credits in the major. 

No more than 12 psychology credits may be transferred from other schools and 
counted toward the major. With the exception of 151, specific courses required for the 
major must be taken at Wake Forest University. The guidelines regarding transfer 
may be modified in rare and special circumstances at the discretion of the psychology 
department Chair. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology including: 151; 210 or 
211; at least two of the following courses, at least one of which must be at the 300-level — 
241, 245, 255, 260, 268, 320, 323, 326, 329, 331, 333, and 362. 

A minimum grade average of C on all courses attempted in psychology is required 
for graduation with either a major or minor in psychology. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 
program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psychology," 
the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) and pass 
an oral or written examination. In addition, the honors student normally has a non-credit 



Psychology 1 8 3 

research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

100. Learning to Learn. (2,3, or 4) A workshop designed primarily for first- and second- 
year students who wish to improve their academic skills through the application of basic 
principles of learning, memory, organization, etc. Third- and fourth-year students by 
permission of the instructor only. No prerequisites. Pass /fail only. 

102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2,3, or 4) Examination of educational/ vocational 
planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work world. No 
prerequisite. 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 

210. Methods in Psychological Research. (4) An introduction to statistics and research 
design for students minoring in psychology. P — Psychology 151 and permission of 
instructor. 

211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and statistical 
analysis of psychological research. Lab — twice weekly. P — Psychology 151 and permis- 
sion of instructor. 

238. Emotion. (4) Survey of theory methods and research in the area of emotion. 
Developmental, cultural, social-psychological, physiological, personality, and clini- 
cal perspectives on emotions are given. P — Psychology 151. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of consciousness 
with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. P — 
Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social 
development in humans from conception to death. P — Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depression, 
alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic personality pat- 
terns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of these disorders to 
normal lifestyles. P — Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content and 
travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and students. 
Usually offered in summer. P — Psychology 151. 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of human 
personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motivation, and 
behavior. P — Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social behavior, 
interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. P — 
Psychology 151. 



1 84 Psychology 

265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and physiological aspects 
of human sexuality, with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, sexual dysfunction, 
and sex-related roles. P — Psychology 151. 

268. Industrial/Organization Psychology. (4) Psychological principles and methods 
applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P — Psychology 
151. 

270. Topics in Psychology. (1,2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of short one- 
credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet sequentially, not 
concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semester. P — Psychology 151 . 



270A 


Child Development and 


270N 


Liking and Loving Relationships 




Social Policy 


270P 


Animal Flying Behavior 


27 OB 


Persuasion and Social 


270R 


The Human Factor: Designing 




Propaganda 




Your Own World 


270C 


Psychology and the Law 


270S 


Primate Cognition 


270E 


Emotion 


270U 


The Self and Social Behavior 


270F 


Social Psychology of Physical 


270W 


Judgment and Decision Making 




Activity 


270X 


Psychobiology 


270H 


Intelligence 


270Y 


Women, Health, and Culture 


270] 


Memory 


270Z 


Primate Models of Human Disorder 



280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. P — 
Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

282. Independent Research. (1-4) Independent reading or research conducted under 
faculty supervision. (P/F grade only.) P — Psychology 151 and approval of faculty 
member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological thought 
and research from ancient Greece to the present. P — Two psychology courses beyond 151 
or permission of instructor. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical explana- 
tions of behavior. P — Psychology 210 or 211 or permission of instructor. 

322. Psychopharmacology . (4) A survey of the influences of a wide range of psychoactive 
drugs, both legal and illegal, on human physiology, cognition, and behavior. P — 
Psychology 151. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. 
This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be made at 
registration. P — Psychology or biology major or permission of instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learning, with 
particular emphasis on recent developments. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory systems 
(vision, hearing, touch, taste). P — Psychology 210 or 211. 



Psychology 1 85 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis on 
memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept identification/ 
formation, and language. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

333. Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some funda- 
mental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; includes 
reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement and power, 
aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P — Psychology 151. 

341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected research in 
child development. Research projects required. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major modes 
of therapy. Offered in the summer. P — Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including conduct 
disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on causes, 
prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child development 
and family life. P — Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures to the 
study of human personality. Research projects required. P — Psychology 210 or 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research in the 
study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P — Psychology 210 or 21 1 . 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) associated 
with cultural variation. P — Psychology 151. 

359. Psychology of Gender. (4) An exploration of the psychological similarities and 
differences between human males and females, including consideration of social, 
cognitive, motivational, biological, and developmental determinants of behavior. P — 
Psychology 151. 

363. Psychological Testing. (4) An overview of the development and nature of 
psychological tests with applications to school counseling, business, and clinical 
practice. Students have the opportunity to take a variety of psychological tests. P — 
Psychology 210 or 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psychology. 
P — Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

364. Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism. (4) A comparison of cross-cultural similari- 
ties and differences in the initiation, maintenance, and treatment of prejudice, discrimi- 
nation, and racism, with an emphasis on past and current trends in the United States. P — 
Psychology 151 or permission of instructor. 



1 86 Psychology/Religion 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches to 
child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent / child interaction and 
actual training in parental skills. P — Psychology 151. 

381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended prima- 
rily for students in the departmental honors program. P — Psychology 21 1 and permission 
of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed by 
independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the departmental 
faculty. P — Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current theory and 
research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior majors planning 
to attend graduate school. P — Psychology 211 and senior standing. 



Religion 



Charles A. Kimball, Chair 

Albritton Professor of the Bible Fred L. Horton Jr. 

University Professor James A. Martin Jr. 

Professors Stephen B. Boyd, John E. Collins, Charles A. Kimball 

Adjunct Professor Bill J. Leonard 

Visiting Professor E. Frank Tupper 

Associate Professors Kenneth G. Hoglund, Alton B. Pollard III 

Adjunct Associate Professor Mark Jensen 

Assistant Professors Simeon Ilesanmi, Mary F. Foskett 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to acquire 
at least an introduction to the field of religion. 

A major in religion requires a minimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which must 
be in courses above the 100-level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 100-level. 
The required courses may include one pass / fail course if the course is offered on the pass / 
fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students electing the minor in 
religion. 

Pre-seminary students should consult with a member of the department faculty in 
order to make optimal course selections in religion, psychology, history, communica- 
tion and other disciplines. Thoughtful planning will facilitate admission into the 
seminary program of their choice. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to apply for admission to the honors program 
in religion. To graduate with the designation, "Honors in Religion," a student must apply 
to the department chair for admission to the honors program, normally by February of the 
junior year. Upon completion of all the requirements, the candidate may graduate with 
"Honors in Religion." For additional information, consult any member of the departmen- 
tal faculty. 



Religion 1 87 

101. Introduction to Religion. (4) A study of meaning and value as expressed in religious 
thought, experience, and practice. Focus varies with instructor. 

102. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A study of the forms, settings, contents, and themes 
of the Old and New Testaments. Focus varies with instructor. 

103. Introduction to the Christian Tradition. (4) A study of Christian experience, 
thought, and practice. Focus varies with instructor. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survey of the Old Testament designed to 
introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient Hebrews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survey of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

151. Religion and Society. (4) A study of religion as a social phenomenon and its 
relationship to the structures of society — political, economic, and others, with special 
focus on the contemporary United States. (Also listed as Sociology 301.) 

173. Problems of Religious Thought. (4) An introduction to central themes and issues 
in the history of religious thought, with special emphasis on contemporary develop- 
ments and world religions. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. 
Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and study in such countries as 
Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 

235. Passion, Mind, and Power. (4) An examination of the relation between emotion, 
reason, and will in Christian ethical theory, ancient to modern, including feminist. 

261. Foundations of Traditional Judaism. (2) A study of rabbinic and medieval 
Judaism, emphasizing the post-biblical codification of Jewish thought in the Mishnah, 
Talmud, and midrash. 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including influences of the 
Enlightenment, Hasidism, Zionism, the Holocaust and feminism. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thought and practice in the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in America, 
including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and contemporary 
movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist history, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 

270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theologians 
as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their concerns, 
including Flannery O'Connor and Walker Percy. 



1 88 Religion 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

285. Seminar in Early Christian Studies. (4) This seminar is designed specially to meet 
the needs of students earning the interdisciplinary minor in early Christian studies, 
but is not limited to them. It will explore from various points of view the culture of the 
Mediterranean world from which Christianity was born and grew: literature and art, 
history and economics, religions and philosophies. May be repeated for credit. (Also 
listed as Classical Languages 285.) 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available 
in the department. P — Permission of instructor. 

300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different ways of defining 
religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, 
anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus on the 
meaning and values implicit in the myths of contemporary culture. 

302. Mysticism. (4) A study of mysticism from a multireligious perspective, with 
emphasis on the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon. 

303. Religion and Science. (4) An examination of the ways in which religion and science 
have conflicted with, criticized, and complemented one another in the history of Western 
thought from Galileo to the present. 

310. The Prophetic Literature. (4) An examination of the development and theological 
contents of the literary products of Israel's prophetic movement. 

311. The Psalms. (2,4) A study of Hebrew poetry in English translation with special 
attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical characteristics, and its importance for our 
understanding of the religion and culture of ancient Israel. (The first half of the course 
may be taken for two credits and is a prerequisite for the second half.) 

312. The Critical Study of the Pentateuch. (4) A study of the five traditional books of 
Moses (the Torah) and the various lines of analysis that modern Biblical critics have used 
to interpret their composition and role in the development of Israelite theological thought. 

313. Near Eastern Archeology. (4) A survey of twentieth century archeology in the Near 
East with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

314. Ancient Israel and Her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeology 
with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315, 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4,4) A study of the religion and culture 
of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an ancient site. 

317. The Wisdom Literature. (4) An examination of the development, literary charac- 
teristics and theological contents of the works of ancient Israel's sages. 



Religion 1 89 

319. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (4) Reading and study of 
Daniel, Revelation, and certain non-Biblical apocalyptic texts. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity in 
light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 

322. The General Epistles. (4) An exegetical study of two or more of the general Epistles, 
with emphasis on the setting of the Epistles in the life of the Early Church. 

323. The Parables of Jesus. (4) An examination of the historical, social, cultural and 
theological significance of the parables of Jesus as recorded in the synoptic gospels. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpretation 
of Christianity and its place in the life of the Early Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

329. New Testament and Theology. (4) A consideration of the implications of the 
critical study of the New Testament for theology. 

330. Comparative Religious Ethics. (4) A comparative study of the moral values and 
socio-ethical positions in the major religious traditions of the world, with particular 
focus on their various methods of reasoning and sources of authority. 

331. Christian Ethics and Social Justice. (4) An inquiry from a Christian perspective 
into different theoretical and practical responses to issues of justice in society. 

335. Christian Ethics and the Problem of War. (4) An examination of the causes and 
characteristics of war, various Christian responses to it, and approaches to peacemak- 
ing, with attention to selected contemporary issues. 

337. The Authority of Scripture for Ethics. (4) An examination of theological questions 
resulting from the claim that the biblical canon has primary authority among the 
sources of Christian ethics. 

339. Religion, Society and Power in Africa. (4) An interdisciplinary study of the 
growth and transformations of Africa's major religious traditions (Christianity, Islam, 
and the indigenous religions), and of their relations with secular social changes. 

340. Men's Studies and Religion. (4) An examination of how masculine sex-role 
expectations and male experiences have both shaped religious ideas, symbols, rituals, 
institutions, and forms of spirituality and been shaped by them. Attention will be 
given to the ways in which race, class, and sexual orientation affect those dynamics. 

341. Civil Rights and Black Consciousness Movements. (4) A social and religious history 
of the African- American struggle for citizenship rights and freedom from World War II 
to the present. (Also listed as History 376.) 



1 90 Religion 

342. Religion, Culture, and Modernity. (4) An inquiry into the origins and development 
of modernity as idea and ideology, with special emphasis on its significance for non- 
Western social and religious movements. 

343. The City as Symbol. (4) A study of the city, past and present, as a unique repository 
and symbol of human values and aspirations. 

345. The African-American Religious Experience. (4) An exploration of the religious 
dimensions of African-American life from its African antecedents to contemporary 
figures and movements. 

347. The Emerging Church in the Two-Thirds World. (4) An investigation of contempo- 
rary Christian communities in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America with special 
attention to theological, political, and economic activities. 

348. Struggles for Freedom in Southern Africa and the United States. (4) Comparison 
of the liberatory movements in Southern Africa and the United States during the 
twentieth century. (Also listed as History 378.) 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in the 
origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and development 
through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role of the home 
and the church in religious education. 

355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship between 
theology and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. 

358. Twentieth Century Christian Theologians. (4) A study of the major exponents of 
the Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox traditions. 

360. World Religions. (4) An examination of the ideas and practices of major religious 
traditions in their historical and cultural context. Focus varies with instructor. 

361. Buddhism. (4) An advanced study of the Buddhist tradition and its impact on the 
culture of Asia. Permission of instructor required. 

362. Islam. (4) An examination of the origins and development of Islam. Particular 
attention is given to the formation of Islamic faith and practice, as well as contempo- 
rary manifestations of Islam in Asia, Africa, and North America. 

364. Conceptions of the Afterlife. (4) An examination of the variety of answers given 
to the question: "What happens after death?" Particular attention is given to the views 
of Jews, Christians, Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists and the ways their views relate 
to life in this world. 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from colonial 
times until the present. 



Religion 1 9 1 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) An examination of the historical and contemporary 
interaction between religion and sex roles, sexism and sexuality. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical study of the lives and thought of selected 
Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A study of the origin and develop- 
ment of Reformation theology and ecclesiology. 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporary issues. 

370. Women and Christianity. (4) A study of the roles and contributions of women 
within the Christian tradition throughout history and an analysis of the mechanisms 
of their oppression. 

371. Sexuality and Christian Thought. (4) A survey of theological responses to human 
sexuality with special emphasis on contemporary issues. 

372. History of Christian Thought. (2,4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and development 
to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372 (a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

373. Cinema and the Sacred. (4) An investigation of select theological and religious 
themes in contemporary film. 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 
themes of Christian theology through the study of major Roman Catholic theologians. 

376. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are masterpieces of 
literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, Bunyan, Milton, 
and Newman. 

377. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of the 
source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and Shakespeare. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (4) An examination of aesthetic and religious theories of 
selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes of 
perception and expression. 

380. The Main Streams of Chinese Philosophy and Religion. (4) An introduction to 
the most important traditions in Chinese philosophy and religion: Confucianism, 
Daoism (Taoism), and Chinese Buddhism or Chinese Chan (Zen) Buddhism. (Also 
listed as Philosophy 253.) 



92 



Religion 



Near Eastern Languages and Literature 

111, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4,4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew of the 
Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading of Biblical 
texts. Both semesters must be completed. 

117. Akkadian I. (4) An analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of the East 
Semitic languages of the ancient Near East as they relate to the larger family of Semitic 
languages. Offered on demand. 

118. Akkadian II. {4) A continuation of Akkadian 117 with further emphasis on 
building expertise in vocabulary and syntax through the reading of texts from the 
Middle Babylonian period. On demand. 

153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. P — 
Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P — Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and post- 
Biblical texts. On demand. P — Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A study of the history and structure of four 
languages from the Hamito-Semitic family. 




Romance Languages 1 93 

Romance Languages 

Candelas S. Gala, Chair 

Wake Forest Professor Kathleen M. Glenn 

Professors Candelas S. Gala, Milorad Margitic, Antonio C. Vitti, Byron R. Wells 

Associate Professors Jane W. Albrecht, Sarah E. Barbour, Mary L. Friedman, 

Judy K. Kem, Stephen Murphy, M. Stanley Whitley 

Assistant Professors Victoria E. Campos, Constance L. Dickey, Luis Gonzalez, 

Linda S. Howe, Soledad Miguel-Prendes, Maria Teresa Sanhueza 

Visiting Assistant Professors Genevieve J. Brock, Enrico Cesaretti, 

Francois Dragacci-Paulsen, Anne W. Gilfoil, Kendall B. Tarte 

Instructors Rebekah L. Morris, Kristen H. Nickel, Salvador Anton Pujol, 

Catherine Rodgers, Nelson J. Sanchez, Jennifer Sault (Spring), 

Christine E. Swain, Anna- Vera Sullam (Venice), Alicia Vitti (Fall) 

Adjunct Jenny Puckett 

The major in French literature requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above French 
213. French 215, 216, 217, 219, and 220 or their equivalents are required, as are three 
additional literature courses. The major in French language and culture requires a 
minimum of thirty-six credits above French 213. French 219, 220, 222, and either 323 
or 324, or their equivalents are required, as are two of the following courses: 229, 221, 
and either 323, or 324; students also must complete two of the three survey courses: 
215, 216, 217. History 321 and 322 are recommended. An average of at least a C must 
be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 213. It includes French 219, 220, and either 323 or 324, or their equivalents. The 
minor in French literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 213. 

The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above Spanish 213. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, or their equivalents, plus one additional advanced 
course in Spanish literature and one in Spanish- American literature are required. Spanish 
181, 182, and 187 may not count toward the major. An average of at least C must be earned 
in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish above 
Spanish 213. It includes 217 or 218, 219, 220, 223 or 224, and one four-credit elective. With 
departmental approval, equivalent courses may be selected from the programs in 
Salamanca, Bogota, or Burgos, and certain other substitutions may be made. 

Certificate in Spanish for Business. The Certificate in Spanish for Business requires 
16 credits above Spanish 219. It includes Spanish 329, 330, 380, and any course above 
Spanish 213 (excluding 219) in any area of Hispanic literature or culture. 

The minor in Italian language and culture requires twenty credits in Italian above 
Italian 153. It includes Italian 215, 216, 219, 220, and 224 or their equivalents. An average 
of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the minor. 

All majors are strongly urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs. (French majors are urged to live for at least a semester at the French House, a 
foreign language theme house for students of French.) 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 



1 94 Romance Languages 

French" or "Honors in Spanish," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 and 
281 and pass a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examination may 
be conducted, at least in part, in the major language. For additional information, members 
of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4,4) A two-semester sequence designed to help students 
develop the ability to understand and speak French and also learn to read and write 
French at the elementary level. Labs required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) Intermediate-level course covering the structure of the 
lanugage, developing students' reading, writing and conversation skills and prepar- 
ing them for oral and written discussion of literary texts in French 213. Note that 153 
is mutually exclusive of other 153-marked courses (153X). P — French 111-112, or 
placement. Labs required. 

153X. Intermediate French. (4) An intensive, intermediate-level course intended for 
students with a stronger background than required of 153 students. It offers the 
opportunity to develop further their reading, writing, and conversation skills and 
prepare for oral and written discussion of literary texts in French 213. Labs required. 

155. Intermediate Conversation. (4) Practice in spoken French, stressing correct 
sentence structure, transitions, and pronunciation. Special attention will be given to 
different registers of spoken French and to vocabulary acquisition. An elective, 
recommended for students at the level of 153 or 213. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Introduction to French Literature. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. Particular 
periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel reading and 
reports. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

215. Survey of French Literature 1: Medieval through Baroque. (4) Study of move- 
ments and selected representative texts. P — French 213 or permission of instructor. 

216. Survey of French Literature 2: Classicism through Romanticism. (4) Study of 
movements and selected representative texts. P — French 213 or permission of instruc- 
tor. 

217. Survey of French Literature 3: Realism to the Present. (4) Study of movements and 
selected representative texts. P — French 213 or permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A systematic review of the fundamental 
principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing idiomatic French. 
Required for major. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

220. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, stressing 
correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and vocabulary for 
everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P — French 153 or equivalent. 



Romance Languages 1 95 

222. French Phonetics. (4) A study of the principles of standard French pronunciation, 
with emphasis on their practical application as well as on their theoretical basis. 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasizing 
specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organization, 
banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and interpretations, 
oral and written. P — French 219 and 220 or permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 

281. Directed Study. (3,4) Extensive reading and /or research to meet individual 
needs. Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

319. Advanced Grammar and Stylistics. (4) Review and application of grammatical 
structures with emphasis placed on written French in a variety of discourse types. 
Attention given to stylistic differences in English and French. Graduate-level students 
will research and present topics related to the integration of reading and process 
writing in the classroom. P — French 219 or equivalent or permission of instructor. 

321. History and Structure of the Language. (4) Study of the historical development of French 
in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present and analysis of the 
phonology, morphology, and syntax of modern French. P — French 219 and 220. 

323. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development through the French Revolution. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, 
political, social, and economic life in France . P — French 220 or permission of instructor. 

324. Modern and Contemporary France. (4) An introduction to French culture and its 
historical development after the fall of the Ancien Regime and a study of present-day 
France, including geography and consideration of intellectual, artistic, political, 
social, economic, and educational factors. P — French 220 or permission of instructor. 

330. Seminar in Medieval Studies. (4) An examination and study of literary, social, 
and cultural themes. Topics may include: piety and religious satire; alterity and unity; 
the literary construction of collective and personal identity; the conception of women 
and the act of writing; Arthurian literature. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission 
of instructor. 

333. Form and Ideology in the Renaissance. (4) A study of the more important 
currents of thought and taste (Petrarchism, Platonism, Reformation, Mannerism, 
Baroque), and literary forms (prose fiction, essay, and dialogue; lyric and epic poetry). 
P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

342. The Baroque and Classicism. (4) Study of a rich and diverse period through the 
analysis of texts by major authors (such as Corneille, Racine, Moliere, Saint- Amant, 
LaFontaine, Lafayette), as well as some others (such as Theophile, Retz, Scarron). 
Particular attention will be paid to the notions of baroque and classicisme, the key 
manifestations of which will be followed through the development of various genres 
(poetry, drama, prose). P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 



1 96 Romance Languages 

351. Enlightenment Discourse. (4) Reading and discussion of selected works of Voltaire, 
Diderot, Rousseau, and other philosphes, and an assessment of their writings as both form 
and social commitment. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

352. Rococo and Sentimentalism. (4) A study of various literary manifestations of 
sensuality and sentimentality, in their idealized and subverted forms, from Prevost 
to Sade. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

360. Literary Currents in Post-Revolutionary France. (4) A study of social, political, 
intellectual, and esthetic aspects of topics such as French Romanticism, realism, 
naturalism, and symbolism, as reflected in texts by selected authors. P — French 215 
or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

363. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

364. French Novel. (4) A broad survey of French prose fiction, with critical study of several 
masterpieces in the field. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

365. French Drama. (4) A study of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with 
reading and discussion of representative plays from selected periods: Baroque, 
Classicism, and Romanticism, among others. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

371. Beyond Realism. (4) A study of modern and post-modern literature as it 
represents a dialogue with predecessors, as well as a search for innovative 
language and forms, correspondent to changing perceptions of reality. Topics 
may include: narrative in cinema, autobiographical writing, symbolist influences, 
surrealism, existentialism, the nouveau roman, theories of Vabsurde. P — French 215 
or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

374. The Black Experience in Francophone Literature. (4) A study of poetry, 
prose, and drama by writers from French-speaking Africa and the Caribbean. 
Emphasis will be placed on the negritude movement, the African oral tradition, 
colonial and post-colonial works and women's voices. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 
or permission of instructor. 

375. Special Topics. (2 or 4) Selected themes and approaches to French literature 
transcending boundaries of time and genre. Topics to be chosen by staff in consulta- 
tion with majors prior to the term the course is offered. May be repeated once for 
credit. P — French 215 or 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well-established 
French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accompanied by a 
departmental faculty member. 



Romance Languages 1 97 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1 ) should be of junior 
standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 219 or its equivalent or at least 
one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one semester's residence in the 
French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of ability in French, as 
ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French professors. The 
resident director supervises academic, residential, and extracurricular affairs and has 
general oversight of independent study projects. 

2192. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Study of grammar, composition, pronun- 
ciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2232. Contemporary France. (4) A study of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French life 
today. 

2242. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural significance 
in Paris and the French provinces. 

2402. Independent Study. (2-4) One of several fields; scholar's journal and research paper. 
Supervision by the director of the semester in France. Work may be supplemented by 
lectures on the subject given at the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte des Lettres et Sciences 
Humaines. 

2742. Special Topics in French Literature. (2) Selected topics in French literature; topics 
vary from year to year. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theater, and poetry of France, largely of 
the period since 1850. 

Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

Spanish 

111-112. Elementary Spanish. (4,4) A two-semester sequence designed to help 
students develop the ability to understand and speak Spanish and also learn to 
read and write Spanish at the elementary level. Labs required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A course reviewing the material of 111-112 in 
one semester, intended for students whose preparation for 153 is inadequate. Not 
open for students who have received credit for 112. Labs required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) Intermediate-level course covering the structure of the 
language, developing students' reading, writing, and conversation skills and prepar- 
ing them for oral and written discussion of literary texts in Spanish 213. Note that 153 
is mutually exclusive of other 153-marked courses (153X, 153E). P — Spanish 111-112, 
or 113, or placement. Labs required. 



1 98 Romance Languages 

153E. Intensive Intermediate Spanish in an Immersion Setting. (10) A six-week 
intensive course in Spanish, taught during the summer in Quito, Ecuador. Classes will 
meet five hours a day and will cover speaking, listening, reading, writing and the 
cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. Special activities will include day-trips to 
sites of cultural interest. P — Spanish 112, 113 or two or three years of high school 
Spanish. No student may receive credit for both 153 and 153E. Students wishing to 
register must complete an application early in the preceding spring semester in the 
Department of Romance Languages and be admitted to the course. 

153X. Intermediate Spanish. (4) An intensive, intermediate-level course intended for 
students with a stronger background than 153 students', it offers the opportunity to 
develop further their reading, writing, and conversation skills and prepare for oral 
and written discussion of literary texts in Spanish 213. Labs required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and Spanish 
American literature. Does not count toward the major or the minor. P — Spanish 153 or 
equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and move- 
ments. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic require- 
ment. P — Spanish 213 or permission of instructor. 

218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and 
movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the basic 
requirement. P — Spanish 213 or permission of instructor. 

219. Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic study of Spanish morphology, 
sentence structure, and expository usage applied to various kinds of composition: 
description, narration, argumentation, etc. P — Spanish 213 or equivalent. 

220. Conversation. (4) Practice with oral Spanish, stressing fluency, listening comprehen- 
sion, vocabulary growth, and proficiency in handling everyday situations, with addi- 
tional work on support writing skills. Lab required. P — Spanish 213 or equivalent. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) Description of, and practice with, the sound system of 
Spanish. Systematic analysis of the phonemes, allophones, and stress and intonation 
patterns of the language, and discussion of dialectal and stylistic variation. Lab required. 
P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; empha- 
sis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 or 218. 

224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis on 
intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 217 or 218. 

225. Internship in Spanish Language. (2 or 4) Under faculty direction, a student 
undertakes a language project in conjunction with an off-campus service commitment 
or internship. Includes, but is not limited to: vocabulary building, keeping a journal, 
and reading professional material. Does not count toward the Spanish major or minor. 
P — Spanish 219 and permission of instructor. 



Romance Languages 1 99 

228. Spanish for the Professions. (2 or 4) Spanish usage of a selected professional area. 
Emphasis on communication in typical situations and interactions, specialized vocabulary, 
cultural differences, and related technical readings in the subject matter. Topics offered 
from following list: a. Health Occupations; b. Social Work; c. Law and Law Enforcement; 
d. Other (on demand). P — Spanish 219, 220, and permission of instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and /or research, to meet individual needs. 
Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

319. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) Advanced-level review of Spanish 
morphology and syntax applied to the refinement of writing techniques. P — Spanish 
219 or permission of instructor. 

320. Advanced Conversation. (4) Intensive immersion in the situations and skills of 
advanced and superior levels of oral proficiency. P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

321. History and Structure of the Spanish Language. (4) Study of the historical develop- 
ment of Spanish in a cultural and linguistic context from its earliest stages to the present. 
Analysis of its current and internal changes. P — Spanish 219 and 220 or permission of 
instructor. 

323. Topics in Hispanic Civilization. (4) Exploration of themes and trends in Hispanic 
society and culture, such as cross-national questions, and the exile experience. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

329. Introduction to Spanish for Business. (4) Introduction to Spanish vocabulary 
and discourse in business. This course emphasizes oral and written practices, reading 
and Hispanic business culture as well as a comprehensive analysis of different 
business topics and areas. P — Spanish 219 or permission of instructor. 

330. Advanced Spanish for Business. (4) Intensive immersion in the situations and 
skills of advanced Spanish for Business. Emphasis on oral and written business 
presentations, reading comprehension of case studies related to the Hispanic business 
world. Cross-cultural awareness of the Hispanic business world. P — 329 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

331. Medieval Spain: A Cultural and Literary Perspective. (4) An examination of the 
literary, social and cultural themes, such as: Quests and Discoveries, Pilgrimage and 
the Act of Reading, Images of Islam, The Judaic Tradition in Spanish Literature, and 
Spiritual Life and Ideal. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

332. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of the major 
literary works of the Golden Age. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

333. Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study of a representa- 
tive selection of poetry, drama, essays, and novels of these two centuries. P — Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 



200 Romance Languages 

341. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderon de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P — Spanish 217 or 218 
or permission of instructor. 

343. Cervantes. (4) Intensive study of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote and the novelas ejemplares. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

352. Spanish Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongorismo, the Romancero, 
and the Generation of 1927. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

361. Latin American Cinema and Ideology. (4) An examination of major Latin 
American films as cinematographic expressions of social and political issues. P — 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

362. Spanish-American Poetry. (4) Intensive study and textual analysis of Spanish- 
American poetry with special emphasis on representative poets and major trends: 
Culteranismo, epic poetry, gaucho poetry, Modernismo, avant garde poetry, and anti- 
poetry. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

363. Contemporary Spanish-American Theater. (4) A study of the Spanish- American 
dramatic production from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. The course 
focuses on the development of some of the main dramatic movements of the twentieth 
century: realism, absurdism, avant garde, and collective theater. P — Spanish 21 7 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

364. Spanish- American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century Spanish- 
American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative authors, such as 
Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Cortazar, Donoso, Garcia Marquez. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

365. Spanish- American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish- America from its beginning 
through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

366. Seminar in Spanish- American Novel. (2 or 4) A study of one or more categories of 
Spanish-American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

367. Colonial Spanish America. (4) This course explores the early Spanish American 
colonial period alongside contemporary intellectuals' attempt to return to and re- 
cover this historical past. Readings include fifteenth- and sixteenth-century codices, 
post-conquest indigenous writings, Iberian chronicles and letters, as well as twentieth 
century documents. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

373. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

374. Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contemporary works 
representative of the novel, poetry, theater, and essay. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 



Romance Languages 201 

375. Special Topics. (2 or 4) Selected special topics in Spanish literature. P — Spanish 217 
or permission of instructor. 

380. Spanish Translation. (4) Advanced work in Spanish-to-English and English- 
to-Spanish translation, focusing on sensitivity to differences in meaning, register, 
and sociocultural norms. P — permission of instructor. 

387. Special Topics. (2 or 4) Selected special topics in Spanish-American litera- 
ture. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

388. Special Topics in Hispanic Linguistics. (4) Investigation of key areas in Spanish 
languages research, such as dialectology, history, language acquisition, and usage. 
P — Spanish 222 or 321, or the combination of 219 or 220 and Linguistics 150, or 
permission of instructor. 

3689. Cuban Literature. (4) A study of Cuban literature from the eighteenth century 
to the present: romanticism, modernism, naturalism, the avant garde movement, and 
the post-Revolutionary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of Director of the 
Cuba Program. 

Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well-established 
Spanish university. Students go as a group in the spring semester, accompanied by a 
professor from the College. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1 ) should be of junior 
standing, (2) must have completed Spanish 220, and (3) should be approved by both their 
major department and the Department of Romance Languages. Interested students 
should contact Professor Candelas S. Gala in the Romance Languages department. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (P/F) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, excur- 
sions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 

2019. Intensive Spanish. (P/F) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written 
language. P — Permission of instructor. 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 

2199. Advanced Spanish. (4) Study of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, with 
extensive practice of the written and oral language. P — Permission of instructor. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from the 
colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 



202 Romance Languages 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important authors 
and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and representative 
works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern period. 

2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A study of the various social 
and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 

History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman period 
to the present day. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and uniqueness 
of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean and Western art 
in general. 

Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4,4) A course for beginners, covering grammar essentials 
and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing the 
structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the Venice 
program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture; — five hours. Offered every 
semester. 

127. Basic Conversation. (2) Brief review of grammar; emphasis on vocabulary building 
and conversation for everyday survival while discovering Italy and Italian culture 
through film, TV, documentaries and literature. P — Italian 113 or equivalent. Does not 
satisfy requirements for minor or certification in Italian studies. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and 
speaking. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. P — Italian 113 or two years of high school 
Italian. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. Satisfies 
basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 

Also offered in Venice. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A thorough review of the basics of 
structure and vocabulary featuring a more detailed examination of complex syntax and 
idiomatic expressions; practice in translation of texts of diverse styles and from varied 
sources, and free composition. P — Italian 215 or equivalent. 



Romance Languages/ Russian and East European Studies 203 

220. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing 
Italian, stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. P — Italian 219 or 275. 

2213. Spoken Italian. (4) Course in oral Italian, offered only in Venice. Students are placed 
in small groups according to their levels of fluency. Elective credit. 

224. Italian Civilization I. (4) The culture and its historical development from Charlemagne 
to the Risorgimento; emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. 
P— Italian 215 or 216. 

225. Italian Civilization II. (4) The historical development of modern Italian culture from 
the Risorgimento to the present. Use of newspapers, magazines, TV broadcasts, films, and 
literary readings to stimulate oral and written responses to the problems of contemporary 
Italy. P— Italian 215 or 216. 

226. Comedy in Italian Cinema. (4) A study of modern Italian society through the 
analysis of films from the fifties to the present. Taught in Italian. P — Italian 215 or 216 
or permission of instructor. 

275. Special Topics. (4) Selected special topics in Italian literature. P — Italian 215 or 216. 

Semester in Venice 

2153. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) 
2163. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) 
2213. Spoken Italian. (4) 

See the course listings under Italian (above) for descriptions and prerequisites. 



Russian and East European Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Susan Zayer Rupp (History), Coordinator 

Russian 215 or 216 or equivalent proficiency in another East European language is 
required, plus twenty credits from the following list. (See course descriptions under 
appropriate listings.) Four of these twenty credits must be REE 298, the Research 
Project in Russian and East European Studies. 

Communication 351B. Comparative Communication: Russia. (2) 

Economics 252. International Finance. (4) 

253. Economies in Transition. (4) 

History 331. Russia: Origins to 1865. (4) 

332. Russia and the Soviet Union: 1865 to the Present. (4) 



204 Russian and East European Studies/ Sociology 

Humanities 215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) (Satisfies a Division 1 1 

requirement.) 
218. Eastern European Literature. (4) (Satisfies a Division I 
requirement.) 

Politics 232. Politics in Russia and Eastern Europe. (4) 

Russian Four additional credits at the 200-level. 

REE 298 Course description to follow. (4) 

With the approval of the coordinator, students may fulfill the language requirement by 
equivalent study of another East European language (to be pursued independently under 
the auspices of the German and Russian Department). Students may apply all relevant 
seminars, colloquia, or independent studies in any of the above departments to the minor. 

REE 298. Research Project in Russian and East European Studies. (4) A semester- 
long research project pursued independently by a student (generally in the senior 
year) under the guidance of a faculty member in the relevant field of study. A 
second faculty member will consult with the student regarding his or her project 
as well as serving as a second reader. The course culminates in the completion of 
a seminar-length paper based upon primary research. 



Sociology 



Earl Smith, Chair 

Wake Forest Professors Charles F. Longino, Willie Pearson Jr. 

Rubin Professor of American Ethnic Studies Earl Smith 

Professors John R. Earle, Catherine T. Harris, 

Philip J. Perricone 

Associate Professors H. Kenneth Bechtel, Cheryl B. Leggon, Ian M. Taplin 

Assistant Professors Angela Hattery, Jeff ery S. Mullis 

Visiting Assistant Professor Timothy McGettigan 

Visiting Instructor Teresa R. Smith 

A major in sociology requires forty-one credits and must include Sociology 151, 370, 371, 
and 372. A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the major 
is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses is required for 
graduation. 

A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 151 and 370. 
A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time the 
minor is declared. A minimum grade-point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required 
for certification as a minor. Students who intend to pursue a sociology minor are 
encouraged to notify the department early in their junior year, and they are invited to 
participate in all departmental functions. 

The program in sociology provides majors with several options. In addition to 
pursuing a regular major in sociology, students may choose to specialize in any of four 



Sociology 205 

concentrations: 1) family studies, 2) crime, law, and social control, 3) health and society, 
and 4) business and society. These concentrations are described in detail in the Handbook 
for Sociology Students, a copy of which may be obtained from the sociology office or any 
member of the departmental faculty. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology," highly qualified majors 
are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They must 
complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily defend 
their work in an oral examination. For additional information members of the departmen- 
tal faculty should be consulted. 

A student who selects sociology to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one of 
the following courses: Sociology 151, 152, 153, or 154. No introductory-level course is 
required for students taking a sociology course as an elective unless such a prerequisite 
is specified in the course description. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organization and 
disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. Required for all 
sociology majors and minors. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. 

153. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basis of the family, emphasizing the problems 
growing out of modern conditions and social change. 

154. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, suicide, 
drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. 

205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a research 
technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction included. Lab to be 
arranged. Not open to students who have had Art 119. P— Permission of instructor. 

206. Concerned Photographers and Their Works. (4) Explores the contributions of 
concerned photographers in the identification and understanding of social issues. Ad- 
vanced camera and darkroom instruction is included. P — Sociology 205 and /or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

301. Religion and Society. (4) Study of religion as a social phenomenon and its relation- 
ship to the other structures of society — political, economic and others, with special focus 
on the contemporary United States. (Also offered as Religion 151.) 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy, power, authority, decision making, and change. Attention will 
be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 

303. Business and Society. (4) Historical development, organization, and current prob- 
lems of business enterprises in American society. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the context of 
societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. Consideration of 
feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing roles for human interaction. 



206 Sociology 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relationship to 
social change and to the communication of meanings. 

309. Sexuality and Society. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on human sexual 
behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications of changing gender 
roles, cross-cultural and subcultural variations, and the influence of the mass media. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern man 
in accepting and facing death. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional 
occupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspective. 

316. Conflict and Social Control. (4) An historical and cross-cultural examination of 
conflict management and social control, including discipline, rebellion, negotiation, 
mediation, and adjudication. 

317. Mental Illness and Society. (4) An examination of the sociological aspects of 
mental health and mental illness. Includes the social epidemiology of mental 
disorders, cross-cultural variation in societal responses to the mentally ill; the 
development of the psychiatric profession, and the evolution of the mental 
hospital. 

325. Self and Society. An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects of social 
relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of social roles 
and norms, with special emphasis on language and symbolic interaction. 

332. Social Epidemiology. (2) This course will integrate sociology and epidemiology, 
paying particular attention to such variables as age, gender, race and ethnicity as they bear 
on health, illness and medical services, including the risk factors of chronic disease. It does 
not presuppose advanced knowledge of epidemiological methods. 

333. The Sociology of Cities. (4) An examination of the patterns of urbanization 
worldwide. Explores the dynamics of urban growth resulting from economic, social, 
political and ecological processes. 

334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the United States. Assessment of significant contemporary writ- 
ings on the manifest and latent functions of education. 

335. Sociology of Health and Illness. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated with 
health and illness. 

336. Sociology of Health Care. (4) An analysis of health care systems, including the social 
organization of medical practice, health care payment, the education of medical practitio- 
ners, and the division of the labor in health care. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. Social 
and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field placement in 
a nursing home or similar institution. P — Permission of instructor. 



Sociology 207 

338. Sociological Issues in Criminal Justice. (4) Introduction to the structure, organiza- 
tion and operation of the various components of the criminal justice system with emphasis 
on the police and correctional institutions. 

339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with individual and 
collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and historical conditions which 
have contributed to various patterns of violence in American society. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life span 
in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance of changes 
in contemporary society. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treatment, and 
prevention. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal and 
political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 

344. Women and Crime. (4) Course will focus on four major areas related to women and 
crime: women as offenders, the processing of women by the criminal justice system, 
women as victims, and women as criminal justice professionals. P — 341 and permission 
of instructor. 

345. Advanced Topics Seminar in Criminology. (4) Emphasis on current topics in the field 
of aiminology and criminal justice such as measurement issues, ethical issues, history, crime 
and mass media, and theoretical debates. P — 341 and permission of instructor. 

347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport and 
other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport and the 
functions of sport for society. 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assessment 
of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the structure, organi- 
zation, and function of the family in America. 

349. Sociology of Science and Technology. (4) Explores the reciprocal impact of science 
and technology on society. Issues to include the impact of science and technology on 
various populations (including underparticipating groups, such as women and racial/ 
ethnic minorities) and the environment, the talent pool, and the workplace. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing 
importance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media and 
a changing society. 

351. Management and Organizations. (4) A study of macro organizational processes and 
changes in contemporary industrial societies and their effects upon managerial systems, 
managerial ideologies and managers in firms. 



208 Sociology 

352. White-Collar Crime. (4) Study of criminal activity committed in the course of 
legitimate occupations including workplace crime, graft, and business crime. P — 341. 

353. Families in Later Life. (2,4) Analysis of current issues affecting later-life families, 
including the unmarried, marital relations, divorce, widowhood, remarriage, kinship, 
family caregiving, and institutional care. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and discrimination 
and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and sociological 
theories of prejudice. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The study of structured social inequality with particular 
emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contemporary 
writings on the status of black Americans in various American social institutions (e.g., 
education, sports, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the U.S. labor force. The individual's view 
of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers. Use of some 
cross-cultural data. 

363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including discus- 
sion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial development, 
and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power in 
society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth of the 
welfare state. 

370. Sociological Theory. (4) A survey of the history and development of sociological 
theory, emphasizing the critical reading of primary source materials and the evalua- 
tion of the current status of sociological theory. P — Sociology 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

371. Social Statistics. (5) A computer-based survey of basic statistics utilized in 
sociological research. Lab — 1 hour. P — Sociology 151 or permission of instructor. 

372. Research Methods in Sociology. (4) An overview of both quantitative and 
qualitative research methods. Research projects required. P — Sociology 371. 

373. Honors Seminar. (4) Seminar on selected problems in sociology. Intended for 
students in the departmental honors program. P — Sociology 372 and permission of 
instructor. 

374. Honors Research. (2) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in 
Sociology 373 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. P — Sociology 373 and 
permission of instructor. 



Sociology/ Spanish Studies/Theater 209 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary interest. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1-4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses designed 
to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under the 
supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Spanish Studies 

(Foreign Area Study) 
Kathleen M. Glenn (Romance Languages), Coordinator 

Students are required to participate in the semester in Spain program at Salamanca. They 
also are required to take History 2019, General Histoiy of Spain (4) taught in Salamanca; 
Sociology 2029, Social and Political Structures of Present Day Spain (4) taught in Salamanca; 
either Art 2029, Spanish Art and Architecture (4) taught in Salamanca or Spanish 224, Spanish 
Civilization (4); and Spanish 217, Masterpieces of Spanish Literature (4). 

Students must take twelve additional credits from the advanced courses in Spanish 
language and the literature of Spain offered by the Department of Romance Languages, 
or from those offered at the University of Salamanca. 



Theater 



Donald H. Wolfe, Chair 

Professors James H. Dodding, Harold C. Tedford, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professor Darwin R. Payne 

Assistant Professors Nina M. Lucas (Director of Dance), Mary R. Wayne-Thomas 

Adjunct Assistant Professor R. Craig Hamilton 

Lecturers Sharon Andrews, Zanna Beswick (London), Jonathan H. Christman, 

Brook M. Davis, John E. R. Friedenberg 

A major in theater consists of a minimum of forty credits, at least eight of which must 
be at the 300-level. This includes a required core of thirty-six credits: Theater 110 or 
112, 113, 131, 140, 150, 250, 260, 261, 340, 381 and 385. (Students interested in a theater 
major should elect Theater 112.) Four semesters of Theater 100 (0 credits) also are 
required. Majors may choose their remaining courses from the offerings listed under 
the Department of Theater. A minimum grade of 2.0 in all theater courses attempted 
is required for graduation. Majors should consult with their advisers about additional 
regulations. Theater majors are required to take two courses in dramatic literature 
from the Departments of English or Classical Languages or from Humanities. 

Those who plan to be theater majors are urged to begin their studies during their first 
year. 



2 1 Theater 



Highly qualified majors (departmental GPA of 3.3, overall GPA of 3.0) are invited by 
the department to apply for admission to the honors program in theater. To be graduated 
with the designation "Honors in Theater," a student must successfully complete Theater 
292 (4). Honors projects may consist of a) a research paper of exceptional quality; 
b ) a creative project in playwriting or design; or c) a directing or acting project. The theater 
honors project must be presented and defended before the departmental Honors Com- 
mittee. The department can furnish honors candidates complete information on prepara- 
tion and completion of projects. 

A minor in theater requires twenty-four credits: Theater 1 10 or 1 12, 140, 150, 260 or 261, 
two theater electives and two semesters of Theater 100 participation. Theater minors are 
required to take one course in dramatic literature from the Departments of English or 
Classical Languages or from Humanities. 

Any person who is interested in a theater major or minor should contact the chair of the 
department soon after arrival on the campus. 

100. Participation. (0) Attendance /participation in Mainstage and Studio perfor- 
mances; and other events as established by the department. (Specific attendance/ 
participation requirements will be established at the beginning of each semester.) 
Four semesters, or a minimum of eight University Theater productions, are required 
of theater majors. Participation in at least two of the eight productions must be in 
technical production. Two semesters, or a minimum of four University Theater 
productions, are required of theater minors. Participation in one of the four produc- 
tions must be in technical production. Assignments for technical production are made 
through consultation with the technical and design faculty. 

110. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the theater novice. A survey of the theory and 
practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, playwriting, and design. 
Participation in Studio and Mainstage productions. Students planning to major in theater 
are encouraged to take THE 112. Credit will not be given for both Theater 110 and 112. 
May be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

112. Introduction to the Theater. (4) For the experienced theater student. A survey of the 
theory and practice of the major disciplines of theater art: acting, directing, playwriting, 
and design. Students planning to major in theater are encouraged to take Theater 112. 
Credit will not be given for both Theater 110 and 112. Experience in Studio and Mainstage 
productions. May be used to satisfy a requirement in Division I. 

113. Voice and Speech. (2) Students will develop an easily projected, clearly articu- 
lated and emotionally revealing voice through Linklater-based techniques. The half- 
semester course culminates in a presentation of Shakespearean pieces. 

126. Stage Makeup. (2) A study of the design and application of theatrical makeup in 
relationship to historical period and character development. 

131. Basic Stage Movement. (2) A practical introduction to the development of the 
actor's bodily movement skills. Communication of character, clarity, purpose and 
intention will be emphasized together with basic technical movement for the stage. 



Theater 21 1 



140. Acting I. (4) Fundamental acting theory and techniques including exercises, mono- 
logues and scene work. 

141. On-Camera Performance. (4) Designed to introduce students to the theory and 
practice of performing for the camera. This course covers basic method acting, 
newscasting, and other performance formats. (Also listed as Communication 116.) 

143. Speech for Stage and Workplace. (4) Vocal resonance, articulation, awareness of 
regional dialects, ear training, phonetics and body tensions are explored in conjunction 
with text. Exercises, readings and performances. 

144. Mime. (2 ) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain skills and 
understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, rehearsals, 
and performances. 

146. Performance Techniques. (4) A course focusing on acting styles appropriate to 
various modes of theatrical production. Specialized techniques such as dance, stage 
combat, etc., may also be included. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

150. Introduction to Design & Production. (4) An introduction to the architecture and 
technology of the theater, including the essentials of the operation of the scene shop, stage 
equipment, and occupational health and safety. The course stresses the collaborative art 
of the theater through an introduction to theater design including script analysis, visual 
research, communication of the design, drafting, and color. 

155. Stagecraft. (4) This introductory course focuses on contemporary materials, 
construction methods, and rigging practices employed in the planning, fabrication 
and installation of stage scenery. Emphasis on using current technologies for problem 
solving. 

1880. The Contemporary English Theater. (2) An exploration of the English theater 
through theater attendance in London and other English theater centers. Readings, 
lectures. Participants submit reviews of the plays and complete a journal of informal 
reactions to the plays, the sites and the variety of cultural differences observed. Two weeks. 
Offered in London before spring term. P — Permission of instructor. 

241. Advanced Stage Movement. (4) An advanced class exploring stage movement 
theories, techniques, and skills, drawing upon the theories of Alexander, LeCoq, Fialka, 
Kantor, Pisk, and others. P — Theater 140. 

244. Advanced Mime. (2) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired in 
Theater 144 {Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course includes exer- 
cises, rehearsals, and performances. P — Theater 144. 

245. Acting II. (4) Advanced study and practice of the skills introduced in Acting I. P — 
Theater 113, 131, and 140. 

246. Period and Style. (4) A study of social customs, movement, dances, and theatrical 
styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as well as in period plays. 
The course includes performances in class. P — Theater 113, 131, 140. 



2 1 2 Theater 



250. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and techniques 
of stage design. Drafting, model building, perspective rendering, historical research, and 
scene painting will be emphasized. P — Theater 150. 

251. Costume and Makeup Design. (4) A study of the fundamental principles and 
techniques of costume and makeup design with an emphasis on historical research. The 
basics of costume rendering, costume construction and stage makeup will be explored. 
P— Theater 150. 

252. Lighting and Sound Design. (4) An exploration of the lighting and sound designer's 
process from script to production. A variety of staging situations will be studied, 
including proscenium, thrust and arena production. P — Theater 150. 

259. Theater Management: Principles and Practices. (4) This course reviews the devel- 
opment of theater management in the U.S. with emphasis on the role of the producer; 
explores commercial and not-for-profit theater with attention to planning, personnel, and 
the economics of theater. Includes readings, lectures, and reports. 

260. History of Western Theater I (Beginnings to 1642). (4) A survey of the development 
of Western theater and drama through the Greek, Roman, medieval, and Renaissance 
theaters to 1642; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

261. History of Western Theater II (1642 to the Present). (4) A survey of Western theater 
and drama from the French Neoclassic theater through the English Restoration, the 
eighteenth century, Romanticism, Realism, the revolts against Realism and the post- 
modern theater; includes lectures, readings and reports. (Suitable for non-majors.) 

281. Acting Workshop. (2) Scene work with student directors utilizing realistic texts. 
Offered pass /fail only. P — Theater 140 or permission of instructor. 

283. Practicum. (1-2) Projects under faculty supervision. May be repeated for no more than 
four credits. P — Permission of the department. 

290. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in theater. May be 
repeated. 

292. Theater Honors. (4) A tutorial involving intensive work in the area of special interest 
for qualified seniors who wish to graduate with departmental honors. P — Permission of 
department. 

294. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in an area of interest to be 
approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. May be taken for no more than four credits. 
P — Permission of department. 

2650. The English Theater, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in the 
English theater from the Restoration to World War II, including the plays, playwrights, 
actors, audiences, theater architecture, theater management, costumes and sets. Field 
trips include visits to theaters, museums, and performances. Offered in London. 



Theater 2 1 3 



340. Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. P — 
Theater 110/112,140 and 150; C— Theater 381. 

344. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varying styles in interpreting and acting 
Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. P — Theater 113, 
131, and 140. 

381. Directing Workshop. (2) The practical application of directing techniques in realistic 
scene study utilizing student actors. This course is a co-requisite of Theater 340. 

385. Studio Production. (2) The organization, techniques and problems encountered in 
the production of a play for the public. P — Theater 340 and permission of department. 

390, 391. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in the theater. May 
be repeated. 

Dance 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Dance 120 (2); Dance 221 
(2) or Dance 222 (2); Dance 123 (2); Dance 126 (2); Dance 226 (2); Dance 127 (2); Dance 
128 (1) — must be repeated for a maximum of four credits; Dance 229 (2) or Dance 231 
(2); Dance 200 (2); and Dance 202 (4). 

120. Beginning Modern Dance Technique. (2) Fundamentals of modern dance 
technique, with an emphasis placed on movement concepts, vocabulary, technique, 
alignment, placement, and flexibility. May be repeated four times for credit. 

123. Dance Composition (2) Fundamental study of improvisation, composition and 
choreography. 

124. Social Dance. (1) Fundamental techniques of social dance, providing basic skills, 
concepts of movement, style and fundamental step patterns found in social dance 
rhythms. Students will learn basic smooth dances, rhythm dances, Latin American 
dances and Cuban dances. 

125. Folk and Social Dance. (1) Fundamentals of folk and social dance, providing the 
basic skills, concepts of movement, style and fundamental step patterns of folk and 
social dance. Emphasis is on the development of fundamental dance skills and 
practice in utilizing dance techniques. 

126. Beginning Jazz Dance. (2) Fundamental of jazz technique with an emphasis on 
alignment, isolations, flexibility, basic turns, jumps, and combinations. May be 
repeated four times for credit. 

127. Beginning Classical Ballet Techniques. (2) Fundamentals of classical ballet 
technique with an emphasis on alignment, placement, flexibility, barre work, adagio 
and petite allegro. May be repeated four times for credit. 



2 1 4 Theater 

128. Dance Performance. (1) A practical experience in the areas of rehearsal, choreo- 
graphing, production and performance, as a choreographer, and / or performer in the 
Fall Faculty /Guest Artist Concert and /or Spring Dance Concert. May be repeated 
eight times for credit. 

128A. Performance 
128B. Choreography 

200. Senior Dance Project. (2) An investigation of selected semi-professional prob- 
lems involving the creative process of choreography, study of notation, research idea, 
or production. 

202. History of Dance. (4) A survey of American dance from the 1600s to the present 
with emphasis on scope, style, and function. Satisfies a Division V requirement. 

221. Intermediate Modern Dance Technique. (2) A progressive development of 
movement concepts and vocabulary from Dance 120, with an emphasis on exploring 
both the classical and contemporary techniques of modern dance. May be repeated 
four times for credit. P — Dance 120 or permission of instructor. 

222. Advanced Modern Dance Technique. (2) A progressive development of the 
concepts of Dance 221 with an emphasis on qualitative performance, virtuosity and 
versatility in a variety of technical forms within the modern dance discipline. May be 
repeated four times for credit. P — Dance 221 or permission of instructor. 

226. Intermediate Jazz Dance. (2) This course pursues the mastery of basic jazz 
technique along with more complex center floor combinations. Emphasis is placed on 
performance qualities and musicality. May be repeated four times for credit. P — 
Dance 126 or permission of the instructor. 

227. Advanced Jazz Dance. (2) Pursues the mastery of jazz technique along with more 
complex center floor combinations. Emphasis is placed on performance qualities, 
musicality, technique, virtuosity, and creativity. May be repeated four times for 
credit. P — Dance 226 or permission of instructor. 

229 Intermediate Classical Ballet. (2) Pursues the mastery of basic ballet technique 
along with more complex barre and center combinations, performance qualities, and 
musicality. May be repeated four times for credit. P — Dance 127 or permission of 
instructor. 

231. Advanced Classical Ballet. (2) Continues the mastery of basic ballet technique 
along with more complex barre and center combinations, performance qualities, 
musicality and pointe work. May be repeated four times for credit. P — Dance 229 or 
permission of instructor. 



Urban Studies/Women 's Studies 2 1 5 



Urban Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Donald E. Frey (Economics), Coordinator 

The interdisciplinary minor in Urban Studies requires twenty credits, of which at least 
twelve must be chosen from the following courses. (See course descriptions under 
appropriate listings.) 

Art 296. Art History Seminar. J. Special Topics: Urbanism. (4) 

Economics 246. Urban Economics. (4) P — Economics 150. 

Politics 222. Urban Politics. (4) 

Religion 343. The City as Symbol. (4) 

Sociology 333. The Sociology of Cities. (4) 

Courses needed to complete twenty credits may be chosen from among the following 
courses. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Education 271. Geography: The Human Environment. (A) 

History 2253. History of Venice. (4) Offered in Venice. 

2260. History of London. (4) Offered in London. 

352. U.S. Social History since 1850. (4) 
Politics 289. Internship in Politics. (2,3,4)* 

Sociology 152. Social Problems. (4) 

"To count toward the Urban Studies minor, an internship 
must be overseen by the instructor of Politics 222. 

Students intending to minor in Urban Studies should consult with the coordinator as 
early as possible to discuss scheduling of courses not offered annually, careers in urban 
studies, and other issues. In exceptional cases, the coordinator may approve limited 
substitutions for the listed courses. 



Women's Studies 

(Interdisciplinary Minor) 
Susan Harden Borwick (Music), Director 

The interdisciplinary minor in Women's Studies requires the core course, Women's 
Studies 221, and a minimum of twenty additional credits, for a total of twenty-four credits. 
It is recommended that the upper division seminar, Women's Studies 321, be included. If 
courses not designated Women's Studies are taken, they must be from an approved list 
on file with the director and stated below. Such courses must be balanced between a) 
the humanities and b) the social and natural sciences. This structure gives students an 



2 1 6 Women 's Studies 



understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of Women's Studies within the context of 
the traditional liberal arts curriculum. 

A student minoring in Women's Studies might take Women's Studies 221 as a 
sophomore, eight to twelve credits as a junior, and the remaining eight to twelve credits, 
including the Interdisciplinary Seminar, as a senior. 

111. Writing and Women's Issues. (4) This writing-intensive seminar explores special 
topics that include women, such as: women and creativity; women, work, and family; 
Womanist literature; reproductive rights; violence against women; women and the 
arts; the emergence of feminist thought. Emphasis on expository writing, critical 
thinking, and exchange of ideas in a discussion and workshop setting. Satisfies the 
basic composition but not the minor requirement. 

221. Women's Issues. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by women's studies 
faculty representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humanities 
and the social sciences. Topics include critical methods and practical solutions, 
gender issues in the Twenty-first Century, and women in culture and society. 

231. Language and Gender in Japanese Culture. (4) Analyses of social and psycho- 
logical factors related to gender differences in Japanese language usage. (Also listed 
as Linguistics 231.) 

321. Interdisciplinary Seminar. (4) A research-centered study of questions raised by 
women's studies on an interdisciplinary topic, such as women's health issues, war and 
peace, international women's issues, perspectives on women and aging, lesbian and 
gay culture and theory, women and the arts. 

350. Biocultural Perspectives on Women and Aging. (4) A course that examines 
biological, sociopsychological, and cultural issues affecting older women. 

358. Mothers and Daughters. (4) A course that examines literature, psychology, and 
feminist theories on motherhood and the mother-daughter relationship. 

359. Fathers and Daughters. (4) The ways in which fathers influence their daughters' 
emotional, psychological, and intellectual development. Selected materials from psychol- 
ogy, mythology, film, and contemporary literature. 

377. Special Topics. (2, 3, 4) Includes such women's studies topics as gender issues in 
the Twenty-first Century, Jewish- American women writers, African- American women 
writers, women and aging, critical approaches to women's issues, the emergence of 
feminist thought. 

396. Independent Study. (1-4) Independent projects in women's studies which either 
continue study begun in regular courses or develop new areas of interest. By prearrange- 
ment. 

397. Internships in Women's Studies. (2-4) Practicum opportunities for work and for 
research in conjunction with a local women's or justice organization: Winston-Salem 
Family Services, NOW, Council on the Status of Women, the North Carolina Center for 
Laws Affecting Women, the AIDS Care Service, etc. Pass /fail only. 



Women's Studies 



217 



In addition to the Women's Studies courses listed on page 216, the following courses 
may be included in the minor. (See course descriptions under appropriate listings.) 

Courses in the Humanities 



Art 

Classics 

English 



History 



Humanities 



251. Women and Art. (4) 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3,4) 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) 

a. The woman writer in society 

b. Feminist critical approaches to literature 
377. American Jewish Literature. (4) 
381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) 

310. History of Sexuality in the United States. (4,3) 

341. History of Women in Modern Asia. (4) 

365. Women in American History. (4) 

230. Women Writers in Contemporary Italy. (4) 
320. Perspectives on the Middle Ages. (4) 

a. Medieval women 

b. Medieval constructs of gender, race, and class 

347. Women Writers in Japanese Culture. (4) 
353. African and Caribbean Women Writers. (4) 

231. Language and Gender in Japanese Culture. (4) 

208. Women and Music. (4) 

340. Men's Studies and Religion. (4) 

366. Gender and Religion. (4) 

370. Women and Christianity. (4) 

371. Sexuality and Christian Thought. (4) 

Courses in the Social and Natural Sciences 

Politics 229. Women and Politics. (4) 

Psychology 265. Human Sexuality. (4) 

359. Psychology of Gender. (4) 

Sociology 153. Marriage and the Family. (4) 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) 
309. Sexuality and Society. (4) 

311. Women in Professions. (4) 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) 
359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) 

Students intending to minor in Women's Studies should consult the director of 
Women's Studies in Tribble Hall A-106B, preferably during their first or early in their 
second year. 



Linguistics 

Music 

Religion 



218 

OVERSEAS 



COURSES 



WFU courses taught on overseas campuses during the last five school years 
Fall 1992-Fall 1997 



BEIJING, China Semesters Taught 



ASI 3111 Special Topics: Lit. Chinese Writing (4) 

CHI 1131. Elementary Chinese (10) 

CHI 1141. Elementary Chinese: Written (5) 

CHI 1151. Elementary Chinese: Spoken (5) 

CHI 1991. Chinese Individual Study (2) 

HMN 2431 . China in Perspective (2) 

HMN 2461. Selected Contemp. Chinese Fie. (4) 

HST 3441 . Modern China (4) 

POL 2421. Problems in Contemp. Chinese Politics (4) 



Fall: 1997 

Fall: 1995,1993 

Fall: 1997,1996 

Fall: 1997,1996 

Fall: 1995 

Fall: 1997,1995,1993 

Fall: 1995 

Fall: 1996 

Fall: 1993 



BERLIN, Germany 



ART 5007. German Art & Arch, in 20th Cent. (4) 

BUS 5007. Bus. & Trade with Cen. / East Europe (4) 

GER 2167. Theatre in Berlin (4) 

GER 2177. Adv. Composition & Conversation (4) 

GER 2177. Topics in Adv. Comp. & Conv. II (4) 

GER 2187. Topics in Adv. Comp. & Conv. II (4) 

GER 2707. Ger. Art & Arch, in 20th Century (4) 

GER 2707. Germany and European Unification (4) 

GER 2707. History of Modern Berlin (4) 

GER 2707. Theatre in Berlin (4) 

GER 2707. Topics in Ger. Soc. Hist. Since 1945 (4) 

HMN 5007. Geo. Time: Dev. Geo. His. 1700/1830 (4) 

HMN 5017. Mentopolis (4) 



Spring: 


1994, 


1995 


Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1995 




Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1995 




Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1995 




Spring: 


1994 




Spring: 


1994, 


1995 


Spring: 


1994, 


1995 


Spring: 


1995 




Spring: 


1995 





BOGOTA, Colombia 



HST 33211. 


Hist. Unin. Soviet (4) 


Spring 


1995 


HST 50011. 


Caribbean History (4) 


Spring 


1995 


POL 11511. 


History of Political Ideas (4) 


Fall 


1993 


POL 11611. 


International Politics I (4) 


Fall 


1993 


POL 24211. 


Colombian Constitutional Pol. (4) 


Spring 


1995 


POL 50011. 


Colombian Pol. Development (4) 


Spring 


1995 


SPA 22311. 


20th Century Latin American History (4) 


Fall 


1993 


SPA 26611. 


Rulfo-Marquez-Onetti (4) 


Fall 


1993 


SPA 50011. 


Advanced Spanish (4) 


Spring 


1995 


SPA 50011. 


Colombia Today (4) 


Spring 


1995 



219 



SPA 501 1 1 . Latin America and the World (4) 
SPA 501 1 1 . Colombian Literature (4) 

DIJON, France 

ART 2712. Studies in French Art (2) 

FPvH 2192. Advanced Oral & Written French (4) 

FRH 2232. Contemporary France (4) 

FRH 2242. French Civilization (4) 

FRH 2292. French Civilization (4) 
FRH 2402. Independent Study (2) 
FRH 2752. French Literature (2) 

INS 100 Study Abroad (2) 
FREIBURG-im-BREISGAU, Germany 



Spring: 1995 
Spring: 1995 



ART 5007. Contemporary Ger. Stage II (4) 

ART 5017. Velazquez (4) 

BUS 5007. European Business Law (4) 

BUS 5007. Eur. Bus. Law & Legal Aspects (4) 

ECN 1507. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2317. European Economic Policies (4) 

ECN 2487. Economy and Environment (4) 

ECN 2517. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2517. Internat. Econ. Relations of the EC (4) 

ECN 2537. Europe in Transition (4) 

ECN 2537. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2707. European Econ. Policies (4) 

ECN 2717. Economy and Environment (4) 

ECN 2717. European Market Integration (4) 

ECN 2717. Germany as an Economic Power (4) 

ECN 2727. Introduction to the Eur. Community (1) 

ECN 5007. Intro, to the European Union (1,5) 

ECN 5017. Intro, to Eur. Union: Market Intg. (.5) 

GER 2167. Cont. Ger. Lit: Realism-Exile Lit. (4) 

GER 2167. Contemporary German Lit. II (4) 

GER 2167. Intro. Mod. Ger. Lit: 20th Cen. Prose (4) 

GER 2167. Intro. / Study of Mod. Ger. Lit. (4) 

GER 2167. Vienna Theater I (in German) (4) 

GER 2177. Adv. Comp. Read. & Conv. (4) 



Fall: 


1997, 1996,1995 




1993, 1992 


Fall: 


1997, 1996,1995, 




1993, 1992 


Fall: 


1997, 1996, 




1995, 1993 


Fall: 


1997, 1996, 




1995, 1993, 1992 


Fall: 


1992 


Fall: 


1996, 1993, 1992 


Fall: 


1997, 1996, 




1995, 1993, 1992 


Fall 


1997 



Spring 

Spring 

Fall 


1995 
1995 
1993, 1992 


Spring 
Fall 


1996 
1993 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 
Fall 


1995 
1993, 1992 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 
Spring 
Spring 
Spring 
Fall 


1996 
1993 
1996 
1993 
1993, 1992 


Spring 

Spring 

Fall 


1996 
1996 
1992 


Spring 

Spring 

Spring 

Fall 


1995 
1993 
1993 
1992 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1995 



220 



GER2177. Advanced German (4) Fall: 1993 

GER2187. Adv. Comp. Read. & Conv. (4) Spring: 1993 

GER2187. Conversation & Composition (4) Fall: 1992 

GER2187. Intermediate German II (4) Fall: 1993 

GER 2187. Topics Adv. Comp. & Conv. (4) Spring: 1994 

GER2197. Adv. Comp. Read, and Conv. (4) Spring: 1995 

GER 2197. Oral Ex. Texts /Improv. Speech (4) Spring: 1994 

GER 2197. Top. in Adv. Comp. & Conv. (4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2217. Ger. History & Ger. Nation (4) Fall: 1993 

GER 2317. Auth. & Dem. Trad, of Germany (4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2427. Ger. Unif. as Prob. in Domestic Pol. (4) Fall: 1992 

GER 2707. Antisemitism in the Empire (4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2707. Auth. & Dem. Trad, of Germany (4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2707. Contemporary Ger. Stage I (4) Fall: 1993 

GER 2707. Contemporary Ger. Stage II (4) Spring: 1996, 1994 

GER 2707. Exercises on Ger. Area Studies (3) Spring: 1993 

GER 2707. For Pol. / Ger. Unificat. / Eur. Int. (4) Spring: 1995 

GER 2707. Ger. Art & Architec. in 20th Cen. (4) Spring: 1995 

GER 2707. Ger. Art Between Conform. & Provcat. (4) Spring: 1995 

GER 2707. Ger. Art Conform. /Provocat. (4) Spring: 1996 

GER 2707. Ger. Unif. as Prob. in Domestic Pol. (4) Fall: 1992 

GER 2707. Germany as an Econ. Power (4) Spring: 1996 

GER 2707. Individual Study (2) Spring: 1996 

GER 2707. Intermediate German I (4) Fall: 1992 

GER 2707. Intermediate German II (4) Fall: 1993 

Spring: 1996 

GER 2707. Introduction to Folklore (4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2707. Post-War Dev. of Ger. 1945-1949(4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2707. Pronun. & Intonation Training (1) Spring: 1994 

GER 2707. Topics in Adv. Comp & Conv. (4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2707. 20th Cent. Ger. Short Prose A/ 1945 (4) Spring: 1994 

GER 2707. 20th Cent. German Short Stories (4) Spring: 1993 

GER 2857. Contemporary German Liter. II (4) Spring: 1994 

GER 2857. Ger. Short Prose Lit. AR/ 1900 (4) Spring: 1994 

HST3207. German History & German Nation (4) Fall: 1992 

HST 5007. Authorit. & Dem. Trad, of Germany (4) Spring: 1994 

HST5007. Hist, of East. Eur.: 1848-1945 (4) Fall: 1992 

HST 5007. Intro. Hst. of Habsburg Monar. (4) Spring: 1995 

POL 2317. European Political Cultures (4) Spring: 1996 

POL 2337. Ger. Unifi./ Prob. Domestic Pol. (4) Fall: 1993 

POL 2427. European Political Cultures (4) Fall: 1993 

POL 2427. Pol. Institutions of the Eur. Community: Spring: 1996 

Policies of European Integration (4) 

POL 2427. Pol. Reform in East. Europe (4) Fall: 1992 

POL 2527. Europe in Transition (4) Spring: 1996 



221 



POL 2527 Foreign Policy Between Ger. Unifi. 

and European Integration (4) 

POL 2527. Internal Organ. I: E. Integration (4) 

POL 2527. Policies of Eur. Integration (4) 

POL 2527. The U.N.: Ex. of Int. Con. Settle. (4) 

POL 2527. Top. in Curr. East. Eur. Pol I (4) 

POL 2707. The Federalist Papers (4) 

SOC 3987. Institutions-Asylum, Pub., Homes (4) 

SOC 3997. The Body and Technology (4) 

THE 1107. The Contemporary German Stage (4) 



Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1996 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1994 


Fall 


1992 



HIRATSUKA, Japan (Tokai University) 



HMN 2121. Orientalism and Western Tradition (4) 

HMN 2471. Mus. & Edu.: Japan & West 1900-Pre. (4) 

HMN 2911 Food, Diet & Health in Japan (4) 

HMN 3421 . Japan in Perspective (2,4) 

HST 3461. Foreign Encounters with Japan (4) 

JPN 1121. Beginning Japanese: Written (5) 

JPN 1131. Beginning Japanese (10) 

JPN 1131. Beginning Japanese: Spoken (5) 

JPN 1521. Intermediate Japanese: Written (5) 

JPN 1531. Intermediate Japanese (10) 

JPN 1531. Intermediate Japanese: Spoken (5) 

JPN 1991. Individual Study (2) 

JPN 2191. Advanced Japanese (10) 

JPN 3421. Japan in Perspective (2) 

PSY 2801 . Directed Study (2) 

PSY 3571 . Cross-Cultural Psychology (4) 

LONDON, England 

ART 1030. Intro, to Visual Arts (4) 

ART 2320. English Art, Hogarth to Present (2,4) 

ART 2320. English Art, Hogarth to Present (2,3,4) 

ENG 3020 Spirit of Place in British Literature (4) 

ENG 3020. Spirit of Place in British Literature (3,4) 

ENG 3240. Eng. Drama Lit. & London Theatre (4) 

ENG 3300. British Liter, of the Eighteenth Century (4) 

ENG 3630. Mod. Traditions of Eng. Poetry (4) 

ENG 3650. British Fiction of 20th Century (4) 

ENG 3700. The English Theatre 1660-1940 (3,4) 



Fall 


1996 


Fall 


: 1995 


Fall 


1997 


Fall 


1997, 1996, 1992 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1997, 1996 


Fall 


1995 


Fall 


1997, 1996 


Fall 


1997, 1996 


Fall 


1995 


Fall 


1997, 1996 


Fall 


1995 


Fall 


1995, 1993, 1992 


Fall 


1995, 1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1997, 1996,1995, 




1993, 1992 


Spring 


1996, 1995, 1994, 




1993 


Fall 


1997 


Spring 


1994 


Fall 


1997, 1996, 1995 


Fall 


1995, 1992 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1996 


Fall 


1995 


Spring 


1994 



222 



ENG 6020 Spirit of Place in British Literature (3) 

ENG 6240 Eng. Drama Lit. & London Theatre (4) 

HST 2110. Colloquium (4) 

HST2260. History of London (2,3,4) 



HST 2880. Honors in History (4) 

HST 3260. Industrial Revolution in England (4) 

HST 3760. Anglo- Amer. Relations Since 1940 (2) 

HST 3990. Directed Reading (2) 

POL 1160. International Politics (4) 

POL 2510. Foreign Pol. Decline: Brit, since 1945 (4) 

POL 2520. Prob. in International Politics (4) 

SCT 3300. Modern English & Continental Drama (4) 

(also THE 3300.) 

SOC 2040. Social Institutions of Britain (4) 

SOC 3650 European Business & Society (4) 

THE 2650. The English Theatre, 1660-1940 

THE 2660. Mod. Eng. ContT. Drama / Lon. Stage (4) 



Fall 


1997 


Fall 


1997, 1996, 1995 


Fall 


1995 


Spring 


1996, 1995, 1994, 




1993 


Fall 


1997, 1996, 1995, 




1993, 1992 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1992 


FaH 


1992 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1996, 1995 


Spring 


1996, 1995 


Fall 


1995, 1993 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1993 



MOSCOW, Russia 



ANT 3988.* Individual Study (2) 

ECN 2088.* Intermediate Macroeconomics II (4) 

ECN 2538.** Political Economy of Russia (4) 

HST 3318.* Russia: Origins to 1917 (4) 

HST 3328.* Hist, of Rus. Empire & Sov. Union (4) 

HMN 5008.* Masterworks of 20th Cent. Rus. Lit. (4) 

PHI 3958.** History of Russian Philosophy (4) 

RUS 2168.* Intro, to Russian Literature (4) 

RUS 2188.* Masterworks 20th Cent. Rus. Liter. (4) 

RUS 2188.* Russ. & Sov. Lit. & the Mass Media (4) 

RUS 2308.* The Structure of Russian (4) 

RUS 2408.* Seminar in Translation (4) 

RUS 2428.* Research on Culture in Russian (2) 

RUS 2508.* Russian Culture & Civilization (4) 

RUS 2708.* Advanced Russian (8) 

RUS 2708.* Independent Study (2,4,6,8,12) 

RUS 2708.** Intensive Rus. Lang. - Intermediate (4) 

RUS 2708.** Intermediate Russian Language (4) 

RUS 2708.** Rus. Lit. of 19th & 20th Cent. (4) 

SOC 3988.* Sociology of the Rus. Republic (4) 



Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1995, 1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1994 



*Moscow State 



223 



SALAMANCA, Spain 

ART 2029. Spanish Art & Architecture (2,3,4) 

ART 5009. Art History III (8) 

CLA 2519. Art and Mythology (4) 

HST 2019. General History of Spain (4) 

SOC 2029. Social and Political Structures of 

Present-Day Spain (4) 

SPA 1829. Introduction to Spain (2,4) 

SPA 2019. Intensive Spanish (2) 

SPA 2199. Advanced Spanish (4) 

SPA 2279. Spanish-American Literature (4) 

SPA 2419. Literature of the Golden Age I (4) 

SPA 2739. 20th Century Spanish Novel (4) 

SPA 2879. Spec. Topic: Cult. ID in Lat. Am. & US (4) 



Spring: 


1996, 1995, 1994, 
1993 


Spring: 
Spring: 
Spring: 


1994 

1994 

1996, 1995, 1994, 

1993 


Spring: 


1996, 1995, 1994, 
1993 


Spring: 


1996, 1995, 1994, 
1993 


Spring: 
Spring: 


1996, 1995, 1994 ; 
1996, 1995, 1994, 
1993 


Spring: 
Spring: 


1994 

1996, 1995, 1994, 

1993 


Spring: 


1995, 1993 


Spring: 


1996, 1995 



VENICE, Italy. 



ART 2693. 


Venetian Renaissance Art (4) 


Spring 


1996. 1995, 
1993 

1997. 1996, 


1994, 






Fall 


1995, 








1993, 1992 




CLA 2553. 


The World of Myth, in Ovid's Metamorph. (4) 


Fall 


1992 




CLA 2553. 


World of Myth in Virgil & Ovid (4) 


Spring 


1996, 1995 




CLA 2713. 


The Roman Civiliz. of Ancient Venetia (4, 3) 


Fall 
Spring 


1992 
1996, 1995 




CLA 2883. 


Individual Study - Venice (2,4) 


Spring 


1996, 1995 




ENG 3653. 


Twentieth-Century British Fiction (4) 


Fall 


1997 




HON 1313. 


Approaches to Human Experience 1 (4) 


Spring 


1994 




HON 1353. 


Approaches to Human Experience (4) 


Fall 


1997 




HON 2433. 


Literature, Travel & Discovery (4) 


Spring 


1995 




HSS 1153. 


Physical Conditioning (1) 


Fall 


1995 




HSS 3703. 


Biomechanics of Human Movement (4) 


Fall 


1995 




HST 2223. 


Renaissance & Reformation (4) 


Fall 


1996 




HST 2253. 


History of Venice (4) 


Fall 


1996, 1995, 


1992, 


HST 2263. 


Venetian Society & Culture (4) 


Fall 
Spring 


1993 
1994 




ITA 1533. 


Intermediate Italian (4) 


Fall 


1993 




ITA 1993. 


Independent Study (4,2) 


Spring 


1994 




ITA 2153. 


Introduction to Italian Literature I (4) 


Spring 
Fall 


1996. 1995, 

1997. 1996, 
1995, 1993, 


1993 
1992 



224 



ITA 2163. Introduction to Italian Literature II (4) 
ITA 2213. Spoken Italian: Venice (4) 



MUS 2143. The Language of Music in Italy (4) 

PHI 2853. Philosophy of Art (4) 

POL 1143. Intro, to Politics: Comparative (4) 

POL 2423. Problems in Comparative Politics (4) 

POL 2533. Pol. of Internat. ECN Relations (4) 

POL 2873. Individual Study (2,4) 

PSY 2413. Developmental Psychology (4) 

PSY 2803. Directed Study (4) 

PSY 3573. Cross-Cultural Psychology (4) 



Spring 


1995, 1994, 1993, 


Fall 


1995 


Spring 


1996, 1995, 1994, 




1993 


Fall 


1997, 1996, 




1995, 1993, 1992 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1996 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1992 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 



VIENNA, Austria 



ANT 3507. Reemerg. of Ethnic Iden. in East. Eur. (4) 

ANT 5007. Hist, of E. Eur. Jews: Coex. & Con. (4) 

ANT 5007. Reemerg. of Ethnic Iden. in East Eur. (4) 

ART 1037. Austria: Art & Architecture (4) 

ART 2727. Baroque Art (4) 

ART 5007. Austria: Art & Architecture (4) 

ART 5007. Critical Approach to Modern Art (4) 

ART 5017. Art Analysis (4) 

BUS 2237. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

BUS 2347. Multinational Bus. Enterprises (4) 

BUS 5007. Bus. & Mar. East. & E. Cent. Eur. (4) 

BUS 5007. Business Internship (4) 

BUS 5007. International Trade & Marketing (4) 

BUS 5007. Multinational Bus. Enterprises (4) 

BUS 5017. EMoney: Evol. Today's Eurcur. Sys. (4) 

BUS 5017. International Finance (4) 

BUS 5017. Multinational Bus. Enterprises (4) 

BUS 5027. Supervised Bus. Internship (4) 

ECN 2717. EMoney: Evol. Today's Eurcur. Sys. (4) 

ECN 2727. Intro, to the European Commun. (1) 

EDU 2027. Supervised Teaching Internship (4,2) 

EDU 2037. Supervised Teaching Internship (2) 

EDU 3627. Supervised Teaching Intern (2) 

EDU 3637. Supervised Teaching Intern (2) 



Spring 


1993 




Spring 


1995 




Fall 


1996 




Spring 


1995 




Fall 


1996 




Spring 


1996 




Spring 


1996, 1994, 


1993 


Fall 


1996, 1995, 


1993 


Fall 


1996 




Spring 


1993 




Spring 


1995 




Fall 


1996 




Fall 


1993 




Fall 


1996 




Spring 


1993 




Fall 


1996 




Fall 


1996 




Spring 


1993 




Fall 


1993 




Fall 


1993 




Fall 


1996 




Fall 


1993 




Spring 


1996, 1995, 


1993 


Spring 


1995 




Fall 


1996 




Fall 


1996 





225 



ENG 3027. Comp. Cen. European Lit. I (4) 

GER1117. Elementary German (4) 

GER 1117. Elementary German I (4) 

GER 1 1 27. Elementary German II (4) 

GER 1127. Intermediate German I (4) 

GER 1537. Intermediate German I (4) 

GER 2157. Vienna Theater I (in German) (4) 

GER 2187. Conversation & Composition (4) 

GER 2187. Intermediate German (4) 

GER 2187. Intermediate German II (4) 

GER 2197. Conversation and Composition (4) 

GER 2297. Business German (4) 

GER 2707. Advanced German (4) 

GER 2707. Conversation & Composition (1, 4) 

GER 2707. Elementary German II (1 ) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German (1) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German I (4) 

GER 2707. Intermediate German II (4) 

GER 2707. Osterreich in Text & Film I (4) 

GER 2707. Osterreich in Text & Film II (4) 

GER 2707. Vienna Theater I (in German) (4) 

GER 2707. Theater in Vienna II (in German) (4) 

GER 2707. Vienna Theater II (4) 

GER 281 7. Vienna Theater II (4) 

HMN 2157. Austrian Lit. in a Compar. Eur. Perspec. (4) 

HMN 2157. Compar. Cen. Eur. Lit. II (4) 

HMN 2187. Compar. Cen. Eur. Lit. I (4) 

HMN 5007. Comparative Cen. Eur. Lit. II (4) 

HST 5007. East Eur: WWII to Present (4) 

HST 5007. Hist, of E. Eur. Jews: Coexist/ Conflict (4) 

HST 5007. Vienna: Growth of an Urban Civil. (4) 

HST 5007. Vienna 1900: Le Fin de Siecle (4) 

HST 5017. Hist, of Austria Since 1918 (4) 

HST 5017. East Europe: World War II to Present (4) 

MUS1017 Music in Performance (4) 

MUS 2227. Music from Mozart to Mahler (4) 

MUS 2237. Music from Mozart to Mahler (4) 

MUS 5007. Music from Mozart to Mahler (4) 

MUS 5007. Music in Performance (4) 



Fall 


1996 


Fall 


1992 


Fall 


1996, 1993 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1995, 1993 


Spring 


1996 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1996 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1993 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1996, 1994 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1995, 1993 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1996 


Fall 


1996, 1993 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1995 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1996 


Spring 


1993 


Spring 


1993 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1996 


Fall 


1996 


Spring 


1996, 1995 


Spring 


1996 


Spring 


1994 


Fall 


1996, 1993 


Spring 


1995, 1994, 1993 


Spring 


1994 


Spring 


1995, 1994 


Fall 


1992 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1996 


Spring 


1995 


Spring 


1994 


Sprine 


1993 



226 



PHI 3957. Philos. of the Vienna Circle (4) 

POL 2327. Political Reform in E. Eur. (4) 

POL 2427. Neutral and New-Dem. Co. Chang. Eur. (4) 

POL 2457. Reemerg. of Ethnic Iden. in East. Eur. (4) 

POL 2527. Cen. Eur. Pol. in Age of Upheaval (4) 

POL 2527. Internat. Law & Trans. Corp. (4) 

POL 2527. Internat. Organ. I: Eur. Integration (4) 

POL 2527. Topics in East Eur. Politics I (4) 

POL 2617. Internat. Organ. I: Eur. Integration (4) 

POL 5007. Political Reform in East Eur. (4) 

POL 5007. Top. in Current E. Eur. I (4) 

PSY 2557. Personality & Psychopathology (4) 

PSY 2807. Psychoanalysis & Exist. Psy. (4) 

PSY 3337. Motiviation & Aggression (4) 

PSY 3357. Motivation & Aggression (4) 

PSY 5007. Psychoanal. & Existential. Psy. (4) 

PSY 5007. Personality & Psychopathology (4) 



Fall: 


1996 


Spring: 


1993 


Spring: 


1995 


Fall: 


1993 


Fall: 


1993 


Fall: 


1996 


Spring: 


1995 


Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1994 


Fall: 


1996 


Fall: 


1993 


Fall: 


1993 


Fall: 


1996, 1992 


Spring: 


1993 


Fall: 


1996 


Fall: 


1993 


Spring: 


1995 


Fall: 


1996 



AFRICA 



Courses on Other Sites 



HMN 225S. The Sahel Encounter (3) (Niger 
Republic, Burkina Faso, Senegal) 



Summer: 1995 



ASIA, PACIFIC RIM 

BUS 290. International Management Study Tour (4) Summer: 1993 

(China, Japan, Hong Kong) 
POL 242. Topics in Bangladesh (4) Summer: 1996 

EUROPE 



ACC 290. International Accounting (4) (Belgium, 

France, Germany, Switzerland, UK) 

ANT 381B. Archeological Research I, II (4,4) 

382B. (Ceredo, Italy) 

BUS 208S. European Business Environment (4) 

BUS 216. European Business Environment (4) 

BUS 223. International Marketing (4) 



Summer: 1997,1996,1995, 

1994, 1993 
Summer: 1996 

Summer: 1995 
Summer: 1994 
Summer: 1994 



227 



BUS 290. International Business Study Tour (4) 
BUS 291 . International Marketing Field Study (4) 

(Austria, England, France, Germany, 

Italy, Switzerland) 
EDU 272A. Geography Study Tour (4) 

ENG 31010. Death, Nature & Change in Med. 

Liter. (4) (Oxford, England) 
HMN 241S. Arts and Sciences Tour of Europe (4) 
HMN 50010. Interdisciplinary Sem. Assessment (2) 

(Oxford, England) 
REL 218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World (4) 



Summer: 


1997, 1996 


Summer: 


1993 


Summer: 


1997, 1996, 1995, 




1994, 1993 


Summer: 


1995 


Summer: 


1996, 1995 


Summer: 


1995 


Summer: 


1993 



MIDDLE EAST 



REL 315. Field Research in Biblical Archeology 

316. (4,4) (Caesarea, Israel) 
REL 120. Introduction to the Bible (4) 

315, 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology (4,3;4,3) 
(Both courses combined -Israel) 



Summer: 1994, 1993 



Summer: 1997, 1996 



CARIBBEAN 

ANT 381A. 

382A. 
ANT 383. 

384. 
ANT 384. 



Archeological Research (4,4) 

(San Salvador, the Bahamas) 

Field Research in Cultural Anthropology 

(4,3;4,3) (Roatan Island, Honduras) 

Field Research in Cultural Anthropology 

(4,3) (Roatan Island, Honduras) 



Summer: 



Summer: 



Summer: 



1997,1996, 1995, 
1994, 1993 
1997,1996, 
1995 
1994, 1993 



228 

WAYNE CALLOWAY SCHOOL OF 
BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr., Dean 

Assistant Dean Katherine S. Hoppe 

Davis Professor of Business Umit Akinc 

Hylton Professor of Accountancy Thomas C. Taylor 

J. Tylee Wilson Professor of Business Ethics Donald P. Robin 

Price Waterhouse Professor of Accountancy Dale R. Martin 

Benson-Pruitt Associate Professor of Business J. Kline Harrison 

Coopers & Lybrand Faculty Fellow and Assistant Professor Yvonne H. Stewart 

Professors John S. Dunkelberg, Eddie V. Easley, Stephen Ewing, 

Ralph B. Tower, Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. 
Visiting Professor Donald H. Taylor 
Associate Professors S. Douglas Beets, Arun P. Dewasthali, Thomas S. Goho, 

Paul E. Juras 
Assistant Professors Sheri A. Bridges, Jonathan E. Duchac, Debra R. Jessup, 

William M. Marcum, Patricia A. Lobingier, Gordon E. McCray, G. Page West III 
Visiting Assistant Professor Mark W. Huber 
Instructors Helen Akinc, Anna M. Cianci, Tamara M. Greenwood, 

Katherine S. Hoppe 
Lecturers James L. Dominick, E. Clayton Hipp Jr., David K. Isbister, 

Thomas Ogburn 
Executives-in-Residence James H. Clippard Jr., Peter C. Valenti 

Mission 

The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy is committed to the 
delivery of high-quality undergraduate, graduate, and non-degree programs, consis- 
tent with the values and traditions of a Wake Forest University liberal arts education. 
The Calloway School seeks to attract and develop highly qualified and motivated 
students from diverse cultural and demographic backgrounds, with a strong interest 
in pursuing positions of leadership in the global marketplace. The programs foster a 
high level of student and faculty interaction across a broad range of courses, seminars, 
experiential activities, and research endeavors to develop: 

•an understanding of business as a complex and interdependent process; 

• strong analytical and creative problem-solving capabilities; superior team 
work and communication skills; sensitivity to ethical issues; and the ability to 
use technology and to understand the leveraging effects of technological 
innovation; 

• ongoing partnerships between students, faculty, alumni, and the business 
sector that promote a lifelong learning perspective. 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 229 

The faculty is a community of dedicated teachers and scholars committed to 
excellence in academic instruction, research, and other scholarly pursuits. 

The Calloway School endeavors to maintain national recognition for its academic 
excellence by being responsive to its constituency and contributing substantially to 
the personal and professional growth and satisfaction of its students. 

Programs 

Three four-year programs of study leading to the bachelor of science degree are 
offered. Students may choose a major in either business, analytical finance, or 
mathematical business (in cooperation with the Department of Mathematics and 
Computer Science). A five-year program of study leading to a bachelor of science and 
a master of science degree with a major in professional accountancy also is offered. 
The five-year program is an integrated BS/MS program in accountancy. Interested 
students will declare an accountancy major during their sophomore year and will 
apply to the master's program during their third year. Students will receive both the 
BS and the MS degrees upon completion of the program. 

Objectives 

The primary objective of the business program is to provide a general study of 
business which will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of 
understanding of relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed 
to specialized, orientation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest in 
light of both its strong liberal arts tradition and its small size. 

The primary objective of the analytical finance program of study is to provide 
students with a thorough understanding of the finance functions of business, espe- 
cially as they relate to one another, preparing the students for careers in such fields as 
financial services and investment banking. 

The primary objective of the mathematical business program is to prepare the 
students with a thorough understanding of the business functions and to equip them 
with the requisite mathematical, statistical and computer tools to deal with complex 
decision problems in these functional areas. 

The primary objective of the five-year professional accountancy program is to give 
students a thorough understanding of the practice of professional accounting and of 
the theoretical framework which supports the practice of professional accounting. 
Skills necessary to address ill-defined and /or unstructured practice problems are 
developed in a series of case-based research and analysis courses. In addition, 
opportunities exist within the program of study to enhance awareness of practice 
issues on both a domestic and international level through a professional internship 
program and an international study tour program. 

All programs in the Calloway School are accredited by the American Assembly of 
Collegiate Schools of Business. 



230 Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



Admission 

Admission to the Calloway School is by formal application, and applicants will be 
screened by the Committee on Admission and Continuation of the Wayne Calloway 
School of Business and Accountancy. Before being considered for admission to the 
Calloway School, the applicant first must have been admitted to Wake Forest College. 
Minimum requirements for admission to the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy are completion of sixty-five credits with an overall grade-point average of 
2.2, completion of Economics 150, Mathematics 108 or 111 (Mathematics 111 for the 
mathematical business major), Accounting 111 and 112, and a 2.0 average in these four 
courses. In addition, students should have completed Business 100 and Communication 
110. Students who have not met fully the above requirements may request a one-semester 
provisional acceptance. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Meeting the minimum 
requirements is not a guarantee of admission. Therefore, the Calloway School reserves 
the right to grant or deny admission or readmission to any student even though he or she 
meets the minimum requirements. Readmission to the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy first requires readmission to Wake Forest College, require- 
ments for which are discussed on page 33. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered by the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy will be taken in the Calloway School. For students wishing to 
transfer credit from other schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the minimum passing grade at that school 
may not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy may be subject to validating 
examinations. 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the Wayne Calloway School of 
Business and Accountancy will not necessarily count towards the credits required 
in the Calloway School. 

(e) Only one course so transferred may be an elective unless such course is from an 
international program approved by Wake Forest University, in which case two 
such electives may be so transferred. 

(f ) Business 371 cannot be transferred from another institution; it must be taken in 
the Calloway School. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the Wayne 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in 
analytical finance, the minimum credits earned in the Calloway School must total forty- 
eight; for the BS / MS in professional accountancy, a minimum of fifty-four credits and 
thirty graduate semester hours must be earned in the Calloway School; and for the BS 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 23 1 

in mathematical business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the Calloway 
School and /or the mathematics and computer science department at Wake Forest 
University. 

Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on page 32, a student must be academically 
responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing the requirements 
for the degree. The administration of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy will notify the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, after 
consultation with the Committee on Admission and Continuation, will decide if the 
student may continue as a major in the Calloway School. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy confers the bachelor of 
science degree with a major in either business, analytical finance, or mathematical 
business. The Calloway School also confers the master of science degree (concurrently 
with the bachelor of science degree) in professional accountancy. The requirements for 
completion of the degrees are those in effect at the time the student enters the 
Calloway School. For the major in business, a student must complete the following 
course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 100, 201, 202, 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, 
and 371; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; Communication 110; and a minimum 
of twelve credits from Business 209, 212, 213, 215, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 232, 233, 234, 235, 
236, 237, 242, 243, 253, 254, 262, 265, 281, 290, 291, 293, 338 or accounting courses 
numbered 200 or above. One elective may be taken from economics courses numbered 
200 or above. 

The analytical finance requires the following courses: Accounting 111, 112, 211, and 
212; Business 100, 201, 211, 221, 231, 232, 237, 241, 251, 261, 371; Economics 150; 
Mathematics 108 or 111; Communication 110 and a minimum of twelve credits from 
Business 233, 234, 235, 236, 291, 293, 338. 

Prerequisites for the mathematical business major include the following courses: 
Accounting 111 and 112; Mathematics 111; Economics 150; Communication 110, and 
Business 100. Computer Science 111 and 112 are strongly recommended. Require- 
ments for the mathematical business major are: Mathematics 112, 253 (or Business 
202), 256, 301, 302, 353; Business 211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 292; and a minimum of twelve 
additional credits — four credits in business and eight in mathematics chosen from 
four credit courses at the 300 level or above, excluding 381. 

For the combined bachelor of science /master of science degree in professional 
accountancy, the following course work must be completed: Accounting 111, 112, 211, 
212, 321, 330, 331, 351, 352, 414, 454, 480, and 490; Business 100, 201, 211, 221, 231, 237, 241, 
251, 261, 371, 462, and an approved international course; Economics 150; Mathematics 
108 or 111; and Communication 110. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accountancy 
also must meet the following requirements for graduation: 



232 Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits for the four-year programs and 144 credits plus 30 
graduate semester hours for the five-year program, including the basic and 
divisional requirements established by Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade-point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other institu- 
tions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade-point average on all business and accountancy courses. 

Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade-point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and who are eligible 
for membership in Beta Gamma Sigma are invited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral 
examination are required. Those who successfully complete the requirements specified 
by the School are graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" or "Honors in 
Accountancy." For additional information, interested students should consult a member 
of the faculty of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy. 

Beta Gamma Sigma, National Honor Society 

Membership in Beta Gamma Sigma is the highest national recognition a student can 
receive in an undergraduate program in accounting or business. To be eligible for 
membership, a student must rank in the upper 7 percent of the junior class or the upper 
10 percent of the senior class. 

Courses of Instruction 

Business 

100. Introduction to Computers and Business Applications. (2) Fundamentals of 
computers, related peripheral technologies and basic telecommunications concepts. 
Knowledge and basic skills of business software applications including the operating 
system and windows, spreadsheets, business presentation graphics, and databases. C — 
Accounting 111 or P — Accounting 111. Closed to freshmen and seniors. 

201. Quantitative Analysis I. (4) This course emphasizes the understanding and 
application of quantitative tools used in the business decision-making process. 
Specific issues covered include collection and presentation of data, sampling, and 
inferences. P — Business 100. 

202. Quantitative Analysis II. (4) This course is a continuation of Business 201. 
Additional statistical analysis tools are covered including linear programming. P — 
Business 201. 

209. Seminar: Contemporary Issues in Business. (2,4) The course examines current 
business issues using the theory and practices covered in the core courses. Topics may 
include recent global business events and policies, corporate takeovers and restructurings, 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 233 

business aspects of health care, workplace issues, the relationship of government and 
business decisions, among others. The topics discussed will change each semester 
reflecting the important issues at that time. P — Senior status and permission of instructor. 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) This course focuses on the behavior, 
structure, and processes within organizations. Emphasis is on developing knowledge 
and skills regarding the role of individuals and groups within organizations, as well as the 
functions of organizational systems and dynamics. 

212. Human Resource Management. (4) This course focuses on important human 
resources management (HRM) skills that are frequently used by line managers. Upon 
completion of the course, students should be literate in basic HRM concepts, 
knowledgeable of line managers' HRM responsibilities, and skilled in HRM 
applications as prospective line managers. P — Business 211. 

213. Entrepreneurship. (4) The course is designed to acquaint students with 
entrepreneurship in practice, and to help students assess whether an entrepreneurial 
path makes sense for them. Students will define their own new business opportunities 
and will design a business plan for a new business start-up. Topics covered will 
include marketing research and screening new venture ideas, the qualities which 
successful entrepreneurs and their management teams possess, growth and transition 
issues for new ventures, legal and financial issues in start-ups, and raising capital. P — 
Business 211, 221, and 231, or permission of the instructor. 

215. International and Comparative Management. (2,4) This course deals with the global 
issues in management. Particular emphasis is placed on the different management 
philosophies and styles employed by managers in an international context. The course is 
conducted in a seminar format and focuses on the complexities involved in operating 
in different cultures and the implications which these cultural differences have on 
managing organizations and their employees' behavior. P — Business 211. 

221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and the 
economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, institutions, 
and methods. P — Economics 150 and Business 100. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign marketing 
operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. P — Business 221. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodology and 
use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include research 
design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods of statistical 
data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. P — Business 201 
and 221. 

225. Consumer Behavior. (4) Study of interdisciplinary behavioral science findings in 
buying decision processes and application of this knowledge to the design of marketing 
strategies and to the development of creative communication programs. P — Business 221 . 



234 Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 

226. Retail Management. (4) This course is designed to acquaint the student with the 
scope, current trends and elements of retail management. Topics covered will include 
market structure of retailing, consumer behavior and retail strategy, changing retail 
institution types, merchandising strategies, basic financial tools essential to retail 
profitability and current research in retailing. P — Business 221. 

227. Marketing Communications. (4) Marketing communications — the "promotion" 
part of the four Ps — is designed for students who want to pursue careers in marketing. 
The overall course objective is to improve students' ability to communicate with 
consumers by helping them determine whom to talk to, what to say, and how to say 
it. In addition to advertising, the course addresses such elements of a marketing 
communications program as consumer and trade promotions, direct mail, publicity, 
packaging, point of sale material, and event sponsorship. Discussions, cases, in-class 
exercises, short oral presentations, and a marketing communications campaign 
project are among the instructional methods used in the course. P — Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including financial 
management, investment analysis, and financial institutions and markets. Emphasis is 
placed on financial management at the level of the business entity or nonprofit organization. 
P — Business 100, Accounting 112, and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied to the 
financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working capital 
decisions and their impact on the value of the firm. P — Business 231. 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, and 
corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applying both fundamental and 
technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection techniques, 
including portfolio considerations. P — Business 231. 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (2,4) Analysis of the international aspects of 
managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors influencing 
capital acquisition and allocation. P — Business 231. 

235. Financial Institutions & Markets. (4) A thorough examination of the role of financial 
intermediaries in a free market economy and the functions of financial institutions within 
money and capital institutions. Topics include asset, liability, and capital management, 
the regulatory environment, and special topics. Special topics may include risk management 
techniques utilizing proprietary insurance to neutralize the effects of risk inherent in daily 
life: termination or suspension of earnings, liability exposures, and potential losses of real 
and personal property values. P — Business 231. 

236. Financial Derivatives. (2) Futures, options, and swaps are the three most important 
types of financial derivatives and they are linked by a common pricing framework. This 
course emphasizes the use of these derivatives in risk management but includes speculative 
strategies that can be implemented with them. P — Business 231. 

237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) Study of basic 
concepts of federal and state income taxation with an introduction to sales, property, and 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 235 

payroll taxes. Emphasis on the impact of taxation on business and personal tax planning 
and on the importance of compliance. P or C — Accounting 21 1 or permission of instructor. 

241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, and the 
methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, aggregate 
planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory management, 
facilities location and design, quality planning and control. P — Business 201. 

242. International Operations Management. (2) This course represents a relatively new 
dimension in the field of production and operations management. It is intended to 
introduce the student to the international aspects of managing manufacturing service 
operations drawing on relatively modest amount of literature — books, articles, and cases 
that have recently accumulated. The following topics will be covered: international 
exchange rates, international logistics, international facility location decisions, international 
sourcing, joint manufacturing ventures and their strategic implications and performance 
analysis of multinational production systems. P — Business 241. 

243. Management of Innovation-Based Enterprises. (4) This course explores the 
unique challenges and opportunities of businesses which have technology or 
innovation as a driving force of the firm. Major themes of the course include: the 
development of product line and technology strategy as the basis for competition; 
evaluating the need and demand for a new product, product line extension or service; 
developing and marketing new products and services; and regulatory and ethical 
issues in innovation. P — Business 221 and 241. 

251. Management Information Systems. (4) An introduction to the business issues 
associated with information technology, designed to provide a broad perspective for 
managing an organization's information resources. The course begins with an overview 
of computing technology currently used in business organizations, including hardware, 
software, telecommunications and networking technology and database management 
systems. Techniques for developing and implementing corporate information systems 
are addressed, as are advanced applications of information technology. Frameworks 
are developed for contemplating when the use of such technologies is appropriate. 
Finally, the strategic, ethical and international implications of information systems is 
examined. P — Business 100. 

253. Advanced Topics in Information Technology. (2) The course consists of three 
distinct components. First, analysis, design, and development of a database application 
is undertaken. Second, a series of case studies relating to the management of information 
technology and its competitive uses is performed. Third, an in-depth study is made 
of selected information systems issues that are currently foremost in the profession. 
The course is predominantly discussion-oriented, stresses collaborative learning, and 
includes actual use of the technologies addressed in the course. P — Business 100 and 
251. 

254. Decision Support Systems. (2) This course provides an overview of the theoretical 
and organizational aspects of decision support systems, including descriptive and 



236 Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 

prescriptive decision-making concepts, individual and group decision support systems, 
and executive information systems. The course includes use of current decision 
support technologies. P — Business 100 and 251. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and nonprofit organizations. Emphasis is put upon 
how the law develops and how economic, political, social, international, and ethical 
considerations influence this development. Includes substantive areas such as torts and 
government regulation of the employment relationship, the competitive marketplace and 
the environment. P — Accounting 111. 

262. Business Law. (4) A study of substantive law topics applicable to business transactions 
including contracts, agency, property, the UCC and business organizations with an 
emphasis on how these subjects intersect with the functional areas of business and affect 
managerial decision-making. P — Business 261. 

265. Ethics and Business Leadership. (4) An interdisciplinary exploration of ethics 
applied to business. The lecture, readings, and case-based approach introduces the 
necessary background information and then utilizes examples of ethical and unethical 
situations to develop an understanding of how an efficient and effective business can 
also be ethical. P — Junior or senior standing. (One-half of enrollment spaces are available 
for non-CSBA students.) 

281. Individualized Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas 
of business. P — Permission of instructor. 

290. International Business Study Tour. (4) An experiential learning course which 
provides students with an exposure to and understanding of the distinctive 
characteristics of global versus domestic operations in foreign settings. Each of the 
functional areas of business (marketing, operations, finance, human resources 
management, information systems, and strategic management) are covered through 
various site visits and presentations in selected foreign countries. Background readings 
and assignments are required prior to departure, with a subsequent paper to be 
completed upon return. P — Permission of instructor. Taught overseas in the summer. 

291. Introduction to International Financial Institutions and Markets. (4) A 

comparative survey of the financial institutions and markets of the major national 
economies of the world (Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) with 
emphasis on (1) the roles of financial intermediaries and markets in these economies, 
(2) the regulatory environments of these economies, and (3) institutional and 
environmental factors influencing international capital acquisition and allocation 
among these economies. This course will draw on London's role as an international 
financial center to provide a strong experiential learning component. P — Permission 
of instructor. Taught overseas in the spring. 

292. Seminar in Mathematical Business Analysis. (4) This seminar provides 
mathematical business majors with a forum where they can actually see how the 
mathematical, statistical and computer techniques can be brought to bear on many 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 237 

business problems from a variety of business functions. Emphasis will be more on 
studying the process of modeling and implementation issues of the solutions and less 
on the algorithmic details devised for effective model solution. Critical and reflective 
thinking about models and translation of their results into management action that 
will add value to a process system will be a major objective. Another objective of the 
seminar will be to foster group work and the sharpening of presentation skills. P — 
Business 211, 221, 231, 241, and Mathematics 256, 353. 

293. Applied Risk Management. (4) Professional risk management field work, under 
the direction of a faculty member. Students gain relevant practical experience that is 
integrated with casework and risk management theory. Emphasis is placed upon 
analysis, decision making in a global environment, teamwork, written and verbal 
skills, presentation skills, and using technology to solve programs. P — Permission of 
instructor. Senior standing. 

295. Summer Management Program. (8) A study of the various functions of business 
including accounting, finance, information systems, management, marketing, production, 
and strategic planning. Offered only in the summer and open only to junior and senior liberal arts 
majors. Special application and admission procedures. 

338. Financial Statement Analysis. (2) A study of the techniques used to analyze and 
interpret the information in corporate financial statements. Emphasis is placed on (1) 
accounting methods used in the preparation of financial statements, (2) implications 
of management's accounting choices for evaluation of corporate performance by 
creditors and investors, and (3) linkages among financial statement items. P — 
Business 232 or permission of instructor. 

371. Strategic Management. (4) This course focuses on the derivation of competitive 
advantage by organizations. The course emphasizes the activities of general managers 
who are responsible for the shape, character, and overall direction of the total 
enterprise. Course content includes analyzing the effects of industry and competitive 
environments on the firm, determining the strategic basis upon which the firm should 
compete, formulating and implementing integrative action plans which enhance 
performance, and strategic leadership. Emphasis is placed on applying principles of 
competitive analysis and strategic planning to case studies of domestic situations, 
diversification, globalization, corporate turnaround, and in the use of computerized 
business simulations. P — Business 211, 221, 231, and 241. 

395. Seminar in Fundamentals of Business. (6) A study of the various functional 
areas of business, including finance, information systems, management, marketing, 
production, and strategic planning. Offered only in the summer. P — Admission to 
master of science in accountancy program. 

462. Business Law for Accountants. (4) A study of substantive law topics applicable to 
business transactions including contracts, agency, property, the Uniform Commercial 
Code, and business organizations, with emphasis on areas with auditing and accounting 
implications. P — Admission to MS program and Business 261. 



238 Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



Accountancy 

110. Introduction to Financial and Management Accounting. (4) Basic accounting 
concepts and procedures used in the preparation of financial reports issued to stockholders, 
creditors, and managers of business enterprises. Open only to juniors and seniors not 
majoring in business or accountancy. Cannot be substituted for Accounting 111. 

111. Introductory Financial Accounting. (4) An introduction to financial accounting 
and reporting, including the role of financial information in business decisions, the 
basic financial statements, and the processes used to prepare these financial statements. 
Students are introduced to the accounting and reporting issues associated with an 
organization's financing, investing, and operating activities. Sophomore standing. 

112. Introductory Management Accounting. (4) A study of the concepts fundamental to 
management accounting which aid in decision making, performance evaluation, and 
planning and control. The topics covered in the course include product costing systems, 
budgeting, differential and breakeven analysis, responsibility accounting, cost allocation, 
and management accounting reports. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 111. 

211. Financial Accounting Theory and Problems I. (5) A study of the conceptual 
framework underlying financial accounting in the U.S. as well as the financial 
accounting standards setting process and the basic corporate financial statements. 
Financial accounting and reporting issues associated with receivables, inventories, 
property, plant, and equipment, and intangible assets are also examined. P — Business 
100 and minimum of C in Accounting 112. 

212. Financial Accounting Theory and Problems II. (5) An examination of financial 
accounting and reporting issues associated with current liabilities and contingencies, 
long-term liabilities, partners' and stockholders' equity, investments in debt and 
equity securities, business combinations, and consolidated and multinational 
enterprises. P — Minimum of C in Accounting 211. 

280. Contemporary Issues in Accounting and Finance. (2) This course focuses on the role 
of management in the formulation of financial reporting policies and practices with an 
emphasis on the impact of these policies and practices on financial reports, decisions, and 
markets. Contemporary accounting and finance topics such as earnings management, 
lease capitalization, cash flow vs. earnings reporting, foreign currency translation, debt 
extinguishment, oil and gas accounting, among other issues, are analyzed in the course. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

290. International Accounting. (4) An experiential learning course that provides students 
with an opportunity to learn about international and transnational accounting standards, 
policies, and practices. Students will participate in a study tour of several selected 
countries and will gain an international accounting and business perspective through 
meetings with individuals in government, professional accounting firms, financial 
institutions, and manufacturing companies. P — Accounting 211 and permission of the 
instructor. Taught overseas in the summer. 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 239 

291. Introduction to Comparative International Financial Reporting. (4) A 

comparative survey of the major financial reporting models of the world (British- 
American Model, Continental Model, South American Model, Mixed Economy 
Model, and Emerging Models). Emphasis is placed on the diversity of international 
financial reporting practices and associated cultural and economic drivers, as well as 
attempts to harmonize international financial reporting practices and associated 
economic drivers. This course will draw on London's role as an international financial 
center to provide a strong experiential learning component. P — Permission of 
instructor. Taught overseas in the spring. 

321. Advanced Management Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting 
topics including strategic and operational decisions, behavioral issues related to budgeting, 
transfer pricing, performance measurement, and contemporary issues in accounting for 
management planning and control. P — Business 241, minimum of C in Accounting 112. 

330. Tax Research Methods. (1) A survey of the methods and resources used by tax 
practitioners in researching compliance and planning issues. P — Business 237 or 
permission of instructor. 

331. Federal Taxation of Corporations, Partnerships, Estates, and Trusts. (4) A review 
of federal taxation principles associated with the organization, operation, and dissolution 
of corporate, partnership and tax-exempt organizations. Introduction to federal estate 
and gift taxes and to income taxation of trusts and estates. P — Admission to MS program 
or permission of instructor. 

332. Selected Topics in Taxation. (4) A review of advanced tax topics including 
consolidated tax returns, international transactions, multistate corporate taxation 
and family tax planning. P — Accounting 331. 

351. Accounting Information Systems. (2) A study of the design and operation of 
accounting systems including the revenue, expenditure, and administrative transaction 
cycles. Emphasis is placed upon the necessary controls for reliable data. P — Accounting 
112 and Business 251. 

352. Introduction to Auditing. (5) An examination of basic auditing concepts and 
practices, and the auditor's professional responsibilities. Emphasis is placed upon 
auditing standards and the auditing procedures commonly used in public accounting. 
P — Admission to the MS program, C or above in ACC 212; C — Accounting 351. 

378. Individualized Reading and Research. (2,3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas 
of accountancy. P — Permission of instructor. 

390. Professional Accounting Internship. (6) Professional accounting field work, under 
the direction of a faculty member, in a public accounting firm, corporate enterprise, or not- 
for-profit organization. Students gain relevant practical experience which builds on prior 
coursework and provides an experiential knowledge base for coursework in the fifth year. 
P — Admission to MS program and permission of the instructor. 



240 



Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



414. Seminar in Financial Reporting. (5) An examination of a variety of financial 
reporting topics, including revenue recognition, income taxes, pensions and 
postretirement benefits, leases, accounting changes and error analysis, interim and 
segment reporting, and the statement of cash flows. P — Admission to MS program and 
minimum of C in Accounting 212. 

454. Advanced Auditing and Assurance Services. (5) A study of current issues, 
practices, and techniques related to auditing. Students will utilize available research 
materials, databases, personal auditing experience, and practitioner sources to address 
auditing issues. Emphasis is placed upon analysis, teamwork, writing, and presentation 
skills. P — Admission to MS program, Accounting 352 or permission of the instructor. 

480. Accounting Research Methods and Resources. (2) An introduction to research 
methods and resources used to investigate issues and problems arising in a professional 
accounting environment. P — Admission to MS program. 

490. Integrated Study of Critical Issues in Accounting and Taxation. (6) An 

examination of contemporary accounting and tax issues using an integrative case 
approach. In this capstone course, students analyze cases, prepare written reports, 
and make oral presentations, all on both an individual basis and in teams. P — 
Accounting 480. 




24 



ENROLLMENT 



All Schools— Fall! 996 



Undergraduate Schools 

(Includes fifth-year BS/MS students in accountancy) 
The Graduate School (Reynolda Campus) 
The Graduate School (Bowman Gray Campus) 
The School of Law 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 
The Wake Forest School of Medicine 

(Includes Allied Health) 

University Totals 



Men 


Women 


Total 


1,913 


1,928 


3,841 


188 


233 


421 


85 


81 


166 


293 


182 


475 


472 


155 


627 


314 


263 


577 



3,265 



2,842 



6,107 





By State (1997-98 Academic Year) 




Alabama 


24 


Kentucky 


44 


Ohio 


94 


Alaska 


1 


Louisiana 


21 


Oklahoma 


11 


Arizona 


7 


Maine 


11 


Oregon 


10 


Arkansas 


6 


Maryland 


154 


Pennsylvania 


241 


California 


58 


Massachusetts 


112 


Rhode Island 


24 


Colorado 


14 


Michigan 


11 


South Carolina 


122 


Connecticut 


101 


Minnesota 


11 


Tennessee 


108 


Delaware 


20 


Mississippi 


12 


Texas 


107 


District of Columbia 


9 


Missouri 


32 


Utah 


2 


Florida 


218 


Montana 





Vermont 


12 


Georgia 


222 


Nebraska 


10 


Virginia 


211 


Hawaii 





New Hampshire 


11 


Washington 


9 


Illinois 


46 


New Jersey 


206 


West Virginia 


41 


Indiana 


30 


New Mexico 


1 


Wisconsin 


15 


Iowa 


5 


New York 


176 


Wyoming 


2 


Kansas 


4 


North Carolina 


1,195 


Territories 


1 




By Country (1996-97 Academic Year) 




Barbados 


1 


Japan 


1 


Rep. of South Africa 


1 


Bolivia 


2 


Kenya 


1 


Russia 


2 


Canada 


7 


Korea 


1 


Spain 


7 


Colombia 


1 


Mexico 


1 


Switzerland 


1 


Ecuador 


1 


Netherlands 


2 


Turkey 


1 


Germany 


1 


Norway 


1 


United Arab Emirates 2 


Ghana 


2 


Pakistan 


1 


United Kingdom 


6 


India 


1 











242 

GOVERNING AND 
ADVISORY BOARDS 



The Board of Trustees 



1995-1999 



James L. Becton, Augusta, GA 
Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT 
A. Doyle Early Jr., High Point 
James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte 
Deborah D. Lambert, Arlington, VA 



Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 
Stephen L. Neal, McLean, VA 
Michael G. Queen, Wilmington 
Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 
J. Tylee Wilson, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL 



1996-2000 



W. Louis Bissette Jr., Asheville 
Libba C. Evans, Winston-Salem 
Victor I. Flow Jr., Winston-Salem 



Lawrence D. Hopkins, Winston-Salem 
James W. Johnston, Winston-Salem 
John G. Medlin Jr., Winston-Salem 



Murray C. Greason Jr., Winston-Salem Frances P. Pugh, Raleigh 
Harvey R. Holding Ponte Vedra Beach, FL K. Wayne Smith, Dublin, OH 



1997-2001 



Jerry H. Baker, Atlanta, GA 
James S. Boshart III, New York, NY 
Jocelyn Burton, Oakland, CA 
O. Burton Gupton, Gordonsville, VA 
Alice Kirby Horton, Hillsborough 
Hubert B. Humphrey, Greensboro 



Albert R. Hunt, Washington, DC 
Lauren B. Hunt, Winston-Salem 
Joseph W. Luter III, Norfolk, VA 
J. Lanny Wadkins Jr., Dallas, TX 
Kyle Allen Young, Greensboro 



1998-2002 



Carlyn J. Bowden, Greensboro 
Leslie M. Baker Jr., Winston-Salem 
Ronald E. Deal, Hickory 
Marvin D. Gentry, King 
James R. Helvey III, New York, NY 
Jeanette W. Hyde, Raleigh 



Dee Hughes LeRoy, Charleston, SC 
L. Glenn Orr Jr., Winston-Salem 
Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL 
Roy J. Smith, Raleigh 
John C. Whitaker Jr., Winston-Salem 



Life Trustees 



Bert L. Bennett, Winston-Salem 
Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh 
C. C. Cameron, Charlotte 
Charles W. Cheek, Greensboro 
Egbert L. Davis Jr., Winston-Salem 
Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem 
Floyd Fletcher, Durham 
Jean H. Gaskin, Charlotte 
Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem 



Petro Kulynych, Wilkesboro 
James W. Mason, Laurinburg 
W. Boyd Owen, Waynesville 
Arnold D. Palmer, Youngstown, PA 
Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 
D. E. Ward Jr., Lumberton 
T. Eugene Worrell, Charlottesville, VA 
J. Smith Young Sr., Lexington 



243 



Officers - 1998-99 

Wayne Calloway, Greenwich, CT, Chair 
Murray C. Greason Jr., Winston-Salem, Vice Chair 
John G. Medlin Jr., Winston-Salem, Vice Chair 
Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL, Vice Chair 
Louis R. Morrell, Winston-Salem, Treasurer 
Leon H. Corbett Jr., Winston-Salem, Secretary 
J. Reid Morgan, Winston-Salem, Assistant Secretary 
Irene A. Comito, Clemmons, Assistant Treasurer 

The Board of Visitors 

Thomas W. Lambeth, Winston-Salem 

Chair, Board of Visitors 

Evelyn P. Foote, Accokeek, MD 

Vice Chair, Board of Visitors 



Wake Forest College and Graduate School 



Terms Expiring June 30, 1998 

Peter J. Bondy, Indianapolis, IN 
Carlyn J. Bowden, Greensboro 
Daniel G. Clodfelter, Charlotte 
Jane F. Crosthwaite, South Hadley, MA 
Robert Demsey, Rancho Sante Fe, CA 



Terms Expiring June 30, 1999 

Bruce M. Babcock, Winston-Salem 
John W. Chandler, Washington, DC 
Callie Anne Clark, Hinsdale, IL 
Brenda E.B. Dunson, Washington, DC 
Karen L. Elkins, Silver Spring, MD 
Laura M. Elliott, Great Falls, VA 
Kathleen B. French, Fairfax, VA 
G. Maria Henson, Raleigh 
Sandra R. Kahle, Vero Beach, FL 
Thomas W. Lambeth, Winston-Salem 

Terms Expiring June 30, 2000 

Catherine B. Burroughs, Brooktondale, NY 
Clifford H. Clarke, Kamuela, HI 
E. Ray Cope, Winston-Salem 
Wilbur S. Doyle Sr., Martinsville, VA 
Noel L. Dunn, Winston-Salem 



Evelyn P. Foote, Accokeek, MD 
Michael R. Parrish, Greensboro 
Richard A. Riley, Hinsdale, IL 
Betty L. Siegel, Kennesaw, GA 
Dale R. Walker, New York, NY 
Jeanne P. Whitman, Dallas, TX 



James T. Lambie, Winston-Salem 
Martin Mayer, Washington, DC 
Jasper D. Memory, Chapel Hill 
J. Donald Nichols, Nashville, TN 
Michael G. Riley, Washington, DC 
Rick Lee Tarleton, Athens, GA 
Edwin G. Wilson, Winston-Salem 
Eileen Wilson-Oyelaran, Winston-Salem 
Jonathan H. Witherspoon, Winston-Salem 



Timothy See Yiu Lam, Vienna, VA 
Randall D. Ledford, Piano, TX 
Dennis G. Manning, Lexington, VA 
James A. Martin Jr., Winston-Salem 
Edward C. Michaels III, Atlanta, GA 



244 



Stanley Frank, Greensboro 
Beverly J. Freeman, Atlanta, GA 
Stephen W. Gilbert, Washington, DC 
Glenda E. Gilmore, New Haven, CT 
Thomas C. Griscom, Winston-Salem 
James R. Helvey III, New York, NY 
Nancy L. Ingram, Winston-Salem 

Terms Expiring June 30, 2001 



Penelope E. Niven, Winston-Salem 
John H. Parrish, La Jolla, CA 
Howard A. Rollins Jr., Atlanta, GA 
Lloyd P. Tate, Raleigh 
Anne-Lee Verville, White Plains, NY 
Janet P. Wheeler, Winston-Salem 
Mary Helen W. Young, Malibu, CA 



F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., Winston-Salem Beverly B. Lambert, Roanoke, VA 
Robert M. Frehse Jr., Bronxville, NY William L. Salter, Saint Charles, IL 

Fenton H. Hord, Raleigh William W. Webb, Chapel Hill 

Ex-Officio Members 

Samuel P. Rothrock, President, Alumni Council, Winston-Salem 
Celeste M. Pittman, Board of Trustees Representative, Rocky Mount 

The Board of Visitors 

Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



David Barger, Greensboro 
James David Barlett Jr., RTP 
Wendy Burden, Winston-Salem 
Michael A. Carter, New York, NY 
Mark Chain, Wilton, CT 
H. Paul Chapman, Charlotte 
Ashby M. Cook Jr., Greensboro 
Victor N. Daley, Des Moines, IA 
Edwin A. Dairy mple Jr., Charlotte 
Frederick W. Eubank, Charlotte 
John J. Fosina, New York, NY 
Ingrid K. Gentry, Louisville, KY 
C. Stanley Hamm, Atlanta, GA 
Dennis Hatchell, Winston-Salem 
Gregory B. Hunter, Winston-Salem 
A. Dale Jenkins, Raleigh 
M. Benjamin Jones, New York, NY 
Meg Jones, Charlotte 
Richard Kauffeld Jr., Toronto, Ontario 
John Keener, Charlotte 
Gary B. Lambert, Washington, DC 



James R. Lattanzi, Greensboro 
Lisa Patterson Lawrence, Charlotte 
Scott Livengood, Winston-Salem 
T. Jefferson Lovington IV, Charlotte 
Patricia P. Lunka, New York, NY 
Morris D. Marley, Winston-Salem 
George Minnich, Avon, CT 
William C. O'Neil Jr., Nashville, TN 
Dennis R. Reigle, Chicago, IL 
Gary L. Rhea, Winston-Salem 
Larry P. Scott, New York, NY 
Kenneth C. Sharp, Charlotte 
Gilbert Simonetti III, New York, NY 
Clay Small, Dallas, TX 
Patricia G. Stiles, Chicago, IL 
Peter Stiles, Chicago, IL 
June K. Stroh, Los Angeles, CA 
Porter B. Thompson, Greensboro 
Michael J. Wilk, New York, NY 
Jackson D. Wilson Jr., Winston-Salem 



Ex-Officio Member 

Jeffrey D. Frisby, Winston-Salem 



245 

THE ADMINISTRATION 



Date following name indicates year of appointment 



University 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

David G. Brown (1990) 

BA, Denison; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Richard H. Dean (1986) 

BA, Virginia Military Institute; 
MD, Medical College of Virginia 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 
BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; 
MAR, Yale; PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Louis R. Morrell (1995) 

BS, Babson College; MBA, Massachusetts 

Edwin G. Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; 
MLS, Michigan 

College 



President 



Vice President for Finance and Administration 



Vice President for 
Health Services Administration 



Vice President for University Advancement 



Provost 



Vice President and Counsel 



Senior Vice President for Health Affairs 



Associate Provost 



Vice President for Investments 
and Treasurer 

Senior Vice President 



Vice President for Student Life and 
Instructional Resources 



Paul D. Escott (1988) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 

Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 



Dean of the College 
Associate Dean 
Associate Dean 



246 



Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 
BA, Winston-Salem State; 
MA, Wake Forest 

Paul N. Orser (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Emory 

Claudia Newell Thomas (1986) 

BA, College of Notre Dame of Maryland; 
MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 

Jeryl Prescott (1994) 

BS, Clemson; MA, NCA&T; PhD, South Florida 

W. Douglas Bland (1975) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest 

Provost 



Associate Dean 



Associate Dean and Dean of Freshmen 



Associate Dean 



Assistant Dean 



Director of Academic Services and 
Assistant to the Dean of the College 



David G. Brown (1990) 

BA, Denison; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Graduate School 



Provost 



Gordon A. Melson (1991) 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

School of Law 



Dean of the Graduate School 
Associate Dean of the Graduate School 



Robert K. Walsh (1989) 

BA, Providence; JD, Harvard 

Ralph A. Peeples (1979) 

BA, Davidson; JD, New York University 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) 

BA, JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

William T. Barrett (1994) 

BA, JD, Washington and Lee 

James C. Cook (1992) 

BS, South Carolina; JD, Wake Forest 

Jean K. Holmes (1985) 

Margaret C. Lankford (1990) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro 



Dean of the School of Law 



Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 



Associate Dean, External Affairs, 
and Director of Clinical Programs 

Director of Placement 



Director of Continuing Legal Education 

Activities Coordinator 
Budget Officer 

Director of Professional and Public Relations 



247 



Melanie E. Nutt (1969) 

Robin P. Simonds (1994) 

BA, Yale; JD, Colorado 

LeAnn P. Steele (1977) 
BMu, Salem 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 

R. Charles Moyer (1988) 

BA, Howard; MBA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

Charles R. Kennedy Jr. (1989) 
BA, PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Robin Roy Ganzert (1988) 
BS, MBA, Wake Forest 

Mary C, Goss (1992) 

BS, Southern Illinois; MBA, Pepperdine 

Jamie Barnes (1998) 

AA, Wesley, Delaware; 
MBA, Wake Forest 



Melissa N. Combes (1996) 

BA, Washington College; MBA, Wake Forest 



Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 
Director of Educational Technology 

Registrar 



Dean and Integon Chair of Finance 



Associate Dean for Academic Affairs 
and Director of Flow Institute 

Assistant Dean of Administration 
Human Resources 

Assistant Dean of Admissions, 
Career Services, and Student Services 

Director of Evening and Executive 
MBA Programs 



Director of Alumni and Development 
Relations 



Patricia B. Divine (1988) 
BS, Virginia 

Allen Helms (1993) 

BS, UNC-Charlotte 

Mary P. Lai (1996) 

BA, Mount Mary College; MBA, Marquette 

Steve Price (1995) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MBA, Wake Forest 

Matthew H. Wilson (1996) 

BA, The Citadel; MA, Clemson 

Wake Forest School of Medicine 

Richard H. Dean (1986) 

BA, Virginia Military Institute; 
MD, Medical College of Virginia 

James N. Thompson (1979) 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Russell E. Armistead Jr. (1976) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
MBA, Wake Forest 



Director of External Relations and Publications 

Director of Information Services 

Director of the Charlotte MBA Program 

Director of Management Education 

Director of Career Services 

Senior Vice President for Health Affairs 



Vice President and Dean 

Vice President for Health Services Administration 
and Associate Dean for Administrative Services 



248 



Timothy C. Pennell (1966) 
BS, MD, Wake Forest 

J. Scott Gibson (1991) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MBA, Duke 

Ronald L. Hoth (1992) 
BS, Loyola College 

Joanne Ruhland (1988) 

BS, Gardner Webb; MBA, Appalachian 

William C. Park Jr. (1975) 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

Eugene W. Adcock m (1989) 

BS, Davidson; MD, Wake Forest 

G. Douglas Atkinson (1994) 
BS, Drake; MBA, Xavier 

Cam E. Enarson (1990) 

BA, Concordia; BMS, MD, Alberta; 
MBA, Pennsylvania 

Lewis H. Nelson III (1976) 

BS, North Carolina State; MD, Wake Forest 

Patricia L. Adams (1979) 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 

Velma G. Watts (1982) 

BS, MS, North Carolina A&T; 
MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth F. Sherertz (1988) 

BS, Wake Forest; MD, Virginia 

Jay Moskowitz (1995) 

BS, Queens College (CUNY); PhD, Brown 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) 
BS, MS, Illinois 

David P. Friedman (1990) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MS, PhD, 
New York Medical College 

Michael J. Poston (1993) 
BS, MS, Indiana 

Mark A. Oliveira (1994) 
BA, Texas (Austin) 

Edward Carter (1993) 

BS, Western Michigan; 
MS, San Diego State 

Paul M. LoRusso (1987) 

BS, Syracuse; MBA, Florida State 



Chief of Professional Services and 
Director, International Health Affairs 

Assistant Dean for Financial Planning 
and Outreach 

Assistant Dean for Human Resources 



Assistant Dean for Planning and 
Governmental Relations 

Assistant Dean for Clinical Services and 
Director, Wake Forest University Physicians 

Associate Dean for Professional Affairs 

Associate Dean for Networks 

Associate Dean for Medical Education 



Associate Dean for Student Services 
and Admissions 

Associate Dean for Student Affairs 



Assistant Dean for Student Affairs and 
Director of Minority Affairs 

Associate Dean for Faculty Services 

Senior Associate Dean 

Associate Dean for Research Development 

Associate Dean for Research Development 



Associate Dean for Development 
and Alumni Affairs 

Assistant Dean for Development 
and Alumni Affairs 

Associate Dean for Facilities 
Planning and Construction 

Associate Dean for Information Services 



249 



James C. Leist (1974) 

BS, Southeast Missouri State; 
MS, EdD, Indiana 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MSLS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Robert E. Rose (1972) 

BS, Morehead State 

W. Roger Poston II (1991) 

AB, Mercer; BS, MS, Medical College 
of Georgia; EdD, West Virginia 



Director, AHEC 



Executive Director, Coy C. Carpenter Library 

Controller and Director, Accounting 
and Resource Acquisition 

Director, Biomedical Communications 



Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy 



Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) 

BS, Bob Jones University; PhD, Texas 

Katherine S. Hoppe (1993) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Texas Christian 

Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky 

J. Kline Harrison (1990) 

BS, Virginia; PhD, Maryland 

Paul E.Juras (1991) 

BBA, MBA, Pace; PhD, Syracuse 

Umit Akinc (1982) 

BS, Middle East Tech. Univ. (Ankara); 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Helen Akinc (1987) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Divinity School, Wake Forest University 



Dean of the Wayne Calloway School 
of Business and Accountancy 

Assistant Dean and 
Director of Information Technology 

Coordinator of Accountancy Program 

Coordinator of Business Program and 
Adviser, Analytical Finance Program 

Director of MS Program in Accountancy 
Adviser, Mathematical Business Program 



Director of Student Services 



Bill J. Leonard (1996) 

BA, Texas Wesleyan; MDiv., Southwestern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; PhD, Boston University 

Scott Hudgins (1997) 
BA, Richmond; 
MDiv, Union Theological Seminary, New York 

Admissions and Financial Aid 



Dean 



Director of Admissions 



William G. Starling (1958) 
BBA, Wake Forest 

Thomas O. Phillips (1982) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 



Associate Director of Admissions 
and Scholarship Officer 



250 



Martha Blevins Allman (1982) 
BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Colin L. Creel (1996) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Colleen P. Lopina (1997) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Patrick E. Phillips (1997) 
BA, Wake Forest 

William T. Wells (1998) 
BA, Wake Forest: 
MAT,MEd, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Wayne E. Johnson (1985) 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Christia H.Fisher (1991) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Wake Forest 

C. Allison Christofoli (1996) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Todd M. Curtis (1997) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Patrick J. McDonough (1997) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Rebecca J. Meisenbach (1997) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Athletics 



Ron Wellman (1992) 

BS, MS, Bowling Green State University 

Charles W. Patterson m (1984) 
AB, Davidson College 

Perk Weisenburger (1995) 

BS, Central Michigan; MSA, Ohio 

Mike Pratapas (1989) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Joel Nielsen (1993) 

BS, MA, Mankato State 

William M. Faircloth (1978) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, Alabama 

Charlie Davis (1971) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Associate Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

Director of Financial Aid 

Assistant Director of Financial Aid 
Assistant Scholarship Officer 

Financial Aid Counselor 
Admissions Counselor 

Admissions Counselor 

Admissions Counselor 



Director of Athletics 
Associate Athletic Director 
Associate Athletic Director 
Associate Athletic Director 
Associate Athletic Director 
Assistant Athletic Director 
Assistant Athletic Director 



251 



Craig Keilitz (1996) 

BS, Central Michigan; MA, Ohio 

Career Services 



Assistant Athletic Director 



William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 



Director of Career Services 



Carolyn A. Couch (1997) 

BS, Meredith College; MA, Appalachian State 



Patrick Sullivan (1997) 

BA, Wake Forest University 

Chaplain's Office 



Assistant Director of Career Services 
Director of Internships and Experential Education 



Edgar D. Christman (1954, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

David L. Fouche (1982) 
BA, Furman; MDiv, 
Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Finance and Administration 



Chaplain 



Associate Chaplain and 
Baptist Campus Minister 



John P. Anderson (1984) 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Tech.; 
MBA, Alabama (Birmingham) 

Louis R. Morrell (1995) 

BS, Babson College; MBA, Massachusetts 

C. Buck Bayliff (1988) 

BA, Elon; MBA, Wake Forest 

Maureen L. Carpenter (1997) 
BS, St. John Fisher College; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Irene A. Comito (1986) 
BS, Kent State 

Jay L. Dominick (1991) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, 
Georgetown; MBA, Wake Forest 

James L. Ferrell (1975) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 

MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

James W. Kausch (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Vice President for Finance and Administration 



Vice President for Investments 
and Treasurer 

Assistant Vice President and Director of 
Telecommunications and University Stores 

Controller 



Assistant Treasurer 

Assistant Vice President for Information 
Systems and Chief Information Officer 

Director of Human Resources 



Purchasing Coordinator 



252 



F.Thomas King (1991) 

THB, Piedmont College 

E. O'Neal Robinson (1996) 
BS, Grambling State 

William C. Sides Jr. (1994) 
BS, North Carolina State 

Graylyn International Conference Center 

Troy Grooms (1996) 

Gregory D. Fulton (1995) 
BA, UNC-Greensboro 

Information Systems 



Assistant Director, Real Estate Management 
Director of Information Systems 
Director of Facilities Management 



General Manager 
Director of Sales 



Jay L. Dominick (1991) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, 
Georgetown; MBA, Wake Forest 

E. O'Neal Robinson (1996) 
BS, Grambling State 

Nancy R. Crouch (1992) 
BA, Virginia Tech; 
MAEd, Wake Forest 

Janet Bright (1993) 

Tim Covey (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MBA, Wake Forest 

Lynda M. Goff (1991) 

BA, Southern California (Fullerton) 

C. Lee Norris (1995) 

BA, MA, South Carolina 

Ronald W. Rimmer Jr. (1995) 
BS, Appalachian State 

Institutional Research 



Assistant Vice President for Information 
Systems and Chief Information Officer 



Assistant Chief Information Officer, 
Information Systems 

Director of Technology Outreach and 
Special Assistant to the Vice President 



Business Analyst 
Technology Manager 

Information Systems Support Center Manager 

Systems Manager 

Network Manager 



Ross A. Griffith (1966) 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, UNC-Greensboro 

Yihong Gu (1995) 

BS, Xian Jiaotong University; MS, East China 
Institute of Technology; MA, Wake Forest 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) 
BS, South Carolina 



Director of Institutional Research 
and Academic Administration 

Assistant Director of 
Institutional Research 



Registrar 



253 



Hallie S. Arrington (1977) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest 

Judy L. Ginter (1986) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Investments and Treasurer 



Associate Registrar 
Associate Registrar 



Louis R. Morrell (1995) 

BS, Babson College; MBA, Massachusetts 

Irene A. Comito (1986) 
BS, Kent State 

James L. Ferrell (1975) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

Legal Department 



Vice President for Investments 
and Treasurer 

Assistant Treasurer 



Director of Human Resources 



Leon H.Corbett Jr. (1968) 
BA, JD, Wake Forest 

J. Reid Morgan (1980) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Donna H. Hamilton (1988) 

AB, Drury; JD, Wake Forest 

Beverly C. Moore (1989) 

BA, Mount Holyoke; JD, Wake Forest 

Libraries 



Vice President and Counsel 

University Counsel 

Assistant Univefsity Counsel 

Assistant University Counsel 



Rhoda K. Charming (1989) 

BA, Brooklyn; MS in LS, Columbia; 
MBA, Boston College 

Deborah N. Lambert (1997) 

BA, Wittenberg; MLS, Pittsburgh 

Thomas M. Steele (1985) 
BA, Oklahoma State; 
MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) 

BA, MS in LS, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Student Life 



Director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library 



Assistant Director of the 
Z. Smith Reynolds Library 

Director of the 
Worrell Professional Center Library 

Executive Director of the Coy C. Carpenter 
Library, Wake Forest School of Medicine 



Kenneth A. Zick (1975) 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

Harold R. Holmes (1987) 

BS, Hampton; MBA, Fordham 



Vice President for Student Life 
and Instructional Resources 

Associate Vice President and 
Dean of Student Services 



254 



Mary T. Gerardy (1985) 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State; MBA, Wake Forest 

E.Clayton Hipp Jr. (1991) 

BA, Wofford; MBA, JD, South Carolina 

Joanna M. Iwata (1995) 

BA, University of Southern California 

(Los Angeles); MA, University of the Pacific 

James R. Buckley (1996) 
BS, MEd, Clemson 

Edgar D. Christman (1954, 1961) 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; STM, Union Theo. Seminary 

William C. Currin (1988) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Carolyn A. Couch (1997) 

BS, Meredith College; MA, Appalachian State 

Barbee Myers Oakes (1989) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Tennessee 



Connie L. Carson (1986) 

BS, MEd, North Carolina State; MBA, Wake Forest 

Michael Ford (1981) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theo. Seminary 

Natascha L. Romeo (1990) 
BS, South Carolina; 
MEd, UNC-Greensboro 



Assistant Vice President 
for Student Life 

Judicial Adviser 
Director of the Benson University Center 



Associate Director of the Benson 
University Center 

University Chaplain 



Director of Career Services 

Assistant Director of Career Services 

Director of Multicultural Affairs 

Director of Residence Life and Housing 

Director of Student Development 

Health Educator 



M. Paige Wilbanks (1996) 

BA, Furman, MEd, South Carolina 

Cecil D.Price (1991) 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Sylvia T.Bell (1981) 

RNC, N.C. Baptist Hosp. School of Nursing 

Regina G. Lawson (1989) 
BS, UNC-Wilmington 

Kenneth W. Overholt (1997) 

BS, Michigan State; MA, Central Michigan 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 



Assistant Director of Student Development/ 
Coordinator of Volunteer Services 

Director of the Student Health Service 



Associate Director for Administration, 
Student Health Service 

Chief of University Police 
Assistant Chief of University Police 

Director of the University Counseling Center 



255 



Johnne W. Armentrout (1989) 
BA, William and Mary; 
MAEd, Wake Forest 



Assistant Director of the University Counseling Center 



G. Dianne Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem, MAEd, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Duke 

Summer Session 



Director of the Learning Assistance Program 



Toby A. Hale (1970) 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 

University Advancement 



Dean of the Summer Session 



Sandra Combs Boyette (1981) 

BA, UNC-Charlotte; MEd, Converse; 
MBA, Wake Forest 

Mark Lee Aust (1994) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Robert T.Baker (1978) 

BA, MS, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Ursula Baker (1996) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kenneth S. Bennett (1997) 
BA, William and Mary 

James R. Bullock (1985) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Cathy B. Chinlund (1986) 
BS, East Carolina 



Vice President for University Advancement 



Director of Parents Reunion Program and 
Assistant Director of College Fund 

Assistant Vice President and 
Director of Development 

Director, Wake Forest Clubs 

University Photographer 

Assistant Vice President/ 
Major Gifts and Annual Support 

Director of Advancement Records 



Melissa N. Combes (1996) 

BA, Washington College; MBA, Wake Forest 

Julius H. Corpening (1969) 
BA, Wake Forest; BD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Kevin P. Cox (1990) Assistant Vice President for Public Affairs and 

BA, East Texas State; MA, Wake Forest Director of Media Relations 



Director of Development/ 
Babcock School 

Assistant Vice President for 
University Relations 



Robert Kriss Dinkins (1990) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Martha S. Edwards (1993) 

BA, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, Vanderbilt 



Assistant Director of Development 
Director of Foundation Relations 



256 



Joshua D. Else (1996) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert L. Finch (1994) 
BA, Wake Forest 

David W.Fyten (1991) 
BA, Minnesota 
MA, MFA, Iowa 

Melody A. Graham (1987) 
BS, Appalachian 



Kimberly S. Griffing (1996) 

BA, Wake Forest; MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

Samantha H.E. Hand (1997) 

BA, Virginia Poly. Inst. & State University 
MFA, Radford 

Anne K. Hodges (1987) 

Kerry M. King (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Sheila P. Massey (1986) 

BA, Winston-Salem State 



Director of College Fund 
and Annual Support 

Director of Law School Alumni and Development 



Assistant Vice President for Public Affairs and 
University Editor 



Director of Special Events and 
Summer Conferences 

Media Relations Officer 
Art Director 

Director of Advancement Research 
Director of Communications 

Director of Stewardship 



Minta A. McNally (1978) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Robert D.Mills (1972) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest 

Kate L. Patrick (1994) 

BA, Wake Forest; MMA Colorado 

Allen H. Patterson Jr. (1987) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Cherin C. Poovey (1987) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Ruth D. Sartin (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

William T. Snyder (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) 

BS, East Tennessee State 



Assistant Vice President and Director of 
Alumni Activities and Volunteer Programs 

Associate Vice President for Capital Support 
and Advancement Technologies 

Director of Alumni Programs 

Director of Planned Giving 

Associate University Editor and 
Director of Publications 

University Advancement Associate 
Director of Emerging Technologies 
Director of Technology Operations 



257 



Wade Stokes Jr. (1997) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Kenneth P. Sugden Jr. (1993) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Wayne Thompson (1990, 1996) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Cheryl V. Walker (1989) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Linda J. Ward (1992) 

Andrew B. Waters (1997) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Lloyd A. Whitehead (1995) 
BA, Central Florida 



Director of Divinity School Development 

Manager of Technical Development 

Media Relations Officer 

Assistant Director of Media Relations 

WFDD Station Manager 
Assistant University Editor 

Director of Electronic Communication 



Wake Forest University Theater 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 

Mary R. Wayne-Thomas (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall; 
MFA, Massachusetts 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 

Other Administrative Offices 



Director of the University Theater 

Associate Director of Theater 

Theater Designer 

Lighting Designer/Production Manager 

Assistant Director of Theater 



Gloria C. Agard (1987) 
BA, Maryland 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; MA, 
PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

C. Kevin Bowen (1994) 

BS, Tennessee Tech; MM, Louisville 

Julie Cole (1988) 

BS, MA, Appalachian 



Director of Equal Employment Opportunity/ 
Assistant Director of Human Resources 

Director/ Curator of the 
Museum of Anthropology 

Director of Bands 

Director of Research and Sponsored Programs 



258 



Victor Faccinto (1978) 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Richard P. Faude (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Montana State 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; MA, Yale; 
PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Mark E. Good (1995) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Brian Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 

Peter D. Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Nina M. Lucas (1996) 

BFA, Ohio State; MFA, California (Los Angeles) 



Director of the Art Gallery 

Head of Information Technology Center 
(Z. Smith Reynolds Library) 

Director of Counseling Program 



Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Paul N. Orser (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, Emory 

Richard D. Sears (1964) 

AB, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Judith K. Shannon (1980) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Martine Sherrill (1985) 

BFA, MLF, UNC-Greensboro 

Ross Smith (1984) 

BA, Wake Forest 

George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Inst, of Music; MusD, Indiana 



Internal Auditor 
Director of Choral Ensembles 

Coordinator of the Venice Program 

Director of Dance 

Coordinator of the London Program 
(Fall 1997) 

Coordinator of the London Program 
(Summer 1998) 

Director of International Studies 

Assistant to the Director of International Studies 
and Adviser for Study Abroad/International Students 

Curator of Slides and Prints 

Debate Coach 

Director of the Secrest Artists Series 



THE UNDERGRADUATE 



259 

FACULTIES 



Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 



Christian J. Abell (1996) 

BA, Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania 

Helen W.Akinc (1987) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

UmitAkinc(1982) 

BS, Middle East Tech. University 
(Ankara); MBA, Florida State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Jane W. Albrecht (1987) 

BA, Wright State; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Brian Allen (1977) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London 

Edward E. Allen (1991) 

BS, Brigham Young; MA, PhD, 
California (San Diego) 

David J. Anderson (1992) 

BA, Denison; MS, Michigan; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Paul R. Anderson (1990) 

BS, Wisconsin (Madison); MA, PhD, 
California (Santa Barbara) 

Sharon Andrews (1994) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John L. Andronica (1969) 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston College; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Maya Angelou (1982) 

LittD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College 
(Chicago), Atlanta, Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake 
Forest, Occidental, Arkansas, Claremont, Kean 

Johnne Armentrout (1989) 

BA, William & Mary; MAEd, Wake Forest 

Miriam A. Ashley-Ross (1997) 
BS, Northern Arizona; 
PhD, University of California (Irvine) 

R. Scott Baker (1994) 

BA, The Evergreen State College; 
MA, Tufts; PhD, Columbia 

Sarah E. Barbour (1985) 

BA, Maryville; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell 



Instructor in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Davis Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 



Assistant Professor of Biology 



Associate Professor of Physics 



Lecturer in Theater 



Professor of Classical Languages 



Reynolds Professor of American Studies 



Instructor in Education 



Assistant Professor of Biology 



Assistant Professor of Education 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 



260 



James P. Barefield (1963) 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Bernadine Barnes (1989) 

BA, Illinois (Urbana-Champaign); 
MA, Pittsburgh; PhD, Virginia 

H. Janey B. Barnes (1997) 

BS, Appalachian State; MS, Florida State; 
MS, PhD, Massachussetts 

Phillip G. Batten (1991) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Yale 
Divinity School; MA, Wake Forest 

John V.Baxley (1968) 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 

H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern 
Illinois (Carbondale) 

Christa Beck (1996) 

BS, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, Wake Forest 

Robert C. Beck (1959) 
BA, PhD, Illinois 



Wake Forest Professor of History 
Associate Professor of Art 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Wake Forest Professor of Mathematics 
(Leave, 1996-97) 

Associate Professor of Sociology 



Instructor in Mathematics 



Professor of Psychology 



S. Douglas Beets (1987) 
BS, Tennessee; 
MAcc, PhD, Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU 

Donald B. Bergey (1978) 
BS, MA, Wake Forest 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) 
BA, Harpur; 
MA, PhD, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Michael J. Berry (1985) 

BS, Jacksonville State; MA, South- 
eastern Louisiana; PhD, Texas A&M 

Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Zanna Beswick (1987) 

BA, Hons, Bristol (England) 

Ralph Black (1996) 

BA, Oregon; MA, NYU 

Janice Blackburn (1996) 

BS, Campbell; MA, Wake Forest 

Terry D. Blumenthal (1987) 

BS, Alberta (Edmonton); MS, PhD, Florida 



Associate Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Instructor in Health & Exercise Science 
(Part-time) 

Director/ Curator of the Museum of Anthropology 
and Associate Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Health & Exercise Science 



Wake Forest Professor of Psychology 

Lecturer in Theater (London) 
(Department of Theater, Part-time) 

Visiting Instructor in English 

Instructor in Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Psychology 



26' 



Keith D.Bonin (1992) 

BS, Loyola; PhD, Maryland 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 
(Leave, Fall 1996) 

John D. Bourland (1996) 

BS, MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

C. Kevin Bowen (1994) 

BS, Tennessee Tech; MM, Louisville 
PhD, Florida State 



Associate Professor of Physics 

Professor of Music and 
Director of Women's Studies 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Physics 

Director of Bands 
(Department of Music) 



Stephen B. Boyd (1985) 

BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard 
Divinity School 

Katharine Boyes (1997) 
DMA, Cincinnati; 

MM, San Francisco Conservatory of Music; 
GRSM (Honors), Royal Academy of Music (England) 



Professor of Religion 



Visiting Instructor in Music 



Anne Boyle (1986) 

BA, Wilkes College; MA, PhD, Rochester 

James C. Brand (1995) 

BS, Roanoke College 

Sheri A. Bridges (1996) 
BA, South Florida; 
MA, Texas (Dallas); PhD, Stanford 

Genevieve Jeanne Brock (1997) 
BA, MA, PhD, Virginia 

David G. Brown (1990) 

AB, Denison; PhD, Princeton 



E. Barnsley Brown (1996) 

BA, Wake Forest; MSc, Edinburgh (Scotland); 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Carole L. Browne (1980) 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse 

David B. Broyles (1966) 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; MA, PhD, 
California (Los Angeles) 

Peter H. Brubaker (1994) 

BS, E. Stroudsburg University; MA, 
Wake Forest; PhD, Temple 

Christy M. Buchanan (1992) 

BA, Seattle Pacific; PhD, Michigan 



Associate Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(French) 

Professor of Economics 
Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Professor of Biology 
Professor of Biology 
Professor of Politics 



Assistant Professor of 
Health and Exercise Science 



Assistant Professor of Psychology 



262 



Jennifer J. Burg (1993) 

BA, Elizabethtown College; MA (English), 
MA (French), Florida; PhD, Central Florida 

Neal E. Busch (1994) 

BA, Drake; PhD, Iowa State 

Eileen Cahill (1997) 

BA, D'Youngville College; 

MA, University of Toronto; PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

Janis Caldwell (1997) 

BS, Whitworth College; MD, Northwestern University; 
MA, PhD, University of Washington 

Alan Cameron (1990) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; MAEd, Wake Forest 

Victoria E. Campos (1997) 

BA, Texas; MA, PhD, Princeton 



Assistant Professor of Computer Science 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of English 



Assistant Professor of English 



Assistant Professor of Education 



Daniel A. Cafias (1987) 

BS, Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico); 
MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Texas (Austin) 

Eric D. Carlson (1995) 

BS, Michigan State; MA, PhD, Harvard 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Duke 

Simone M. Caron (1991) 

BA, Bridgewater State; MA, Northeastern; 
PhD, Clark 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 

Theresa R. Castor (1997) 

BAS, MA, California (Davis) 

Justin Catanoso (1993) 

BA, Pennsylvania State; MA, Wake Forest 

Maria A. Chiari (1981) 

Arts degree, PhD, Universita degli 
Studi di Venezia (Padova e Trieste); 
Diploma, Scuola di Archivistica, Palio- 
grafia e Diplomatica dellArchivio di 
Stato di Venezia 

Hanya E. Chrispeels (1996) 

BA, California (Santa Cruz); PhD, Stanford 

Jonathan H. Christman (1983) 

AB, Franklin and Marshall; MFA, Massachusetts 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Computer Science 
(Leave, 1996-1998) 

Assistant Professor of Physics 

Professor of Mathematics 

Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of Music 

Visiting Instructor of Communication 

Visiting Lecturer in Journalism 
(Department of English, Part-time) 

Assistant Lecturer in Art History (Venice) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 



263 



Anna M. Cianci (1997) 

BS, Villanova; PhD, Duke 

James H. Clippard Jr. (1997) 

BSGEE, North Carolina State; 
MBA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Paul M. Cobb (1997) 

BA, Massachusetts; MA, Chicago; 
PhD, Chicago 



John E.Collins (1970) 

BS, MS, Tennessee; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; MA, PhD, Princeton 

William E. Conner (1988) 

BA, Notre Dame; MS, PhD, Cornell 

JuleM. Connolly (1985) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MEd, South Carolina 

Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

AllinF.Cottrell(1989) 

BA, Oxford (Merton College); PhD, Edinburgh 

Monroe J. Cowan (1994) 

BS, Maryland; PhD, Duke 

Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 

James F. Curran (1988) 

BAAS, Delaware; MA, PhD, Rice 

George B. Cvijanovich (1989) 
PhD, Bern (Switzerland) 

Dale Dagenbach (1990) 

BA, New College; MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Mary M. Dalton (1996) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Brook M. Davis (1997) 

BA, Wake Forest, MFA, Virginia Commonwealth 

Stephen W. Davis (1991) 
BA, MA, Wake Forest 

John W. Dawson (1996) 

BS, East Carolina; MEcon, 
PhD, North Carolina State 

Mary K. DeShazer (1982, 1987) 
BA, Western Kentucky; 
MA, Louisville; PhD, Oregon 



Instructor in Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Executive in Residence 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of Religion 

Professor of Biology 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Adjunct Professor of Physics 

Wake Forest Professor of Education 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Adjunct Professor of Physics 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor 
of Communication 

Lecturer in Theater 



Adjunct Instructor in Psychology 
(Part-time) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics 



Professor of English 

and Women 's Studies 

(Leave, Spring 1997) 



264 



Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 

Constance L. Dickey (1991) 

BA, Portland State; MA, Washington 
(Seattle); PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr. (1970) 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

John J. Dinan (1996) 

BA, MA, PhD, Virginia 

Patricia Dixon (1986) 

BM, North Carolina School of the Arts; 
MM, UNC-Greensboro 

James H. Dodding (1979) 

Diploma, Rose Bruford College of Speech and 
Drama (London); Cert., Birmingham University; 
Cert., Westhill Training College (Birmingham); 
Diploma, Theater on the Balustrade (Prague) 



Associate Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 

Professor of Biology 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Politics 



Instructor in Music 



Professor of Theater 



James L. Dominick (1997) 
BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MA, Georgetown; MBA, Wake Forest 



Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Francoise Dragacci-Paulsen (1997) Visiting Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
Baccalaureat, Tonlon (France); (French) 

Maitrisse, Universite d' Aix-en-Provence (France); 
PhD, California 



Jonathan E. Duchac (1993) 

BBA, MAcc, Wisconsin (Madison); 
PhD, Georgia 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) 
BA, PhD, Duke 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) 
BS, Clemson; 
MBA, PhD, South Carolina 

Yomi Durotoye (1994) 

BS, University of Ibadan; 
MA, Georgia State; PhD, Duke 

John R. Earle (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Eddie V. Easley (1984) 
BS, Virginia State; 
MS, PhD, Iowa State 

Julie Edelson (1998) 

BA, Sarah Lawrence College; 
PhD, Cornell 



Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of Psychology 

Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Associate Professor of Politics 



Professor of Sociology 



Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of English 



265 



C. Drew Edwards (1980) Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; (Part-time) 

PhD, Florida State 

Bashir El-Beshti (1990) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Tripoli University (Libya); MA, 
Colorado State; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Leo Ellison Jr. (1957) Associate Professor of Health and Exercise Science 

BS, MS, Northwestern State 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) Wake Forest Professor of Biology 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Paul D. Escott (1988) Reynolds Professor of History 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Duke 

Jennifer L. Etnier (1995) Assistant Professor of Health and Exercise Science 

BS, Tennessee; MA, UNC-Chapel 
Hill; PhD, Arizona State 

Andrew V. Ettin (1977) Professor of English 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E. Eure (1974) Professor of Biology 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K. Evans (1966) Professor of Anthropology 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) Associate Professor of Education 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; 
PhD, Colorado 

Stephen Ewing (1971 ) Professor of Business 

BS, Howard Payne; (W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

MBA, Baylor; PhD, Texas Tech. 

David L. Faber (1984) Associate Professor of Art 

AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois 

Frederic H. Fahey (1996) Adjunct Associate Professor of Physics 

BS, Massachusetts; MS, DSc, Harvard 

Susan L. Faust (1992) Adjunct Instructor in Communication 

BA, MA, Arkansas (Fayetteville) (Part-time) 

David Finn (1988, 1995) Assistant Professor of Art 

BS, Cornell; MFA, Massachusetts College of Art 

James C. Fishbein (1988) Professor of Chemistry 

BA, Johns Hopkins; PhD, Brandeis 

Gloria J. Fitzgibbon Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley); 
MA, San Francisco State 

Jack D. Fleer (1964) Professor of Politics 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; (Leave, 1997-1998) 

PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



266 



William W. Fleeson (1996) 

BA, Wisconsin; PhD, Michigan 

Steven Folmar (1992) 

BA, MA, PhD, Case Western Reserve 

Mary F. Foskett (1997) 

BA, New York University; 

MDiv, Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, Emory 

Johnnie Foye (1995) 

BA, Virginia Union; MSS, US Sports Academy 

Denise Franklin (1994) 

BA, Wichita State University 

Donald E. Frey (1972) 

BA, Wesleyan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 

John E. R. Friedenberg (1988) 

BA, Wake Forest; MFA, Carnegie-Mellon 

Mary L. Friedman (1987) 

BA, Wellesley; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Candelas S. Gala (1978) 

BA, Salamanca (Spain); MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

Yaorong Ge (1995) 

BS, Zhejiang University (China); 
MS, PhD, Vanderbilt 



Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Anthropology 

Assistant Professor of Religion 



J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 



Instructor in Health and Exercise Science 

Adjunct Instructor in Communication 

Professor of Economics 

Lecturer in Theater 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Assistant Professor of Computer Science 
Adjunct Professor of Biology 



Anne W. Gilfoil (1995) 

BA, Rhodes; MA, PhD, Tulane 

Samuel T. Gladding (1990) 

BA, MAEd, Wake Forest; MA, Yale; 
PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Kathleen M. Glenn (1974) 
BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Perm State; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Louis R. Goldstein (1979) 

BM, Oberlin; MFA, California 
Inst, of the Arts; DMA, Eastman 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Professor of Education 



Wake Forest Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of Music 



Batja Gomes De Mesquita (1997) 

BA, MA, PhD, Amsterdam (The Netherlands) 

Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison); 
DMA, Illinois 



Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Assistant Professor of Music 
and Director of Choral Ensembles 



267 



Luis Gonzalez (1997) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, U de Medellin (Colombia); (Spanish) 

MA, West Virginia; PhD, California-Davis 

Chiara Gratton (1997) Instructor of Economics 

Laurea, University of Trieste, Italy 
MA, Virginia Poly. Inst. & State University 



Tamara M. Greenwood (1996) 
BS, MSB, UNC-Greensboro 



Instructor in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Steven C. Haefner (1996) Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

BS, California (Los Angeles); PhD, Michigan State 



David Hagy (1995) 

B M, Indiana; MM, MMA, DMA, Yale 

R. Craig Hamilton (1994) 

BA, Lawrence; MS, PhD, Indiana 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 



Richard H. Hammack (1997) 

BFA, Rhode Island School of Design; 

MS, Virginia Commonwealth; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Director of Orchestra 
(Department of Music) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Theater 
Professor of Russian 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Claire Holton Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 

J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

Beverlye H. Hancock (1996) 

AB, Meredith; MA, Wake Forest 

James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Walter Harrelson (1994) 

AB, UNC-Chapel Hill; 

BD, ThD, Union Theo. Seminary 

KatyJ.Harriger(1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

BA, Lenoir-Rhyne; MA Duke: PhD, Georgia 

J. Kline Harrison (1990) 

BS, Virginia; PhD, Maryland 

Angela Hattery (1998) 

BA, Carleton College; MS, PhD, Wisconsin 



Associate Professor of Economics 

Professor of Economics 

Adjunct Instructor in Anthropology 

Professor of English 

Lecturer in Philosophy 

University Professor 

Associate Professor of Politics 

Professor of Sociology 

Benson-Pruitt Associate Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business & Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 



268 



Elmer K. Hayashi (1973) 

BA, California (Davis); 

MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael David Hazen (1974) 
BA, Seattle Pacific; 
MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Kansas 

Terry C. Hazen (1988) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Wake Forest 

Richard E. Heard (1996) 

BM, Southern Methodist; 
MA, California (Santa Barbara) 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Jac C. Heckelman (1996) 

BA, Texas; PhD, Maryland 

Roger A. Hegstrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Robert M. Helm (1940) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Paul F. Hemler (1995) 

BS, Villanova; MS, Lehigh; 
PhD, North Carolina State 

Donna A. Henderson (1996) 

BA, Meredith; MAT, James Madison; PhD, Tennessee 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Marcus B. Hester (1963) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Deborah M. Hill (1995) 
BS, MA, Colorado 

Willie L. Hinze (1975) 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A&M 



Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Professor of Communication 



Adjunct Professor of Biology 
Instructor of Music 

Professor of Philosophy 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Wake Forest Professor of Chemistry 

Worrell Professor of Philosophy 

Assistant Professor of Computer Science 

Assistant Professor of Education 

Professor of History 

Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Instructor in Education 

Wake Forest Professor of Chemistry 



E.Clayton Hipp Jr. (1991) 
BA, Wofford; 
MBA, JD, South Carolina 

Alix Hitchcock (1989) 

BFA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, New York 

Kenneth G. Hoglund (1990) 

BA, Wheaton; MA, PhD, Duke 

George M. Holzwarth (1983) 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 



Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Instructor in Art 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Religion 
(Leave, Spring 1998) 

Professor of Physics 



269 



Natalie A. W. Holzwarth (1983) 

BS, Massachusetts Inst, of Tech.; PhD, Chicago 

Muriel (Beth) Norbrey Hopkins (1997) 

JD, William and Mary; BA, Wake Forest 



Professor of Physics 
Visiting Adjunct Lecturer in History 



Katherine S. Hoppe (1993) 

BA, Duke; MBA, Texas Christian 

Michael Horn (1998) 
BS, Florida 

Fred L. Horton Jr. (1970) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
BD, Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 

William L. Hottinger (1970) 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Fredric T. Howard (1966) 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke 

Hugh N. Howards (1997) 
BA, Williams; 
MA, PhD, California (San Diego) 

Linda S.Howe (1993) 

BA, MA, PhD, Wisconsin 

Pamela Howland (1989) 

BM, MM, Wisconsin Conservatory of Music; 
DMA, Eastman 



Instructor in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Adjunct Lecturer in Journalism 
(Department of English) 

Albritton Professor of the Bible 
(Department of Religion) 

Professor Emeritus of Health and Exercise Science 

(Part-time) 

Professor of Mathematics 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish, Leave 1997-98) 

Part-time Assistant Professor of Music 
(Leave, Fall 1997) 



Mark W. Huber (1996) 

BS, North Georgia College; 
MA, Central Michigan 

Joanna F. Hudson (1997) 

BFA, Virginia Commonwealth; 
MFA, UNC-Greensboro 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Adjunct Instructor in Women's Studies 



Associate Professor of History 



Michael L. Hughes (1984) 

BA, Claremont McKenna; MA, PhD, 
California (Berkeley) 

Michael J. Hyde (1994) University Distinguished Chair in Communication Ethics 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, PhD, Purdue 



Simeon O. Ilesanmi (1993) 

BA, University of Ife (Nigeria); 
PhD, Southern Methodist 

David K. Isbister (1994) 

BS, Michigan State; MBA, Harvard 

Joanne Izbicki (1995) 

BA, Stonehill College; MA, PhD, Cornell 



and Professor of Communication 
Assistant Professor of Religion 



Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business & Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of History 



270 



MordecaiJJaffe(1980) 

BS, City College (New York); PhD, Cornell 

Ernest S. Jarrett (1996) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, UNC-Greensboro 

Mark Jensen (1993) 

BA, Houston Baptist; MDiv, PhD, 
Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 



Babcock Professor of Botany 
(Department of Biology) 

Adjunct Instructor in Communication 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 



Debra R. Jessup (1996) 

BA, Georgetown; JD, Wake Forest 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

David J. John (1982) 

BS, Emory and Henry; MS, PhD, Emory 

Jeannine Johnson (1997) 

BA, Haverford College 

W. Dillon Johnston (1973) 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 

Bradley T. Jones (1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Horida 



Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business & Accountancy) 

Lecturer in English 

Associate Professor of Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Visiting Instructor of English 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 



Paul E.Juras (1991) 

BBA, MBA, Pace; PhD, Syracuse 

Peter D. Kairoff (1988) 

BA, California (San Diego); 
MM, DMA, Southern California 

Jay R. Kaplan (1981) 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Terence Kehoe (1997) 

BS, Bowling Green; MA, PhD, Ohio State 

Judy K.Kem (1987) 

BA, Western Kentucky; MA, Louisville; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy HI (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

William C. Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 

Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro (1996) 

BA, Carleton College; MS, Southern 
Illinois; PhD, California (Berkeley) 



Associate Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business & Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Music 
(Leave, Spring 1998) 

Professor of Anthropology and 
Adjunct Professor of Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of History 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(French) 



Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of Physics 

Assistant Professor of Physics 



271 



Charles A. Kimball (1996) 

BS, Oklahoma State; MDiv, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; ThD, Harvard 

Angela Glisan King (1995) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Cornell 

S. Bruce King (1995) 

BS, West Virginia; PhD, Cornell 

Wayne King (1993) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Charles J. Kinlaw (1986-1995, 1996) 
BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Ellen E.Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Scott W.Klein (1991) 

AB, Harvard; BA, MA, Cambridge; 
MA, MPhil., PhD, Yale 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Dilip K. Kondepudi (1987) 

BS, Madras (India); MS, Indian Institute 
of Technology (Bombay); PhD, Texas 

Kathleen A. Kron (1991) 

BS, MS, Michigan State; PhD, Horida 

Philip F. Kuberski (1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, California (Irvine) 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 

Abdessadek Lachgar (1991) 

BS, MS, PhD, University of Nantes (France) 

Hugo C. Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 

Page H. Laughlin (1987) 
BA, Virginia; MFA, 
Rhode Island School of Design 

Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

Jeffrey K. Lawson (1994) 

BS, Georgia Tech; MS, Colorado; 
PhD, North Carolina State 



Professor of Religion 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Lecturer in Journalism 
(Department of English) 

Instructor in Philosophy 

Professor of Mathematics 
Associate Professor of English 

Professor of Art 
Professor of Chemistry 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of English 

Wake Forest Professor of Biology 

Professor of Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Art 



Associate Professor of Economics 
(Leave, Spring 1998) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Mathematics 



272 



Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 

Wei-chin Lee (1987) 

BA, National Taiwan University; 
MA, PhD, Oregon 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; PhD, Princeton 

Cheryl B. Leggon (1993) 

BA, Columbia; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Bill J. Leonard (1996) 

BA, Texas Wesleyan; MDiv., Southwestern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Boston University 

Jeffrey D. Lerner (1994) 

BA, MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Andrew W. Leslie (1997) 

BA, Virginia; PhD, Northwestern 

Caroline Levine 

BA, Princeton 

PhD, University of London, Birkbeck College 

David B. Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, Eastman; PhD, Rochester 

Kathryn Levy (1988) 
BM, Eastman 

Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; ThM, Harvard; PhD, Vanderbilt 

David J. Libby (1997) 

BA, St. Mary's; MA, Purdue; PhD, Mississippi 

John H.Litcher (1973) 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 

John T.Llewellyn (1990) 

AB, UNC-Chapel Hill; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Texas 

Patricia A. Lobingier (1995) 

BBA, Radford; MAcc, PhD, 
Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU 

Dan S.Locklair (1982) 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union 
Theo. Seminary; DMA, Eastman 

Charles F. Longino Jr. (1991) 

BA, Mississippi; MA, Colorado; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Wake Forest Professor of Psychology 
Associate Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 
Associate Professor of Sociology 
Adjunct Professor of Religion 

Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Communication 

Visiting Assistant Professor 
of English 

Professor of Music 

Part-time Instructor in Music 

Professor of Philosophy 

Visiting Assistant Professor of History 

Professor of Education 

Assistant Professor of Communication 



Assistant Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of Music 
and Composer-in-Residence 

Wake Forest Professor of Sociology 



273 



Allan D. Louden (1985) 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana; 
PhD, Southern California 

Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Nina Maria Lucas (1996) 

BFA, Ohio State; MFA, California (Los Angeles) 



David W. Lyons (1997) 

BS, Davidson; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Barry G.Maine (1981) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Allen Mandelbaum (1989) 

BA, Yeshiva; MA, PhD, Columbia 

Richard A. Manderville (1995) 

BS, PhD, Queen's University (Canada) 

William M. Marcum (1996) 

BA, Furman; MA, UNC-Greensboro; 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Milorad R. Margitic (1978) 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 

Anthony P. Marsh (1996) 

BPE, MED, Western Australia; 
PhD, Arizona State 



Associate Professor of Communication 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor in Dance 
(Department of Theater) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

Professor of English 

W.R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Humanities 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Professor of Romance Languages 
(French, Leave, Fall 1997) 

Assistant Professor of Health and Exercise Science 



Dale R. Martin (1982) 

BS, MS, Illinois State; 
DBA, Kentucky 

James A. Martin Jr. (1983) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia 

Carolyn L. Mathews (1995) 

BS, Radford; MS, Virginia Tech. Inst. & SU; 
PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

George E. Matthews Jr. (1979) 
BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

J.GaylordMay(1961) 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

JoWhittenMay(1972) 

BS, Virginia; MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Leah P. McCoy (1990) 

BS, West Virginia Inst, of Tech.; MA, 
Maryland; EdD, Virginia Poly. Inst. & SU 



Price Waterhouse Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



University Professor 
(Department of Religion) 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Professor of Physics 

Professor of Mathematics 

Adjunct Professor of Communication 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Education 



274 



Gordon E. McCray (1994) 
BS, Wake Forest; 
MBA, Stetson; PhD, Florida State 

Timothy McGettigan (1996) 

BA, California (Santa Barbara); 
MA, PhD, Washington State 

Thomas W. McGohey (1990) 
BA, MA, Michigan State; 
MFA, UNC-Greensboro 

Jill Jordan McMillan (1983) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Texas 

Dolly A. McPherson (1974) 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston University; 
PhD, Iowa 

Jane Mead (1996) 

BA, Vassar; MA, Syracuse; 
MFA, Iowa 

Gordon A. Melson (1991) 

BS, PhD, Sheffield (England) 

Stephen P. Messier (1981) 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple 

William K. Meyers (1988) 

BA, Washington; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Soledad Miguel-Prendes (1993) 
Licenciatura, Oviedo; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gary D. Miller (1996) 

BS, Kansas; MS, Kansas State; 
PhD, California (Davis) 

Joseph O. Milner (1969) 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

G. Dianne Mitchell (1983) 

BA, Salem; MAEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Ananda Mitra (1994) 

B Tech, Indian Inst, of Technology (Kharagpur); 
MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Illinois (Urbana) 



Assistant Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Instructor in English 

Professor of Communication 
Professor of English 

Poet-in-Residence 
(Department of English) 

Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Health and Exercise Science 

Associate Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 



Assistant Professor of Health 
and Exercise Science 



Professor of Education 

Lecturer in Education 
(Part-time) 

Assistant Professor of Communication 



John C. Moorhouse (1969) 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 

Patrick E. Moran (1989) 

BA, MA, Stanford; MA, National 
Taiwan University; PhD, Pennsylvania 



Archie Carroll Professor of Ethical Leadership 
(Department of Economics) 

Associate Professor of Chinese 
(East Asian Languages and Literatures) 



275 



Rebekah L. Morris (1997) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Virginia 

Mardene G. Morykwas (1992) 
AB, MA, Michigan 

Donald J. Moser (1995) 

BS, U.S. Military Academy; MBA, Long Island 

William M. Moss (1971) 

BA, Davidson; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gloria K. Muday (1991) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; PhD, Purdue 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Jeffery S. Mullis (1996) 

BA, MA, Alabama (Birmingham); PhD, Virginia 

Margaret Mulvey (1986) 

BA, MS, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Adjunct Instructor in Communication 
(Part-time) 

Professor of Military Science 

Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Biology 



Stephen Murphy (1987) 

BA, Canisius; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Josefine C. Nauckhoff (1994) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Nancy L. Nelson (1994) 

BA, Minnesota; MA, PhD, New Mexico 

Candelas Newton (see Candelas S. Gala) 

Kristen H. Nickel (1996) 

BA, MA, California (Berkeley) 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 

Jerry W. Noble (1995) 

BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, PhD, Ohio 

Ronald E. Noftle (1967) 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington 

James L. Norris m (1989) 

BS, MS (Science), MS (Statistics), 
North Carolina State; PhD, Florida State 

Thomas Ogburn (1995) 

BA, Davidson; MBA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Marie M. O'Hara (1997) 

BA, Clemson; MA, Wichita State; 
PhD, Georgia 



Associate Professor of Romance Languages 
(French; Dijon, Fall 1997) 

Assistant Professor of Philosophy 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Professor of Education 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Professor of Chemistry 
Associate Professor of Mathematics 



Lecturer in Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Visiting Assistayit Professor of Psychology 



276 



Dee Oseroff-Varnell (1992) 

BA, MA, PhD, Washington 

Gillian Rose Overing (1979) 
BA, Lancaster (England); 
MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

H. Lee Overton (1995) 

BA, Houston; MA, Washington 
(Seattle); MA, PhD, Princeton 

Karen L. Oxendine (1986) 
BS, Wayne State; MEd, 
UNC-Greensboro 

Anthony S. Parent Jr. (1989) 

BA, Loyola; MA, PhD, California 
(Los Angeles) 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, Northwestern 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) 

BS, MFA, Southern Illinois 

Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; 

PhD, Southern Illinois (Carbondale) 

Mary L. B. Pendergraft (1988) 
BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 

Elizabeth A. Petrino (1991) 

BA, SUNY (Buffalo); MA, PhD, Cornell 

Mark V. Pezzo (1995) 

BS, SUNY (Fredonia); MS, PhD, Ohio 

David P. Phillips (1994) 

BA, Cornell; M.Arch., Washington; 
MA, PhD, Pennsylvania 

John R. Pickel (1997) 

BFA, Indiana State; 

MFA, Cranbrook Academy of Art 

Terisio Pignatti (1971) 
PhD, Padua 

Michele L. Pitbladdo (1997) 

BS, Pennsylvania State; MS, Wake Forest 

Robert J. Plemmons (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, Auburn 



Adjunct Assistant Professor of Communication 

(Part-time) 

Professor of English 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Philosophy 
(Leave, Spring 1998) 

Adjunct Instructor in Communication 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of History 



Associate Professor of Economics 
and Lecturer in Russian 

Adjunct Professor of Theater 
(Part-time) 

Wake Forest Professor of Sociology 



Associate Professor of Classical Languages 

Professor of Sociology 

Assistant Professor of English 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Japanese 
(East Asian Languages and Literatures) 

Assistant Professor of Art 



Reynolds Professor of Art History (Venice) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Instructor in Health and Exercise Science 



Rei/nolds Professor of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 



277 



Alton B. Pollard m (1988) 

BA, Fisk; MDiv Harvard; PhD, Duke 

James T. Powell (1988) 

BA, Emory; M Phil, MA, PhD, Yale 

Jeryl J. Prescott (1994) 

BS, Clemson; MA, North Carolina A&T; 
PhD, South Florida 

Martin R. Province (1982) 

BA, Wake Forest; MM, Colorado 

Jerry Pubantz (1992) 

BSFS, Georgetown (School of 
Foreign Service); MA, PhD, Duke 

Jenny Puckett (1995) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Middlebury 

Salvador Anton Pujol 

BA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); 
MA, South Carolina; ABD, Kansas 



Associate Professor of Religion 

Associate Professor of Classical Languages 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 



Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 

Visiting Professor of Politics 
(Part-time) 



Adjunct in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



Sara A. Quandt (1994) 

BA, Lawrence; MA, PhD, Michigan State 

Teresa Radomski (1977) 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado 

Mary Lynn B. Redmond (1989) 
BA, EdD, UNC-Greensboro; 
MEd,UNC-ChapelHill 

W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Anthropology 

Associate Professor of Music 

Associate Professor of Education 



Wake Forest Professor of Health and Exercise Science; 
Adjunct Professor of Psychology 



Paul M.Ribisl (1973) 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois 

Steven K. Rice (1995) 

BS, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Charles L. Richman (1968) 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Patrick L. Rimron (1995) 
BS, Wake Forest 

Leonard P. Roberge (1974) 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine 

Donald P. Robin (1997) 

BS, MBA, PhD, Louisiana State 



Professor of Health and Exercise Science 

Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 

Professor of Education 



Stephen B. Robinson (1991) 

BA, PhD, California (Santa Cruz) 

Catherine Rodgers (1993) 

BA, Rollins; MA, Middlebury 



/. Tylee Wilson Professor of Business 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 



278 



Randall G. Rogan (1990) 

BA, St. John Fisher College; 
MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Mary M. Roufail (1997) 
BA, Salem College; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Susan Z. Rupp (1993) 

BA, Grinnell; AM, Harvard; 
MA, PhD, Stanford 

Nelson Sanchez (1995) 

BA, Amherst; MA, Texas 

Maria Teresa Sanhueza (1996) 

BA, MA, Concepcion (Chile); 
PhD, Michigan (Ann Arbor) 

Peter Santago (1989) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst, and SU; 
PhD, North Carolina State 

Claire S. Schen (1997) 

AB, Brown; PhD, Brandeis 

James A. Schirillo (1996) 

BA, Franklin & Marshall; PhD, Northeastern 

Marianne A. Schubert (1977) 
BA, Dayton; 
MA, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Katie Scott (1985) 

BA Hons., London 

N. Dane Scott (1995) 

BS, California (Riverside) 

MA, Graduate Theological Union (Berkeley) 

Richard D. Sears (1964) 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Timothy F. Sellner (1970) 

BA, PhD, Michigan; MA, Wayne State 

Catherine E. Seta (1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Greensboro 

Dudley Shapere (1984) 

BA, MA, PhD, Harvard 

Kurt C. Shaw (1987) 

AB, Missouri; MA, PhD, Kansas 

Howard W. Shields (1958) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; MS, 
Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 



Associate Professor of Communication 



Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Assistant Professor of History 
(Leave, Spring 1998) 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 
(Spanish; Salamanca, Spring 1998) 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Physics 



Assistant Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

and Lecturer in Education 

(Part-time) 

Assistant Lecturer in Art History (London) 
(Department of Art, Part-time) 

Instructor in Philosophy 

Professor of Politics 

Professor of German 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Reynolds Professor of Philosophy and 
History of Science 

Associate Professor of German and Russian 
Professor of Physics 



279 



Carol A. Shively (1990) 

BA, Hiram; MA, PhD, California (Davis) 

Steven Shoemaker (1997) 

BS, Maryland; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) 

BA, Union; MA, PhD, Duke 

Peter M. Siavelis (1996) 

BA, Bradley; MA, PhD, Georgetown 

Gale Sigal (1987) 

BA, City College (New York); MA, 
Fordham; PhD, CUNY (Graduate Center) 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) 

BA, Pennsylvania; PhD, Florida State 

Shona Simpson (1997) 

BS, PhD, Duke University 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

William W. Sloan Jr. (1994) 

BA, Davidson; MA, Wake Forest; 
PhD, Miami (Ohio) 

Earl Smith (1996) 

BA, SUNY (Stony Brook); 
MA, PhD, Connecticut 

J. Howell Smith (1965) 

BA, Baylor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathy B. Smith (1981) 

BA, Baldwin-Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 

Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) 

BS, Missouri; MA, Case Western Reserve; 
PhD, Brown 

Teresa R. Smith (1993) 
BS, MA, Florida 

Cecilia H. Solano (1977) 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Rosanne Spolski (1993) 

BA, Bryn Mawr; PhD, Brandeis 

Ronda C. Stavisky (1996) 
BA, MA, PhD, Emory 

Lisa Sternlieb (1997) 

BA, Vassar College; MA, New York University; 
PhD, Princeton 



Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Politics 

Zachary T. Smith Associate Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Biology 
(Tokai Program, Fall 1997) 

Visiting Assistant Professor 
of English 

Professor of History 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

(Part-time) 

Rubin Professor of American Ethnic Studies 
and Professor of Sociology 

Professor of History 
(Leave, 1997-98) 

Professor of Politics 
Professor of Art 

Visiting Instructor in Sociology 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Anthropology 



Assistant Professor 
of English 



280 



Loraine Moses Stewart (1991) 

BA, MA, North Carolina Central; 
EdD, UNC-Greensboro 

Yvonne H. Stewart (1997) 

BS, MBA, UNC-Charlotte; 
PhD, Tennesee 

Eric R. Stone (1994) 

BA, Delaware; MA, PhD, Michigan 

David H. Stroupe (1990) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Anna-Vera Sullam (1972) 
BA, Padua 

Christine E. Swain (1996) 

BA, Middlebury; MA, Cornell 

Robert L. Swofford (1993) 

BS, Furman; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Brian Tague (1995) 

ScB, AB, Brown; PhD, California (San Diego) 

Stefanie H. Tanis (1986) 



Ian M. Taplin (1985) 

The College of Architecture, Oxford (England); 
BA, York (England); MPhil, Leicester 
(England); PhD, Brown 



Assistant Professor of Education 



Coopers & Lybrand Faculty Fellow and 

Assistant Professor of Accountancy 

(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 



Instructor in Health and Exercise Science 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Italian; Part-time, Venice) 

Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Spanish) 

Professor of Chemistry 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Lecturer in German 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Sociology 



Kendall B. Tarte (1996) 
BA, MA, Virginia 

Donald H. Taylor (1997) 
BS, Louisiana Tech; 
MBA, PhD, Louisiana State 

Elizabeth H. Taylor (1992) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Thomas C.Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; 
PhD, Louisiana State 

Stanton K. Tefft (1964) 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; 
PhD, Minnesota 



Visiting Assistant Professor in Romance Languages 

(French) 

Visiting Professor of Accountancy 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Assistant Professor of Education and 
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

Hylton Professor of Accountancy 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of Theater 



Professor of Anthropology 



281 



Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) 

BA, College of Notre Dame of Maryland; 
MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 

Rebecca Thomas (1993) 

BA, MA, California (Los Angeles); PhD, Ohio State 

Stan J. Thomas (1983) 

BS, Davidson; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Vanda D. Thomas (1997) 

BS, MA, MA, North Carolina A&T 

Harry B.Titus Jr. (1981) 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); MFA, 
PhD, Princeton 

Todd C. Torgersen (1989) 

BS, MS, Syracuse; PhD, Delaware 



Associate Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of German 

Associate Professor of Computer Science 

Visiting Instructor of Education 

Associate Professor of Art 



Ralph B. Tower (1980) 

BA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill; 
MBA, Cornell 



Dana Faculty Fellow and 
Associate Professor of Computer Science 
(Leave, 1997-98) 

Professor of Accounting 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



E. Frank Tupper (1997) 

BA, Mississippi College; 

MDiv, Southwestern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Robert W.Ulery Jr. (1971) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Patricia Y. Underhill (1997) 

BS, Eckerd; MS, Wake Forest 

Robert L.Utley Jr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Olga Valbuena (1996) 

BA, Irvine; MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 

Peter C. Valenti (1997) 
BS, Perm State; 



Visiting Professor of Religion 

Professor of Classical Languages 

Instructor in Computer Science 

Associate Professor of Humanities 

Assistant Professor of English 



MBA, Fairleigh Dickinson; PhD, Rutgers 

Alicia Vitti (1996) 

BA, Salem; MA, UNC-Greensboro 

Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) 
BA, MA, Wayne State; 
PhD, Michigan 

Kenneth M. Walker (1992) 

BS, Chaminade University of Honolulu; 
MA, Central Michigan 



Executive in Residence 
(W. Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



Instructor in Romance Languages 
(Italian; Part-time, Fall 1997) 

Dana Faculty Fellow and 

Professor of Romance Languages 

(Italian; Venice, Spring 1998) 

Adjunct Professor of Military Science 



282 



Michele S. Ware (1994) 

BA, New Orleans; MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

Eric K. Watts (1995) 

BA, MA, Cincinnati; PhD, Northwestern 

Sarah L. Watts (1987) 

BA, Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts; 
MA, PhD, Oklahoma 

Mary R. Wayne-Thomas (1980) 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State 

David S. Weaver (1977) 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 

Peter D. Weigl (1968) 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 

David P. Weinstein (1989) 

BA, Colorado College; MA, Connecticut; 
PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Mark E. Welker (1987) 

BS, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Honda State 

Byron R. Wells (1981) 

BA, MA, Georgia; PhD, Columbia 

Helga A. Welsh (1993) 

MA, PhD, University of Munich 

G. Page West III (1995) 

BA, Hamilton; MBA, Dartmouth; (W. 

PhD, Colorado (Boulder) 

Larry E. West (1969) 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Karen Weyler (1996) 

BA, Centre College; MA, 
PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Robert M. Whaples (1991) 

BA, Maryland; PhD, Pennsylvania 

M. Stanley Whitley (1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Cornell 

Ulrike Wiethaus (1991) 

Colloquium at Kirchliche Hochschule 
(Berlin, Germany); MA, PhD, Temple 

Jack E. Wilkerson Jr. (1989) 

BS, Bob Jones University; (W 

PhD, Texas 



Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Assistant Professor of Communication 

Associate Professor of History 
(Leave, 1997-98) 

Assistant Professor of Theater 

Professor of Anthropology 

Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Politics 

Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Romance Languages 
(French) 

Associate Professor of Politics 

Assistant Professor of Business 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor of German 

Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

(Spanish) 

Associate Professor of Humanities 



Professor of Accounting 
Calloway School of Business and Accountancy) 



283 



Kyoko T. Wilkerson (1996) 

BA, Tezakayama Gakuin University 
(Osaka, Japan); MA, PhD, Georgetown 

Alan J. Williams (1974) 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 

George P. Williams Jr. (1958) 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Richard T. Williams (1985) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David C. Wilson (1984, 1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT, Emory 

Edwin G. Wilson (1946, 1951) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 

Frank B.Wood (1971) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MDiv, South- 
eastern Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Duke 

John H. Wood (1985) 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 

J. Ned Woodall (1969) 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Andrew J. Yates (1993) 

BS, Washington; MS, PhD, Stanford 

Suzanne Young (1997) 

BA, Wofford College; 

MA, PhD, University of Virginia 

Clifford W. Zeyl (1997) 

BSc, University of Guelph; 
MSc, PhD, McGill University 

Richard L. Zuber (1962) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 

Margaret D. Zulick (1991) 

BM, Westminster Choir College; 
MA, Earlham School of Religion; 
MTS, Garrett-Evangelical Theo. Seminary; 
PhD, Northwestern 



Visiting Assistant Professor of 
East Asian Languages and Literatures 

Professor of History 

Professor of Physics 

Reynolds Professor of Physics 

Instructor in Mathematics 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 

Professor of Theater 

Adjunct Professor of Psychology 
(Part-time) 

Reynolds Professor of Economics 
(Leave 1997-98) 

Professor of Anthropology 

Assistant Professor of Economics 
(Leave, Fall 1997) 

Visiting Assistant Professor 
of English 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 
Associate Professor of Communication 



284 

EMERITI 



Dates following names indicate period of service. 

Professor Emeritus of Biology 



Charles M. Allen (1941-1989) 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Ralph D. Amen (1962-1993) 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; 
MBS, PhD, Colorado 

John William Angell (1955-1990) 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Richard C. Barnett (1961-1994) 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964-1989) 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Russell H. Brantley Jr. (1953-1987) 
BA, Wake Forest 



Germaine Bree (1973-1985) 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, 
Mount Holyoke, Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, 
Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, Brown, 
Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the 
South, Boston, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, 
Colby, Michigan,Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 



Professor Emeritus of Biology 

Easley Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 

Director Emeritus of Libraries 

Director Emeritus of Communication 

Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 



Robert W. Brehme (1959-1995) 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

George McLeod Bryan (1956-1987) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 

Shasta M. Bryant (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958-1994) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) 
BA, UNC-Greensboro; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Robert L. Carlson (1969-1987) 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
MBA, PhD, Stanford 



Professor Emeritus of Physics 

Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Speech Communication 

Professor Emerita of Spanish 

Professor Emeritus of Management 



285 



John A. Carter Jr. (1961-1997) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Dorothy Casey (1949-1988) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro; 
MA, UNC-Chapel Hill 

David W. Catron (1963-1994) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabody 

Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957-1993) 

BS, Virginia Poly. Inst. & Su; 
MS, Tennessee 

Cyclone Covey (1968-1988) 
BA, PhD, Stanford 

Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabody 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; 
JD, Emory; LLM, SJD, Michigan 

Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) 
BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Theo. Seminary 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962-1996) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Philippe R. Falkenberg (1969-1997) 
BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 

Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; 
ScD, Bridgewater 

Doyle R. Fosso (1964-1995) 

AB, PhD, Harvard; MA, Michigan 

Ralph S. Fraser (1962-1988) 

BA, Boston University; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Illinois 

Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969-1990) 
BA, Rollins; MFA, Texas Christian 

Ivey C Gentry (1949-1989) 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; 
MA, PhD, Duke 

Christopher Giles (1951-1988) 

BS, Horida Southern; MA, George Peabody 



Professor Emeritus of English 

Associate Professor Emerita of 
Health and Sport Science 

Professor Emeritus of Psychology 

Associate Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor Emeritus of History 

Associate Professor Emerita 
of Physical Education 

Professor Emeritus of Law 



Professor Emeritus of Religion 
Professor Emeritus of Education 

Professor Emeritus of Psychology 
Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of German 



Lecturer Emerita in SCTA 
(Theater Arts) 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Associate Professor Emeritus of Music 



286 



Balkrishna G. Gokhale (1960-1990) 
BA, MA, PhD, Bombay 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967-1987) 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 



Professor Emeritus of History 
and Asian Studies 



Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959-1987) 
BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

William H. Gulley (1966-1987) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952-1988) 
BA, UNC-Chapel Hill; PhD, Duke 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956-1995) 
BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 

Carl V. Harris (1956-1989) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, STM, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Lucille S. Harris (1957-1991) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

David A. Hills (1960-1996) 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 

William L. Hottinger (1970-1996) 

BS, Slippery Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Delmer P. Hylton (1949-1991) 
BS, MBA, Indiana 

Alonzo W. Kenion (1956-1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) 
BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

Lula M. Leake (1964-1997) 
BS, Louisiana State; 
MRE, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) 

BS, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Carlton T. Mitchell (1961-1991) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, 
Union Theo. Seminary; PhD, New York 

Carl C Moses (1964-1991) 

AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, 
UNC-Chapel Hill 

John W. Nowell (1945-1987) 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of English 

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

Albritton Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

Professor Emeritus of Classical Languages 

Instructor Emerita in Music 

Professor Emeritus of Psychology 

Professor Emeritus of Health and Exercise Science 

Professor Emeritus of Accounting 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 



Associate Vice President Emerita for 
Academic Affairs 



Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 
Professor Emeritus of Religion 

Professor Emeritus of Politics 

Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 



287 



James C. O'Flaherty (1947-1984) 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 

A. Thomas Olive (1961-1988) 
BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, 
North Carolina State 

F. Jeanne Owen (1956-1991) 
BS, UNC-Greensboro; 
MCS, Indiana; JD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

John E. Parker Jr. (1950-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; 
PhD, Duke 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947-1987) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957-1989) 

BA, UNC-Greensboro; MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Lee Harris Potter (1965-1989) 

BA, MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); 
MA, Columbia; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Gregory D. Pritchard (1968-1994) 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern 
Baptist Theo. Seminary; PhD, Columbia 

Beulah L. Raynor (1946-1979) 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 

J. Don Reeves (1967-1994) 

BA, Mercer; BD, ThM, Southern Baptist 
Theo. Seminary; EdD, Columbia 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 

Mary Frances Robinson (1952-1989) 
BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) 

BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; 
MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 

Eva M. Rodtwitt (1966-1997) 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) 

Wilmer D. Sanders (1954-1957, 1964-1992) 
BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 



Professor Emeritus of German 
Associate Professor Emeritus of Biology 



Professor Emerita of Business Law 
(School of Business and Accountancy) 

Professor Emeritus of Education 
and Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Sociology 



Professor Emeritus of History 
Professor Emerita of English 

Professor Emeritus of English 
Professor Emeritus of Education 

Professor Emeritus of Philosophy 

Associate Professor Emerita of English 
Professor Emeritus of Education 

Professor Emeritus of Politics 

Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

Professor Emeritus of Music 

Lecturer Emerita in Romance Languages 
Professor Emeritus of German 



288 



John W. Sawyer (1956-1988) 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

John D. Scarlett (1955-1994; 1979-1989) 
BA, Catawba; LLB, Harvard 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959-1988) 
BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 

Bynum G. Shaw (1965-1993) 
BA, Wake Forest 

Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) 
BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; 
PhD, Virginia 

David L. Smiley (1950-1991) 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado 

Henry Smith Stroupe (1937-1984) 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; 
PhD, Northwestern 

George W. Trautwein (1983-1996) 

BMus, Oberlin; MMus, Cleveland 
Institute; MusD, Indiana 

J. Van Wagstaff (1964-1992) 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; 
PhD, Virginia 

John E. Williams (1959-1996) 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Raymond L. Wyatt (1956-1992) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 

Professor Emeritus of Law and 
Dean Emeritus of the School of Law 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 



Professor Emeritus of Journalism 
(Department of English) 

Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 



Professor Emeritus of History 
Associate Professor Emerita of Linguistics 

Professor Emeritus of History 
Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 



Director Emeritus of Instrumental Ensembles 
(Department of Music) 

Professor Emeritus of Economics 



W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945-1988) 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; PhD, UNC-Chapel Hill 



Wake Forest Professor Emeritus of Psychology 
Professor Emeritus of Biology 
Professor Emeritus of History 



289 

THE COMMITTEES OF THE FACULTY 

The committees listed represent those in effect during the academic year 1996-1997. Each 
committee selects its own chair except where the chair is designated. 

Executive Committees 

The Committee on Academic Affairs 



Non-voting. Dean of student services, associate deans of the College, and one undergradu- 
ate student. Voting. Dean of the College; 2000 Dan Hammond, Dilip Kondepudi; 1999 
Mary Jane Berman, Mark R. Leary; 1998 Gillian R. Overing, Kathy B. Smith; and one 
undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admissions 



Non-voting. Director of admissions and financial aid, two members from the administra- 
tive staff of the Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. 
Dean of the College; 2000 Leah McCoy, Dolly McPherson;1999 Michael L. Hughes, 
William C. Kerr; 1998 Fredric T. Howard, Jill J. McMillan; and one undergraduate 
student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 



Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, director of admis- 
sions and financial aid, two members from the administrative staff of the Office of the 
Dean of the College; 2000 David John, Loraine Stewart; 1999 Simeon Ilesanmi, Susan 
Z. Rupp; 1998 Jane W. Albrecht, Larry E. West; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Curriculum 



Voting. Provost, dean of the College, dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy, registrar, and the chairs of each department of the College as follows: 
Division 1. Classical Languages, English, German and Russian, Romance Languages. 
Division II. Biology, Chemistry, Health and Exercise Science, Mathematics and Computer 
Science, Physics. Division III. Education, History, Military Science, Philosophy, Religion. 
Division IV. Anthropology, Communication, Economics, Politics, Psychology, Sociology. 
Division V. Art, Music, Theater. (The Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy is included in Division fV.) 



290 



Advisory Committees 



The Committee on Academic Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and 
Accountancy, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, 
director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, one undergraduate student, and 2001 
Richard Sears, Charles Kimball; 2000 Stewart Carter; 1999 Willie Pearson Jr.; 1998 
Natalie A.W. Holzwarth, Kurt Shaw. 

The Committee on Athletics 

Non-voting. Director of athletics. Voting. Vice president for investments and 
treasurer, dean of the College, faculty representative to the Atlantic Coast Confer- 
ence; and 2001 William K. Meyers, Phillip J. Perricone; 2000 Donald E. Frey, Robert 
J. Plemmons; 1999 Charles L. Richman, Margaret S. Smith; 1998 Anne Boyle, Alan 
J. Williams; 1997 Robert C. Beck, Susan H. Borwick. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, vice president for investments and treasurer, vice presi- 
dent for finance and administration, and one undergraduate student. Voting. 
Dean of the College, dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy, one undergraduate student; and 2000 Andrew J. Ettin, Robert L. Swofford; 
1999 S. Douglas Beets, John R. Earle, Robert H. Evans; 1998 Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., 
Judy K. Kem, David Weinstein. 

The Committee on Nominations 

Voting. 2000 Susan Borwick, Paul Ribisl; 1999 Ellen E. Kirkman, Barry G. Maine; 
1998 John S. Dunkelberg, Jack D. Fleer, Ronald E. Noftle. 

The Committee on Library Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative 
from the Committee on Academic Planning, one undergraduate student, and one 
graduate student. Voting. One faculty representative from each academic depart- 
ment of the College, dean of the College, one faculty representative from the 
Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy, the director of the Z. Smith 
Reynolds Library, one undergraduate student, and one graduate student. 

The Committee on Information Technology 

Non-voting. Provost, dean of the Graduate School, vice president for student life 
and instructional resources, vice president for finance and administration. Voting. 
Dean of the College, dean of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accoun- 
tancy, the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, the director of Information 
Systems; one undergraduate student; and 2000 Allin Cottrell, Harry Titus; 1999 
Robert H. Evans, Patrick E. Moran; 1998 Umit Akinc, Wayne L. Silver. 



29 



The Committee on First- Year Seminars 

Non-voting. Dean of freshmen. Voting. Dean of the College, and 2000 Paul 
Anderson, Ed Easley; 1999 Wei-chin Lee, Margaret S. Smith; 1998 Anne Boyle, 
Sarah L. Watts. 



Special Committees 



The Committee on Publications 

Voting. Dean of the College, vice president for investments and treasurer, 
university editor, three faculty advisers of Old Gold and Black, The Student, and the 
Howler; and 2000 Gale Sigal; 1999 Andrew J. Ettin; 1998 Philip F. Kuberski. 

The Committee for Teacher Education 

Voting. Dean of the College, dean of the Graduate School, chair of the Depart- 
ment of Education; and 1999 Jennifer Burg, Antonio C. Vitti, Andrew J. Yates; 1998 
Carole L. Browne, Kenneth G. Hoglund. 

The Committee on Honors 

Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the 
coordinator of the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 2001 
Margaret Smith; 2000 Bashir El-Beshti, Ralph C. Kennedy; 1999 Ronald V. Dimock 
Jr.; 1998 Charles H. Kennedy. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 

Dean of the College, chair of the lower division advisers, and members of the 
faculty who are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 

Dean of the College, chair of the lower division advisers, who shall serve as 
chair, dean of freshmen, dean of student services, a designated member of the 
administrative staff, president of the Student Government or a representative, 
and other persons from the administration and student body whom the chair shall 
invite to serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 

Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, archivist, who shall be 
secretary, vice-chair of the faculty, secretary of the faculty, and 2000 David John; 
1999 Margaret D. Zulick; 1998 Leonard P. Roberge. 

The Committee on Open Curriculum 

Dean of the College, 2001 Robert Knott; 2000 Gloria K. Muday; 1999 Scott W. 
Klein, Helga A. Welsh; 1998 Susan Z. Rupp. 



292 



The Committee for the AROTC 

Voting. Dean of the College, AROTC coordinator, professor of military science; 
and 2000 Kenneth Bechtel; 1999 Randall G. Rogan; 1998 Sheri Bridges. 

Joint Faculty/ Administration Committees 

The Joint Admissions Committee 

Dean of the College, director of admissions and financial aid, provost, and three 
faculty members of the Committee on Admissions. 

The Judicial Council 

Administration. 2001 Kenneth A. Zick; 2000 William S. Hamilton, Paul N. Orser. 
Faculty. 2002 Loraine Stewart; 2001 James F. Curran; 2000 Douglas Beets, Dan 
Hammond; 1999 Robert W. Lovett; 1998 Katy Harriger, Mary Friedman; and three 
students from the College. 

The Committee on Student life 

Dean of the College or his designate, dean of student services, a designated 
member of the administration; 2000 Teresa Radomski; 1999 Peter D. Weigl; 1998 
Deborah L. Best; and three undergraduate students. 

Other Faculty Assignments 

Advisers to the Honor Council 

1999 (Mary R. Knott), James L. Norris III, Allin F. Cottrell, Sarah L. Watts; 1998 
Jane W. Albrecht, Charles M. Lewis. 

Advisers to the Student Judicial Board 

2000 James Powell, David Wilson; 1999 Richard L. Zuber, Robert L. Utley; 1998 
Constance L. Dickey. 

Faculty Marshals 

John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Catherine T. Harris, John H. Litcher. 

University Senate 

President, provost, treasurer, the deans of the several schools, the associate 
dean of the Wake Forest School of Medicine, the director of the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Library, the secretary of the University, and, with the consent of the Senate, any 
person holding the position of vice president of the University or equivalent rank, 
and the following: 



293 



Representatives of the College: 2001 Carole Brown, Catherine Harris; 2000 Michael D. 
Hazen, John C. Moorhouse, Mary L.B. Pendergraft; 1999 Herman E. Eure, James S. 
Hans, Sarah L. Watts; 1998 Roger A. Hegstrom, Page H. Laughlin, Alton B. Pollard III. 

Representatives of the Wayne Calloway School of Business and Accountancy: 2000 S. Douglas 
Beets; 1999 Ralph B. Tower; 1998 Stephen Ewing. 

Representatives of the Graduate School: 2000 Linda McPhail; 1999 Jon C. Lewis; Cecila H. 
Solano. 

Representatives of the School of Law: 2001 TBA; 2000 Miles Foy; 1998 George Walker. 

Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 2000 Jack Meredith; 1999, 
Fredrick H. Harris, Bruce Resnick. 

Representatives of the Wake Forest School of Medicine: 2001 Louis S. Kucera; 2000 David 
Harrington; 1999 David L. Bowton, Bayard L. Powell, James Rose; 1998 Judy Brunso- 
Bechtold. 

Institutional Review Board 

Director of research and sponsored programs, Christy Buchanan, Leah McCoy, 
Randall Rogan, Earl Smith, Jack Rejeski, Cecil D. Price, Dale Dagenbach, Catherine 
Harris, Daniel Frankel, Robert P. Vance. 



294 

INDEX 



Academic Calendar, 2, 26 
Accountancy Courses, 238 
Accounting, Master's Degree, 8, 59, 229 
Accreditation, 12 
Administration, 245 
Admission, College, 18, 249 
Admission, Wayne Calloway School of 

Business & Accountancy, 230 
Admission Application Fee, 19, 22 
Admission Deposit, 19, 21, 22 
Admission of Handicapped Students, 20 
Admission of Transfer Students, 20 
Admission Requirements, 18 
Advanced Placement, 20 
Advising, 26 

Advisory Committees (Faculty), 289 
Africa, Courses on Other Sites, 226 
American Ethnic Studies, 68 
Analytical Finance, 8, 59, 228 
Anthropology Department, 69 
Application for Admission, 18 
Archeological Research, Bahamas, 227 
AROTC Scholarships, 37 
Art Department, 72 
Art History, 73 

Asia, Pacific Rim Courses, 226 
Asian Studies (interdisciplinary minor), 77 
Athletics, 250 
Auditing Courses, 28 
Austria, Vienna, 224 
Babcock Graduate School of Management 

8, 247 
Bachelor of Arts Degree, 59 
Bachelor of Science Degree, 59 
Basic Requirements, 60, 62 
Beijing (China), 57, 218 
Berlin, Germany, 218 
Biology Department, 79 
Board of Trustees, 242 
Board of Visitors, 243 
Board of Visitors, Calloway School, 244 
Bogota, Colombia, Study in, 51, 218 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 7, 247 



Bradford Fund Awards, 35 

Brown Scholarships, 36 

Buildings and Grounds, 8 

Bulletins of WFU, 298 

Burgos University, Spain, 51, 193 

Burgundy, University of, France, 51, 57 

Business Courses, 232 

Business and Accountancy, W. Calloway 

School of, 7, 59, 228, 249 
Caldwell Scholarships, 36 
Calendar, Academic, 2, 26 
Calloway (Wayne) School of Business & 

Accountancy, 59, 228, 249 
Career Services, 251 
Caribbean, Courses in, 227 
Carswell Hall, 8 
Carswell Scholarships, 35 
Chaplain's Office, 251 
Charges, 21-23 
Chemistry Department, 86 
China, Study in, 57, 218 
Chinese, 77, 99, 101, 218 
Chronological History of WFU, 17 
Class Attendance, 27 
Classical Languages Department, 89 
Classics, 91 
Classification, 27 
CLEP, 20 

College, Administration, 245 
College History and Development, 16 
Combined Degrees in Medical 

Technology, 65 
Committees of the Faculty, 289 
Communication Department, 93 
Composition Condition (cc), 62 
Computer Science Courses, 151 
Concessions, 52 
Corequisites for courses, 68 
Course Repetition, 31 
Courses of Instruction, 68 
Courses, Overseas, 218 
Cultural Resource Preservation 

(interdisciplinary minor), 97 



295 



Dance, 213 

Dean's List, 31 

Declaring a Major, 62 

Degree Requirements, 59 

Degrees Offered, 59 

Dentistry Degree, 66 

Dijon Semester (University of 

Burgundy), 51, 56, 219 
Distribution Requirements (Refunds), 25 
Divinity School, 249 
Divisional Requirements, 60, 62 
Double Majors, 64 
Dropping a Course, 28 
Early Christian Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 98 
Early Decision (Single /First Choice), 19 
East Asian Languages and 

Literatures, 99 
East Asian Studies (foreign area), 101 
Economics Department, 102 
Education Department, 106 
Education Minor, 109 
Elementary Certificate, Education, 109 
Emeriti, 284 
Engineering Degree, 67 
England, Study in, 56, 221 
English Department, 113 
English, Proficiency in the Use of, 62 
Enrollment Statistics, 241 
Environmental Studies, 119 
Europe, Courses in, 226 
Examinations, 29 
Exchange Scholarships, 51 
Executive Committees (faculty) 289 
Expenses, 21 

Faculties, Undergraduate, 259 
Faculty Adviser, 26 
Faculty, Committees of, 289 
Fees, 21 

Federal Financial Aid Programs, 50 
Federal Refund Calculation, 24 
Finance and Administration, 251 
Financial Aid, 34-53 249 
Five-Yr. Cooperative Degree Program in 



Latin American Studies, 67, 147 
Five-Yr. Program, Accountancy, 8, 59, 229 
Food Services, 22 
Foreign Area Studies, 55, 65 
Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Degree, 67 
France, Study in, 51, 56, 196, 219 
Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany, 219 
French, 194 

French Exchange Scholarship, 51 
General Requirements for Degrees, 59 
Geographical Enrollment, 241 
German (and Russian) Department, 120 
German Exchange Scholarship, 51 
German Studies (foreign area), 124 
Germany, Berlin, 51, 218 
Gordon & Wake Forest Black Student 

Scholarships, 35 
Governing and Advisory Boards, 242 
Grade Points /Reports, 30 
Grading, 29 

Graduate School, 8, 246 
Graduation Distinctions, 31 
Graylyn International Conf . Center, 252 
Graylyn Scholarship, 33 
Greek, 90 
Gymnasium, 9 

Handicapped Students, Admission, 20 
Hankins Scholarships, 36 
Health and Exercise Science Dept., 125 
Health and Exercise Science Requirement, 

62, 125 
Hebrew, 192 

Higher Education Act of 1965, 23 
Hiratsuka (Japan), 57, 221 
History Department, 129 
History of WFU, 16 
Holding Scholarship, 36 
Honor System, 15 
Honors Study, 54 
Hospital Charges, 22 
Hospital Insurance, 22 
Housing, 9, 26 
Humanities, 136 
Immunization, 18 



296 



Incomplete Grades, 29 
Information Systems, 9, 252 
Institute of European Studies, 57 
Institutional Research, 252 
Institutional Review Board, 290 
Interdisciplinary Honors, 140 
Interdisciplinary Minors, 64 
International Students, 55 
International Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 143 
International Studies, Office of, 55 
Investments and Treasurer, 253 
Italian, 202 

Italian Studies (foreign area), 144 
Italy, Study in, 56, 223 
Japan, Study in, 57, 221 
Japanese, 78, 100, 101 
Joint Majors, 64 
Journalism (minor), 145 
Late Registration Fee, 22 
Latin, 90 
Latin American Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 147 
Law School, 7, 246 
Legal Department, 253 
Libraries, 8, 11, 253 
Library Fines, 22 

Linguistics (interdisciplinary minor), 148 
Loans, 34, 51 

London Semester, 56, 221 
Major, Declaring a, 62 
Major Requirements, Options for 

Meeting, 63 
Majors, 59 

Master's Degree in Accounting, 8, 59, 229 
Mathematical Business, 59, 231 
Mathematical Economics, 103, 151 
Mathematics Courses, 153 
Mathematics and Computer Science 

Department, 150 
Max. Number of Courses in Dept., 63 
Medical School, 8 

Medical Technology, Combined Degrees, 65 
Medieval Studies (interdisciplinary 

minor), 156 



Middle East, Courses in, 227 

Military Science Department, 157 

Ministerial Concessions, 52 

Minors, 64 

Moscow, Russia, Study in, 57, 222 

Motor Vehicle Registration, 22 

Music Department, 159 

Music Ensemble, 164 

Music Fees, Individual Instruction, 22 

Music, Individual Instruction, 165 

National Achievement Scholarships, 36 

National Merit Scholarships, 36 

Natural Sciences, 167 

Near Eastern Languages and 

Literature, 192 
Non-WFU Programs, Study Abroad, 58 
N. C. Legislative Tuition Grants, 52 
Open Curriculum, 54 
Opportunities for Study Abroad, 56 
Options for Meeting Major Req., 63 
Orientation and Advising, 26 
Other Charges, 22 
Other Financial Aid, 53 
Outside Assistance, Financial Aid, 53 
Overseas Courses, 218 
Parking Management Office, 22 
Part-Time Students, 26 
Philosophy Department, 163 
Physician Assistant Program, 66 
Physics Department, 172 
Politics Department, 175 
Poteat Scholarships, 35 
Prerequisites for Courses, 68 
Presidential Scholarships, 35 
Presidents of WFU, 17 
Pro-Rata Refund, 24 
Probation, 31 
Procedures, 18 

Proficiency in the Use of English, 62 
Provost Office, 246 
Psychology Department, 182 
Purpose, Statement of, 14 
Readmission Requirements, 33 
Recognition and Accreditation, 12 
Refunds, 23 



297 



Registration, 26 

Religion Department, 186 

Repetition of Courses, 31 

Req. for Continuation in the College, 32 

Requirements for Degrees, 59 

Requirements for Readmission, 33 

Residence Hall Charges, 21, 26 

Residential Language Centers, 55 

Reynolda Campus, 8 

Reynolda Hall, 8 

Reynolds Scholarships, 34 

Reynolds, Z. Smith, Library, 11 

Romance Languages Department, 193 

Room Change Fee, 22 

Room Charges, 21 

Russia, Study in, 57, 222 

Russian, 122 

Salamanca Semester, 57, 201, 223 

Salem College, Study at, 54 

Salem Hall, 9 

Scales Fine Arts Center, 9 

Scholarships, 34 

School of Business & Accountancy, 

Wayne Calloway, 228 
School of Law, 7, 246 
Secondary Certificate (Education), 108 
Senior Testing, 65 
Sociology Department, 204 
Spain, Study in, 51, 57, 201, 223 
Spanish, 197 

Spanish Exchange Scholarship, 51 
Spanish Studies (foreign area), 209 
Special Committees, Faculty, 289 
Special Programs, 54 
Sports Medicine, 128 
Statement of Purpose, WFU, 14 
Student Complaints, 16 
Student Health Service, 18, 22 
Student Life, 253 

Student /Stud. Spouse Employment, 53 
Studio Art, 75 

Study Abroad Opportunities, 56 
Study Abroad in Non-WF Programs, 58 
Summer Session, 255 
Summer Study, 33 



Teacher Education Program, 107 

Teaching Area /Requirements, 108 

Telecommunication Services, 10 

Theater Department, 209 

Tokai University (Hiratsuka), Japan, 221 

Traffic Fines, 22 

Transcripts, 23, 30 

Transfer Credit, 20, 33 

Transfer Students, Admission of, 20 

Tribble Hall, 9 

Trustees, Board of, 242 

Tuition, 21 

Undergraduate Faculties, 259 

Undergraduate Schools, 12 

University, 7 

University, Administration, 245 

University Advancement, 255 

University Senate, 292 

University Theater, Wake Forest, 257 

Urban Studies (interdisciplinary minor), 

215 
Vehicle Registration, 22 
Venice, Semester in, 56, 203, 223 
Veterans' Benefits, 53 
Vienna, Austria, 224 
Visitors, Board of, 243 
Visitors, Board of, Calloway School, 244 
Wait Chapel, 8 
Wake Forest College, 14 
Wake Forest Honor Scholarships, 36 
Wake Forest Programs, Study Abroad, 

56 
Wake Forest University Theater, 257 
Wilson Scholarships, 35 
Winston Hall, 9 

Withdrawal from the College, 28 
Women's Studies (interdisciplinary minor), 

215 
Worrell Professional Center, 9 
Writing Center, 62 



298 

BULLETINS OF WAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY 

The Undergraduate Schools 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

P.O. Box 7305 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7305 

(336) 758-5201 

The Graduate School 

Dean of the Graduate School 

P.O. Box 7487 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7487 

(336) 758-5301 

The School of Law 

Director of Admissions 

P.O. Box 7206 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7206 

(336) 758-5437 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Director of Admissions 

P.O. Box 7659 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7659 

(336) 758-5422 

The Wake Forest University School of Medicine 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

Medical Center Blvd. 

Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1090 

(336) 716-4265 

The Summer Session 

Dean of the Summer Session 

P.O. Box 7866 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7866 

(336) 759-5664 

The undergraduate bulletin is published by the University Editor's Office, Room 220 
Reynolda Hall, Reynolda Campus. Andrew Waters, bulletin editor. Telephone: (336) 
758-5960 

Wake Forest University is committed to administer all educational and employment activities 
without discrimination because of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, veteran 
status, handicapped status or disability as required by law. In addition, Wake Forest rejects 
hatred and bigotry in any form and adheres to the principle that no person affiliated with the 
school be judged or harassed on the basis of perceived or actual sexual orientation. In affirming 
its commitment to this principle, Wake Forest does not limit freedom of religious association 
or expression, does not presume to control the policies of persons or entities not affiliated with 
Wake Forest, and does not extend benefits beyond those provided under other policies of Wake 
Forest. The University has adopted a procedure for the purpose of resolving discrimination 
complaints. Inquiries or concerns should be directed to Harold Holmes, dean of student 
services, at (336) 758-5226 ; Paid N. Orser, associate dean of the College, at (336) 758-5311; 
or Gloria C. Agard, assistant director of human resources and director of equal employment 
opportunity, at (336) 758-4814. 



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